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Über dieses Buch

This second volume moves beyond a general introduction to product lifecycle management (PLM) and its principal elements to provide a more in-depth analysis of the subjects introduced in Volume 1 (21st Century Paradigm for Product Realisation).

Providing insights into the emergence of PLM and the opportunities it offers, key concepts such as the PLM Grid and the PLM Paradigm are introduced along with the main components of PLM and the associated characteristics, issues and approaches.

Detailing the 10 components of PLM: objectives and metrics; management and organisation; business processes; people; product data; PDM systems; other PLM applications; facilities and equipment; methods; and products, it provides examples and best practices.

The book concludes with instructions to help readers implement and use PLM successfully, including outlining the phases of a PLM Initiative: development of PLM vision and strategy; documentation of the current situation; description of future scenarios; development of implementation strategies and plans; implementation and use. The main activities, tasks, methods, timing and tools of the different phases are also described.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Product Lifecycle Management

Abstract
This chapter provides a concise introduction to Product Lifecycle Management. It answers the questions: “What is PLM?”; “Why PLM?”; “When did PLM appear?”; “Where is PLM used?”; “Who’s involved with PLM?”and “How do we do PLM?”. It will help readers to understand the basics of PLM and its importance.
John Stark

Chapter 2. Product Lifecycle Management

Abstract
In this chapter, the need for PLM is described. The chapter shows that it’s not easy to manage products. Examples are given of some the problems that occur, and the opportunities that are lost, in environments without PLM. The PLM paradigm is addressed. The PLM Grid is introduced. The environment before PLM is described briefly. Among its characteristics were multi-level hierarchies, departmental empires, poor communication , use of specialist jargon, and serial product workflow through the departments.
John Stark

Chapter 3. Complex and Changing Environment

Abstract
This chapter looks at the environment in which, in the 21st Century, companies must manage their products. It’s a complex, continually changing environment. There are macroeconomic and geopolitical changes , environmental and social changes, corporate changes and technological changes. The result and the requirements of these changes are described. To be able to create a more effective PLM environment for the future, this chapter shows how the current situation with the management of products developed. The situation is complex and changing. Complex and changing situations typically have two characteristics, danger and opportunity. Companies that understand the changes can respond to them and avoid the dangers. Companies that understand the situation can adapt and benefit from the opportunities.
John Stark

Chapter 4. Product Pain

Abstract
This chapter shows that managing products is not as easy as it may seem. All sorts of problems can arise across the product lifecycle . Examples are given from private and professional experience as well as from the public domain. Examples are given from several industries. The effects can be serious. Customers and other product users may be killed or injured. Billions of dollars may be lost. Executive reputations may be tarnished. Company workers may lose their jobs. Causes and measures are described.
John Stark

Chapter 5. Emergence of PLM

Abstract
This chapter shows how PLM emerged as a strategic activity in the early 21st Century. Before then, companies implicitly managed products across their lifecycles. Because they didn’t manage them, even conceptually, in an explicit, “joined-up”, continuous way, things fell through the cracks. As a result, although it appeared that everyone in the product development, production and support chain had done their work correctly, there were problems such as products getting to market late, and products not working properly in the field. The new paradigm of PLM is described. Corollaries are evoked.
John Stark

Chapter 6. Opportunities and PLM

Abstract
This chapter describes the opportunities and benefits of PLM. At the beginning of the 21st Century, there are huge opportunities for companies and their products. For example, globalisation has greatly increased the number of potential customers for their products and services. The world headcount continues to grow by more than 100,000 per day, promising even more customers in the future. Opportunities are identified in many sectors. Further developments in computing, the Internet, the World Wide Web , smart products, mobile telephony and database technology will create and meet needs that hadn’t even been thought of before. PLM can help companies seize these opportunities and increase product and service revenues, reduce product costs and reduce in-life costs. PLM enables companies to take advantage of the many opportunities available at the beginning of the 21st Century. Potential benefits from the opportunities are described.
John Stark

