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Über dieses Buch

This book presents recent progresses in control, automation, robotics and measuring techniques. It includes contributions of top experts in the fields, focused on both theory and industrial practice. The particular chapters present a deep analysis of a specific technical problem which is in general followed by a numerical analysis and simulation and results of an implementation for the solution of a real world problem. The presented theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines will be useful for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and for practitioners solving industrial problems.



Synchronization of the Chaotic Pandey-Baghel-Singh Systems of Fractional Order

The paper considers the modified Pandey-Baghel-Singh system of fractional order. Chaotic behavior of the system is analyzed and the problem of synchronization of two modified Pandey-Baghel-Singh systems via master-slave configuration with linear coupling is considered. A simple sufficient condition for synchronization using the Lyapunov and Gershgorin stability theory is proposed. The considerations are illustrated by numerical simulations.

Mikołaj Busłowicz, Andrzej Ruszewski, Adam Makarewicz

Multiple Project Portfolio Scheduling Subject to Mass Customized Service

Declarative framework enabling to determine conditions as well as to develop a decision making software supporting small and medium size enterprises aimed at unique, multi project-like and mass customized oriented production is discussed. The set of unique production orders grouped into portfolio orders is considered. To each production order treated as an activity network common shared resources operation times of which are known in advance are allotted. The problem concerns of scheduling of a newly inserted projects portfolio subject to constraints imposed by a multi-project environment The answer sought is: Whether a given portfolio can be completed within assumed time period in a manufacturing system in hand? The goal is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at multi project-like and mass customized oriented production scheduling. The attached calculation example illustrates the computational efficiency of the proposed solution.

Krzysztof Bzdyra, Zbigniew Banaszak, Grzegorz Bocewicz

Recurrent Polynomial and Neural Structures in Modelling of a Neutralisation Process

This work discusses modelling of a neutralisation process by means of two recurrent modelling techniques: polynomials and neural networks. Model structures and training algorithms are shortly discussed. Two recurrent model classes are compared in terms of accuracy and complexity. Advantages of neural models are emphasised.

Patryk Chaber, Maciej Ławryńczuk

Memory-Based Prediction of District Heating Temperature Using GPGPU

The paper presents application of the memory-based prediction to the problem of the return water temperature prognosis in a district heating network. CHP (Combined Heating Plant) problem is defined as well as the algorithm based on the memory of the historical process realizations together with its novel, parallel implementation using CUDA on GPGPU. The use of the calculation extensive methods from one side enables to get good and reliable predictions, but in opposite the prognosis evaluation is done at high cost. An alternative application of the massively parallel version of the Memory-based time series prediction algorithm has been implemented and tested. The paper shows very good and promising improvement in comparison to the common applications. The algorithm is tested on the real process data.

Paweł D. Domański, Marcin Więcławski

The Architecture of an Embedded Smart Camera for Intelligent Inspection and Surveillance

Real time video surveillance and inspection is complex task, requiring processing large amount of image data. Performing this task in each node of a multi-camera system requires high performance and power efficient architecture of the smart camera. Such solution, based on a Xilinx Zynq heterogeneous FPGA (Field Programmable Logic Array) is presented in this paper. The proposed architecture is a general foundation, which allows easy and flexible prototyping and implementation of a range of image and video processing algorithms. Two example algorithm implementations using the described architecture are presented for illustration – moving object detection and feature points detection, description and matching.

Michał Fularz, Marek Kraft, Adam Schmidt, Andrzej Kasiński

Nature-Inspired, Parallel Object Recognition

In this article we present a massively parallel object recognition system designed to operate on-line, processing data acquired by indoor mobile robots equipped with 3D cameras. Inspired by the properties of the mammalian visual cortex, the proposed method incorporates a learned, selective use of features for the recognition of specific objects of interest, as well as a pre-processing stage of simultaneous localization and mapping (featuring Kinect Fusion) and a new parallel, heuristic scene segmentation algorithm. The benefits of applying class-specific feature spaces are demonstrated in an experiment carried using indoor scenes containing multiple common household objects.

