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Über dieses Buch

Over the last fifty-plus years, the increased complexity and speed of integrated circuits have radically changed our world. Today, semiconductor manufacturing is perhaps the most important segment of the global manufacturing sector. As the semiconductor industry has become more competitive, improving planning and control has become a key factor for business success. This book is devoted to production planning and control problems in semiconductor wafer fabrication facilities. It is the first book that takes a comprehensive look at the role of modeling, analysis, and related information systems for such manufacturing systems. The book provides an operations research- and computer science-based introduction into this important field of semiconductor manufacturing-related research.



Chapter 1. Introduction

The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the book. Therefore, we start by discussing motivation for modeling and analysis of semiconductor manufacturing. Semiconductor manufacturing is an extreme environment for production planning and control, scheduling, and simulation models. The enormous size of the facilities and supply chains in the semiconductor industry, the permanent appearance of uncertainty, and rapid technological changes lead to an environment that brings approaches developed for other industries under stress (see Chien et al. [49] for a related discussion). The capital intensive nature of the semiconductor industry requires manufacturing systems to run consistently at high utilization levels, reentrant flows create complex competition for limited resource capacity, and the ever-increasing level of automation reduces the ability to rely solely on people for production planning and control. Models that are successful in the semiconductor industry will likely find reasonable applications in other areas. A second source of academic interest in modeling and analysis of semiconductor manufacturing is the insight that the semiconductor manufacturing environment initiates on the formulation of some problems that had not been widely studied in other industries (cf. Chien et al. [49]).

Lars Mönch, John W. Fowler, Scott J. Mason

Chapter 2. Semiconductor Manufacturing Process Description

In this chapter, we provide a process description of semiconductor manufacturing. Therefore, we describe the front-end and back-end areas in some detail. We introduce the notion of base system, base process, control system, control process, planning system, planning process, and finally of the information system from systems theory. Then we discuss important wafer fabrication operations including a description of the most important characteristics of the semiconductor manufacturing process. We also introduce the notion of complex job shops because this is the way wafer fabs are organized. Finally, we discuss the production planning and control (PPC) hierarchy in semiconductor manufacturing.

Lars Mönch, John W. Fowler, Scott J. Mason

Chapter 3. Modeling and Analysis Tools

Modeling and analyzing problems from semiconductor manufacturing always require a solid knowledge of appropriate decision methods. Models are used within the production planning and control process for representing the BS and BP and for decision-making. Decision methods usually come from the areas of operations research (OR), artificial intelligence (AI), and computer science (CS). They are important prerequisites to solving decision problems.

Lars Mönch, John W. Fowler, Scott J. Mason

Chapter 4. Dispatching Approaches

In this chapter, we discuss dispatching approaches. Dispatching is on the lowest level of the PPC hierarchy described in Chap. 2. We start with a taxonomy of dispatching rules. A dispatching rule assigns a certain index to each job waiting in a queue to be processed on a machine or transported by a vehicle. The job with either the largest or the smallest index is selected to be processed or transported next. Typical attributes are the ready time, the processing time, or the due date of a certain operation or of the job itself. We describe simple dispatching rules that are characterized by an index that is based only on a small number of attributes of a job or the BS and the BP. We continue with the discussion of composite dispatching rules. Composite dispatching rules have an index that is formed by combining indices of simple dispatching rules.

Lars Mönch, John W. Fowler, Scott J. Mason

Chapter 5. Deterministic Scheduling Approaches

In this chapter, we describe deterministic scheduling approaches for equipment (i.e., single machines), work centers, and full wafer fab situations. We start with simulation-based scheduling approaches that are somewhere between dispatching and scheduling. Then, we continue by presenting scheduling approaches for single machines. We especially focus on the case of a single batch machine with incompatible job families and the TWT objective. Furthermore, we study the problem of scheduling jobs on a single cluster tool with



objective. Then, we present scheduling approaches for work centers, i.e., for parallel machines. We first study scheduling problems for parallel machines with sequence-dependent setup times and then cover parallel batch machines with incompatible job families and ready times of the jobs. After that, we present work that deals with the treatment of secondary resources. Then, we discuss multiple orders per job (MOJ) scheduling problems. We extend these work center approaches to the full wafer fab situation using the concept of disjunctive graphs. We discuss a modified shifting bottleneck heuristic for wafer fabs, and we also describe a distributed variant of the shifting bottleneck heuristic. Next, we extend the shifting bottleneck heuristic to multicriteria situations. We study the performance of these approaches in a rolling horizon setting using simulation models of wafer fabs.

Lars Mönch, John W. Fowler, Scott J. Mason

Chapter 6. Order Release Approaches

In this chapter, we provide an overview of order release approaches for semiconductor manufacturing. Order release is between production planning and scheduling in the PPC hierarchy. The fundamental concepts of push-based order release and pull-based order release are presented, along with a comparison of these two key methods and their implementation in a variety of production environments. Next, we present two seminal wafer fab-specific order release approaches, namely starvation avoidance by Glassey and Resende [100] and workload regulation by Wein [318].

Lars Mönch, John W. Fowler, Scott J. Mason

Chapter 7. Production Planning Approaches

In this chapter, we discuss production planning approaches for semiconductor manufacturing. Planning is on the highest level of the PPC hierarchy. Planning approaches provide important input for the order release schemes discussed in Chap. 6. We start by describing short-term planning approaches. Spreadsheet modeling and simulation are used in this situation.

Lars Mönch, John W. Fowler, Scott J. Mason

Chapter 8. State of the Practice and Future Needs for Production Planning and Control Systems

In this chapter, we describe information systems for production planning and control of wafer fabs. We start by discussing the current state-of-the-practice systems. Then we derive requirements for advanced production planning and control systems based on the results of the previous chapters. Next, we describe MES core functionality related to production control. Because the scheduling and dispatching functionality of many MESs is not adequate, we continue by describing specific dispatching systems. We also provide basic principles of a coupling architecture that allows for functionality extensions of MES in a plug-and-play manner. Moreover, we provide details of an agent-based architecture for modern production control systems. Software agents turn out to be an appropriate concept to implement enterprise-wide distributed production planning and control systems. We briefly discuss MCS functionality. Because of the increasing importance of production planning functionality, we finally describe requirements for ERP systems and APSs. These systems are usually provided by commercial software packages. Therefore, we also describe how these systems can interact with internally developed software components.

Lars Mönch, John W. Fowler, Scott J. Mason


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