Chapter 7. Product

Abstract
This chapter addresses the characteristics of products that need to be understood and addressed in PLM. The product is at the heart of PLM. Whether it’s a car, a television, a beverage or an anaesthetic, it’s the product that the customer wants. The product is the source of company revenues. Without a product, the company doesn’t need to exist and won’t have any customers . From a product lifecycle management viewpoint, even though there’s a huge range of products, much is common between different products. This chapter addresses issues about structuring a product and its parts. Issues with identification, classification and requirements are described. And similar issues about product numbering, definition of product specifications and working with versions , variants and options are evoked.
John Stark

Chapter 8. Product Data

Abstract
The subject of this chapter is the product data that describes products. The chapter explains what product data is, and why it’s relevant in PLM. Whatever the product made by a company, an enormous volume and variety of product data is needed to develop and support it throughout the lifecycle. Some of this data will describe the product, or a part of the product, or its packaging, or a label, or an identifier. Some will describe a structure such as a BOM or a list of ingredients. Some will describe a process related to the product, explaining how something has to be done. Some of the information may describe a regulation that the product must comply with. Product data doesn’t look after itself and, over time, like anything else that isn’t properly organised and maintained, it will slide into chaos and decay. However, this has to be avoided, as the slightest slip can have serious consequences for the product and those associated with it. Getting product data organised, and keeping it organised, are major challenges in PLM. The chapter describes some sixty potential issues related to product data. Metadata is described. Modeling of product data is introduced.
John Stark

Chapter 9. Process

Abstract
This chapter provides an introduction to business processes in the PLM environment. It describes the purpose, role and importance of processes across the product lifecycle. Processes are important. A process is an activity. It’s something a company does. The company has a choice. It can put in place good processes and do the right things. Or it can do things badly. There’s a lot of activity in a company as a product is developed, produced and supported. There are dozens of processes including the product development process, the change process and the obsolescence process. Many people work in the processes, creating, reviewing, investigating, correcting and communicating. And, all the time, existing product data is being used in processes, and new product data is being created and used. This chapter describes the characteristics of processes that impact the management of products. Process mapping and modelling is introduced.
John Stark

Chapter 10. PLM Applications

Abstract
This chapter addresses the applications that are used in the PLM environment. Just as there are, in the scope of PLM, many processes, and many types of product data, there are also many applications. In this chapter, more than fifty different types of application are described briefly. Within some of these groups, more than one hundred different applications are provided by different vendors. In total, there are thousands of different applications in the PLM environment. Although there are thousands of applications, and they’re used for many different things in very different situations, they have some common characteristics. One is that they need to interface smoothly to other applications. Another is their ability to create huge volumes of product data, which then have to be managed. This chapter provides an introduction to applications in the PLM environment. It gives a basic understanding of PLM applications and related activities. It provides examples of applications and shows why they’re relevant in PLM. Issues with applications are addressed. Data mapping is introduced.
John Stark

Chapter 11. The PDM System

Abstract
A Product Data Management (PDM) system is a very specific type of PLM application. It has the primary purpose of managing product data. PDM systems are one of the most important elements of a PLM solution. A PDM system can manage all product data created and used in the PLM environment. Whatever PLM Strategy a company chooses, it’s probable that PDM will be a major constituent. PDM systems, which manage data across the lifecycle, are an essential enabler for PLM. Unless the product data in the product lifecycle is under control, it will be difficult to get the product under control. PDM systems are addressed in detail in this chapter. The eight components of a PDM system are explained. Benefits of PDM are detailed. Issues with PDM systems are identified.
John Stark

Chapter 12. People

Abstract
People are the subject of this chapter. People play an important role in PLM. They’re present throughout the lifecycle, defining, creating, reviewing, changing and communicating. It takes many people to develop and support a product throughout its lifecycle. They use product data. They work in one or more processes in the PLM environment. They may use one or more PLM applications . The better they understand and appreciate PLM, the more effective it will be. Many of the issues that may arise with people in the PLM environment are described.
John Stark

Chapter 13. Methods

Abstract
This chapter addresses the special working methods, or techniques, that are used in PLM. They range from methods used by one or two technical specialists, to broadbrush management approaches applicable to everyone in the company. These techniques are intended to improve performance. They’re often seen as a Best Practice at a particular moment in time. About fifty methods are described. Examples include Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), Early Manufacturing Involvement (EMI), Lean Techniques, Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Taguchi Techniques, TRIZ, Value Analysis and Value Engineering . Common characteristics and issues of methods in the PLM environment are described.
John Stark