Bogdan Harasymowicz-Boggio, Łukasz Chechliński, Barbara Siemiątkowska

Digraphs Minimal Realisations of State Matrices for Fractional Positive Systems

This paper presents a method of the determination of characteristic polynomial realisations of the fractional positive system. The algorithm finds a complete set of all possible realisations instead of only a few realisations. In addition, all realisations in the set are minimal. The proposed method uses a parallel computing algorithm based on a digraphs theory which is used to gain much needed speed and computational power for a numeric solution. The presented procedure has been illustrated with a numerical example.

Krzysztof Hryniów, Konrad Andrzej Markowski

Optimisation of Digraphs-Based Realisations for Polynomials of One and Two Variables

This paper proposes a set of modifications to the algorithm proposed earlier, that finds a complete set of minimal solutions for the characteristic polynomial on basis of digraphs theory and parallel computation. Changes proposed allow for parallelisation of previously sequential part of the algorithm, accurate estimation of number of solutions created and speed-up of both parts of the algorithm. Reduction of algorithm’s complexity is greatest for monomials consisting of only one variable and for one-variable polynomial a complete set of minimal solutions can be found as fast as in linearithmic time.

Krzysztof Hryniów, Konrad Andrzej Markowski

Analysis Thrust for Different Kind of Propellers

The paper presents a design of test stand designed for thrust propellers measurements. There are shown results of the thrust for different propellers. The study thrust was made for six different propellers. Propellers differed in terms of diameter, pitch and material. For all of propellers used was the same drive and the same control parameters (voltage, current). During thrust measurements HBM force sensor was used. The propeller drive BLDC motor was used, which was controlled by a system of dSPACE. The following paper analyses indicates that propeller diameter is its most important parameter and in some range thrust is proportional to diameter.

Arkadiusz Jakubowski, Arkadiusz Kubacki, Bartosz Minorowicz, Amadeusz Nowak

SysML Modeling of Functional and Non-functional Requirements for IEC 61131-3 Control Systems

Control software performs important roles in various branches of industry. Its complexity and importance are still growing, thus it is crucial to provide engineers with new methods to improve its quality. One of possible solutions is modeling, which could be introduced into the overall development process. The paper proposes an approach to modeling of requirements dedicated to control systems developed according to the IEC 61131-3 standard. Such a solution supports four kinds of requirements. The first group specifies expected behavior of Program Organization Units (POUs, namely programs, function blocks, functions, and classes). The other two present performance requirements oriented towards POU execution and communication between devices in Distributed Control Systems (DCSs). The last type is dedicated to displays in a Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and specifies their expected operation. The proposed approach has been introduced in the CPDev engineering environment for programming various kinds of controllers.

Marcin Jamro

Fractional Standard and Positive Descriptor Time-Varying Discrete-Time Linear Systems

The Weierstrass-Kronecker theorem on the decomposition of the regular pencil is extended to the fractional descriptor time-varying discrete-time linear systems. A method for computing the solutions of the fractional systems is proposed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the positivity of the systems are established.

Tadeusz Kaczorek

Decomposition and Parallelization of Linear Programming Algorithms

The paper assesses possible approaches to decomposition and parallelization of basic linear programming algorithms, including: Dantzig-Wolfe, Benders, augmented Lagrangian, revised simplex and primal-dual interior point methods. Quite surprisingly, the first three of them - of hierarchical optimization type - exhibit considerable advantages nowadays, in the era of multicore processors and accelerators of any type (GPU, FPGA, Xeon Phi, etc.).

Andrzej Karbowski

45 Years of Mechatronics – History and Future

The word of Mechatronics is already 45 years old. This is an occasion to present the definitions of mechatronics, its history and to show current state of the art in this discipline. The article presents a short overview of the literature related to mechatronics. The development of mechatronics is also illustrated along with development of computers and washing machines . Finally the achievements are summarized and some questions related to mechatronics’ future are stated.

Andrzej Milecki

Analysis and Modelling of Magnetic Circuits in Magnetic Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

Authors presented in article modeling of magnetic circuit for magnetic shape memory alloys. These alloys are a new class of smart materials which can generate strains and force in external magnetic field. Thus that properties MSMA fill gap between classical SMA and magnetostrictive materials. As a drawbacks strong nonlinearities should be mentioned: wide asymmetric hysteresis loop, thermal sensitivity, first cycle effect. Very high flux density need for effective operation over the whole range strongly affects on size of the magnetic circuit. Mathematical modeling does not allow for design optimal shape of core. Authors aided their work by FEA of magnetic flux in core. Computed results were compared with magnetic induction measured on prepared test bench.

