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01.10.2019

Prognostic score matching methods for estimating the average effect of a non-reversible binary time-dependent treatment on the survival function

Zeitschrift:
Lifetime Data Analysis
Autoren:
Kevin He, Yun Li, Panduranga S. Rao, Randall S. Sung, Douglas E. Schaubel
Wichtige Hinweise

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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10985-019-09485-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Abstract

In evaluating the benefit of a treatment on survival, it is often of interest to compare post-treatment survival with the survival function that would have been observed in the absence of treatment. In many practical settings, treatment is time-dependent in the sense that subjects typically begin follow-up untreated, with some going on to receive treatment at some later time point. In observational studies, treatment is not assigned at random and, therefore, may depend on various patient characteristics. We have developed semi-parametric matching methods to estimate the average treatment effect on the treated (ATT) with respect to survival probability and restricted mean survival time. Matching is based on a prognostic score which reflects each patient’s death hazard in the absence of treatment. Specifically, each treated patient is matched with multiple as-yet-untreated patients with similar prognostic scores. The matched sets do not need to be of equal size, since each matched control is weighted in order to preserve risk score balancing across treated and untreated groups. After matching, we estimate the ATT non-parametrically by contrasting pre- and post-treatment weighted Nelson–Aalen survival curves. A closed-form variance is proposed and shown to work well in simulation studies. The proposed methods are applied to national organ transplant registry data.

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