Chapter 14. Facilities and Equipment

Abstract
This chapter addresses the equipment and facilities that are used during the product lifecycle. A wide range of facilities is used across the product lifecycle. They vary from one industry sector to another. Depending on the industry, the facilities could include laboratories; wind tunnels; manufacturing plants; service centres; test sites; decommissioning facilities and wreckers’ yards. And an even wider range of equipment is used across the lifecycle . Depending on the industry, the equipment could include rapid prototyping equipment to produce accurate physical prototypes directly from a CAD model. It could include equipment used during the production phase of the lifecycle, such as a stamping machine to make car body parts, or a milling machine to machine a turbine blade, or an oven to heat plastics. Measuring equipment is used to measure the wear of products in test and in use. Sales and delivery equipment, such as a refrigerated display cabinet, could be used to get the product to the customer . Robots could be used to disassemble products when they get to end-of-life. Common characteristics and issues of equipment and facilities in the PLM environment are detailed.
John Stark

Chapter 15. Metrics

Abstract
This chapter addresses metrics in the PLM environment. Metrics are a system of measurement that characterises an entity, be it a company, a person or a product. It’s often said that you can’t manage what you can’t measure. Metrics help an organisation to set targets for its annual improvement plans and to measure the progress that it’s making. Without metrics it’s difficult to describe an entity, set targets, monitor progress, track results or fix problems. Metrics help a company to understand its PLM performance, the performance of its competitors, and the behaviour of its customers. There are many metrics in the product lifecycle that can be used. A balanced set of metrics is required to enable successful management of products across the lifecycle. Common characteristics and issues of metrics in the PLM environment are explained.
John Stark

Chapter 16. Organisation

Abstract
This chapter address the organisation of the components of PLM . The components include: business processes ; people; data; working methods; information systems; interfaces and standards. They’re all needed to transform ideas into products which meet a company’s objectives, meet customer requirements , comply with regulations, and meet environmental objectives. There are several alternative approaches for organising them. Each component, and the whole, must be structured and organised the best way. The organisation is a key issue. Organise well and manage products effectively. Or, organise badly, and run into all sorts of problems with products. This chapter addresses the characteristics of organisation in the PLM environment and identifies potential issues.
John Stark

Chapter 17. Reasons for Implementing a PDM System

Abstract
This chapter looks at the reasons for implementing a PDM system. Among the reasons described are better management of information, increased re-use of information, workflow management, improved Engineering Change Management, overall business performance improvement, resolution of business problems, functional performance improvement, better management of product development activities, automation of product development activities, IS effectiveness improvement, and the provision of an infrastructure for effective product development.
John Stark

Chapter 18. Forewarned Is Forearmed

Abstract
This chapter describes some of the reasons that may be advanced against the introduction of PDM. Implementation of an effective PDM system is difficult, and will disturb the status quo. Anyone implementing a PDM system is likely to be faced by people who don’t want to change. There are lots of people in most companies who can provide all sorts of justifications for not doing whatever is proposed. To prepare for such behaviour, anyone who wants to implement PDM needs to be well-armed with reasons. Fortunately, there are plenty of them. This chapter describes the various ways in which use of PDM can be justified in different environments.
John Stark

Chapter 19. FAQs About PDM Implementation and Use

Abstract
This chapter answers commonly asked questions about the implementation and use of PDM such as: what PDM functionality will be needed?, who should be involved in implementing PDM?, how does PDM fit with Concurrent Engineering?, should PDM be outsourced? Most of the questions are easy to answer if you’ve a well-defined PDM strategy, but very difficult if you haven’t. The answers to the questions are obviously dependent on the specifics of each individual company. But, in general, they depend on five factors: the industry the company is in; the company’s organisational structure ; the company’s culture; the company’s resources; and the PDM approach so far. The industry sector is an important factor. For example, PDM needs will differ between an automotive company making a high-volume, standard product, and an aerospace company making a make-to-order product which will differ from one order to the next. The organisational structure of the company is also an important factor. For example, PDM will play different roles in companies that are organised by project, and companies that have a strong departmental focus. The culture of the company is an important factor. In some companies, top management takes all decisions, and bottom-up initiatives are discouraged. In a company where things are always done top-down, there’s little point in trying to introduce PDM bottom-up. Similarly, in a company where management actively tries to get decisions taken by people lower down the hierarchy, it wouldn’t be useful to try to get management to impose a particular PDM system on the company. In this chapter, many frequently asked questions about PDM are addressed.
John Stark