Bartosz Minorowicz, Cezary Jędryczka, Frederik Stefański, Amadeusz Nowak

Share Mode Magnetorheological Dampers for Vibration Attenuation in Domestic Washing Machines

The article presents a new approach for noise reduction of a household washing machine. The noise sources and phenomenon were described. After investigation of a currently used solution, and alternative available solutions, a new approach was presented. Design and tests of a low costs magnetorheological fluid, semi-active damper were presented. The input parameters for the new damper were identified on the base of investigation of a viscous damper, used in washing machines. The described MR damper was applied in a washing machine suspension system. Next, a study of washing machine acceleration RMS for different unbalanced masses and durum rotations, were performed. During this research the new damper was switched on and off, to shows it influence on the acceleration. The end results show that the new designed dampers can strongly reduce the vibrations of the washing machine housing and its plastic components.

Bartosz Minorowicz, Frederik Stefański, Grzegorz Pittner, Roman Regulski

Immune Algorithm for Optimization of Membership Function in Fuzzy Models

The immune algorithm based on clonal selection can be used for identification and optimization of the parameters of Sugeno fuzzy model extracted from numerical data. In [5] the rules of fuzzy model were extracted using clonal selection for clustering task, implemented in the MATLAB code. In this paper, the application of the clonal selection has been proposed to solve optimization problems. The algorithm of clonal selection can be used before the clustering version of identification of parameters of the fuzzy model Sugeno-type. Then the same algorithm can be adapted to solve optimization tasks. The results were applied to approximation of a test function.

Bogumiła Mrozek

Characteristics of the Improved Magnetic Shape Memory Alloy Actuator Test Stand

The article describes improved magnetic shape memory alloy actuator (MSMA actuator) test stand and the previously made stand. There are pointed weak sides of the first stand and the improvements in the new one. Several quasi-static measurements were performed and results were compared between both measurement stands. The MSMA actuator characterises with significant hysteresis loop, but improved test stand allowed to reduce its width. The increased rigidity of the stand excluded influence of stand deformations on the results. The described stand resulted with similar but improved measurements of the MSMA actuator characteristics, which also proved the correctness of the previous results.

Amadeusz Nowak, Bartosz Minorowicz, Frederik Stefański, Zoran Pandilov

Control of an Oriented PV System with the Use of a Discrete, Robust, Fractional Order PID Controller

In the paper the proposition a fractional order, robust, discrete PID controller dedicated to minimum-energy control an interval - parameter, oriented PV system is presented. A tuning of robust controller with use of different cost function is also proposed. Results are by an example depicted.

Krzysztof Oprzedkiewicz

Production System Designing with the Use of Digital Factory and Augmented Reality Technologies

Current requirements for continuous reduction of products, processes and systems life cycles increase the need of rapid design of “lean” and “flexible” production systems. This means that classical approaches of production systems design have to be extended by the application of advanced technologies and methods, such as digital factory, virtual and augmented reality, computer simulation, reverse engineering, etc. The article describes design, optimization and visualization of the production layout using a combination of conventional design approaches and modern computer technologies, like VisTable software and augmented reality.

Dariusz Plinta, Martin Krajčovič

Monitoring and Prediction of Time Series Based on Fuzzy Cognitive Maps with Multi-step Gradient Methods

Fuzzy cognitive map FCM is a useful tool for modeling systems for time series monitoring and prediction in various fields. This paper is devoted to the analysis of the application of FCM with multi-step learning algorithms based on gradient method and Markov model of gradient for multivariate time series monitoring and prediction. Real data from a monitor system mounted in a domotic house were used in learning and testing process. The comparative analysis of two-step method of Markov model of gradient, multi-step gradient method and one-step gradient method from the point of view of the obtained prediction error was performed.