Chapter 20. Barriers to Successful Implementation of PDM

Abstract
This chapter looks at about a dozen potential barriers to PDM progress. Most of the potential problems to successful implementation of PDM are known. They’ve already been experienced by the pioneers. A known problem can be avoided. The PDM manager who is aware of the problems that may occur can take action to prevent them, and ensure that the objectives of PDM implementation are met. This chapter looks at some of the barriers to a successful implementation of PDM. These may have several sources such as information systems, human resources, the PDM Project Team, the processes in the product lifecycle, the organisational structure, funding, information, installation and everyday use.
John Stark

Chapter 21. Of PLM Vision and Strategy

Abstract
This chapter is the first of several that address PLM Vision and Strategy. One of the many confusing things for someone trying to develop a coherent approach to PLM is to understand the various ways in which words such as vision, mission, objectives, strategy, plan, metrics, structure and policy are used and understood. They’re often used with different meanings in different situations and by different authors. This chapter defines these terms in the context of PLM. A PLM Vision is defined as a high-level conceptual description of a company’s product lifecycle activities at some future time. It provides a Big Picture to guide people in the choices they have to make, when strategising and planning, concerning resources, priorities, capabilities, budgets, and the scope of activities. There’s a saying, “a ship without a destination doesn’t make good speed”. Without a PLM Vision, people won’t know what they should be working towards, so won’t work effectively. They’re unlikely to get to a suitable destination. This chapter explains that, to achieve the PLM Vision, two strategies need to be developed, the PLM Strategy and the PLM Implementation Strategy. The PLM Strategy shows how PLM resources will be organised in the future, envisioned environment. The Implementation Strategy shows how resources will be organised to achieve the change from the current environment to the future environment.
John Stark

Chapter 22. Strategies

Abstract
A good, well-defined, and well-communicated PLM Strategy is important. It provides the best chance of achieving the PLM Vision, makes sure resources and capabilities are used to their best, makes sure everybody knows what’s happening, makes sure all resources are aligned in the same direction, and enables planning decisions to be taken in a coherent way. Perhaps half of a company’s resources will be in the scope of PLM. But what’s the best way to organise them to achieve the PLM objectives? What’s the best strategy? How would you proceed in developing the PLM Strategy? You might look to see how strategies are developed in general, what’s important, and what lessons have been learned. One source of lessons learned might be case studies from industry. Another area that could be worth looking at is the development of military strategies. One reason for this is that the events were so large in scale that their description isn’t deformed by one or two individuals trying to present their behaviour favourably. Another is that they took place sufficiently long ago for there to be general agreement on objectives and strategies. And most people will be familiar with the events described. And they’ll have a general understanding of the overall issues. By looking at historical events, it’s possible to see how strategies are developed and implemented, to see their results, and to see how and why they change. The lessons learned can then be applied to PLM Strategies. This chapter describes PLM principles that can be used to help in the development of a PLM Strategy.
John Stark

Chapter 23. Getting Executive Support

Abstract
This chapter looks at the launch of PLM activities in a company. Because a PLM Initiative addresses so many components, such as products, processes, people, data, and information systems, it may not be clear initially how a company can handle such a huge undertaking. As a result, many companies face a dilemma over PLM. On one hand it’s clear they need PLM. On the other hand, it’s not clear what to do about it, or who should take action. This chapter shows how to get the PLM Initiative started. The 10 Step Approach to PLM Launch is described.
John Stark

Chapter 24. Developing PLM Vision and PLM Strategy

Abstract
This chapter addresses the development of PLM Vision and PLM Strategy. They both need to be developed. But in which order should they be developed? Which comes first? Strategy is part of Vision , but until the Vision is known, it may not be clear which resources the Strategy should address. And there may not be enough known about resources to finalise the Strategy. On the other hand, it wouldn’t make sense to develop a Vision in detail, and then find out that no Strategy would achieve it. The best approach is to develop them together and finalise them together. However, as Vision leads Strategy, it’s best to start with the development of the Vision. This chapter shows how to develop a PLM Vision and a PLM Strategy . Once the PLM Vision has been defined, people will want to know what the organisation will look like in the future. They’ll ask what the PLM Strategy is. They’ll want to know how the resources in the product lifecycle should be deployed, structured and used in the coming years to achieve the Vision. They’ll want to know how to organise the change from today’s organisation to the future organisation. This chapter answers such questions. It details the process by which a PLM Strategy can be developed.
John Stark

Chapter 25. Example of a PLM Vision

Abstract
This chapter gives an example of the development of a PLM Vision . It identifies and describes the various components of the PLM Vision. Sections 25.525.16 give examples of the types of statement that could be used to describe the components. The PLM Vision for a company will be specific to that company. The Vision in this example is that of one company. All other companies would have a different Vision. As a result, for most companies, details of the Vision in this example will be completely wrong, or irrelevant, or not applicable. Some of the statements though, can be used, perhaps with some alteration, to help build a description of what PLM will look like in another company. For initial presentations about PLM, it may be sufficient to present some of the statements as “Examples of PLM Vision Statements”. This chapter identifies about a dozen components of a PLM Vision. It will help people to understand what the PLM environment in a company may look like in the future.
John Stark

Chapter 26. The Current Situation

Abstract
This chapter shows how a company should describe the current situation of its PLM environment. The approach, team and deliverables are described. A good understanding of the current situation of the components of the PLM environment is an essential starting point for developing a PLM Strategy. It provides the foundation for moving forward, and helps identify improvement opportunities. The report resulting from this activity becomes a key information source for making progress with PLM. This chapter describes some of the questions that may arise when describing the current situation. It identifies the areas to be addressed.
John Stark

Chapter 27. Current Situation Examples

Abstract
This chapter gives examples of descriptions of the current situation of the PLM environment in several companies. It shows that the scope of the review of the current situation may differ widely from one company to another. Sometimes the review only addresses some of the components of PLM . Sometimes the review addresses all of the components. In consequence, the contents of the report that results from the review may differ widely from one company to another. Whatever the scope of the review, the report should lead to decisions and actions. What is reported relates, to some extent, to the expected decisions and actions. As a result, some reports will contain a lot of details. Others will contain few details. Some reports may include, for example, a list of every process and document in the environment. This chapter includes examples from reviews of several different situations. They show how the content and level may vary.
John Stark

Chapter 28. Describing the Future Situation

Abstract
This chapter shows how a company should develop a description of the desired future PLM environment. The approach, team and deliverables are addressed. As the future situation doesn’t exist, an infinite number of possible future situations could be imagined. The activity of detailing the future situation may appear daunting. This chapter describes some of the questions that may arise when describing the future situation. It identifies the areas to be addressed.
John Stark

Chapter 29. PLM Implementation Strategy and Plan

Abstract
This chapter shows how a company should develop the PLM Implementation Strategy and Plan. The PLM Implementation Strategy shows the activities that have to be carried out to move forward from the current use of PLM resources to the future use of PLM resources. The Implementation Strategy may be very different in different companies. Their current and future situations are different. The scope of activities considered is likely to be different. And there are many ways to get from the current situation to the future situation. So, it’s to be expected that each company will create a different Implementation Strategy. In turn, it’s to be expected that each company will create a different Implementation Plan which will be built up of manageable and prioritised sub-projects. This chapter describes some of the questions that may arise when developing the Implementation Strategy and Plan. It identifies the areas to be addressed.
John Stark

Chapter 30. PLM Action

Abstract
This chapter addresses the actions that companies frequently undertake when implementing their PLM Implementation Strategy. Once the PLM Implementation Strategy and Plan have been agreed, the planned activities can be started. The Implementation Strategies and Plans of different companies will be very different, due to the companies’ different current and desired future situations . However, there is often some similarity in the resulting activities. This chapter describes some of the questions that may arise when implementing the plan. Recommendations are given for project managers. Examples are given of frequently occurring activities.
John Stark

Backmatter

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