Katarzyna Poczęta, Alexander Yastrebov

Multichannel High Voltage Amplifier for Piezo Actuators

This paper describes investigations of a low cost high voltage amplifier, which was based on specialized operational amplifiers. The purpose of the amplifier is to control piezoelectric actuators with many electrodes, such as bimorph benders, piezoelectric tubes, ring and disc benders. Proposed amplifier has two independent channels which can be configured for the specific research aim. Every channel of the device can works in inverted or non inverted mode. Also the voltage gain and current limit can be set separately.

Roman Regulski, Amadeusz Nowak, Bartosz Minorowicz, Frederik Stefański

Modelling of Electrohydraulic Drive with a Valve Controlled by Synchronous Motor

The article describes modelling of electrohydraulic servo drive. In the drive a new type of proportional valve with a synchronous motor controlled by dedicated power electronics is used. The model of the electrohydraulic servo drive prepared in Matlab-Simulink is described. The study included the examination of the basic characteristics such as step response.

Dominik Rybarczyk, Dariusz Sędziak, Piotr Owczarek, Adam Owczarkowski

Object-Oriented Approach to I/O Handling in Control Programs

The paper shows how new object-oriented features introduced in IEC 61131-3:2013 can be used for handling inputs and outputs. The new extensions such as classes, interfaces or inheritance are first characterized. Then, an UML model of I/O handling with diagrams for peripheries, universal data type and board capabilities is given. Finally, a practical example of model implementation is shown with portions of ST code accessing three different types of I/O boards.

Dariusz Rzońca, Jan Sadolewski, Bartosz Trybus

Solution of the State Equation of Descriptor Fractional Continuous-Time Linear Systems with Two Different Fractional

The descriptor fractional continuous-time linear systems with two different fractional orders are considered. The Drazin inverse of matrices is applied to find the solutions of the state equations. Some additional changes to classical Drazin approach for finding solution of the state equation of descriptor systems is proposed. An equality defining the set of admissible initial conditions for given inputs is derived.

Łukasz Sajewski

A Hybrid Approach to Sustainable Supply Chain Optimization

This paper describes the hybrid approach to optimization of decision problems in sustainable supply chain (SSC). The hybrid approach proposed here combines the strengths of mathematical programming (MP) and constraint logic programming (CLP), which leads to a significant reduction in the search time necessary to find the optimal solution, and allows solving larger problems


The hybrid method appears to be not only as good as either of its components used independently but in most cases it is much more effective. The simplified models of cost optimization presented in the article illustrate the advantages of the approach. For these models, the use of hybrid approach allows obtaining optimal solutions ten times faster.

Paweł Sitek

New Approach to Automation and Robotics Vocational Education in Support of Europe Reindustrialization

The post-industrial Europe cannot effectively fight the economic crisis. The Europa 2020 strategy goal is the advancement of the European Union economy which would be impossible without re-industrialisation. To reverse the declining role of industry, the re-industrialisation will notably be based on SMEs in which the production processes are not automated enough. In result the existing, as well as new companies will invest significant efforts in Automation and Robitisation (A&R) to minimise costs by eliminating manual work. The article presents the approach for preparation of the new generation vocational courses tailored especially to meet the needs and expectations of small and medium enterprises connected with introduction of new technologies, especially connected with Automation and Robotisation.

Michał Smater, Jacek Zieliński

Ship Maneuvering Model for Autopilot Simulator

The paper presents a ship maneuvering model which can be used in autopilot simulators for testing new algorithms. The ship model implements both ship dynamics and waves. The motion response amplitude operator (RAO) is used for calculating motion disturbances.

Andrzej Stec

Research of Basic Parameters of Piezoelectric Tube Actuator

The article present basic research of the piezoelectric tube actuator. In this study the actuator was tested for various DC voltages. Further hysteresis and creep effect of the piezo ceramic material were presented. The next point of this research was positioning control of tube under closed loop control. For this purpose classic PID control algorithm was applied, with a negative feedback from laser displacement sensor. The control software was developed under Matlab Simulink and dSPACE control system, which allows fast modification and testing.

Roman Regulski, Frederik Stefański, Bartosz Minorowicz, Dariusz Sędziak

Hysteresis Modelling of a Piezoelectric Tube Actuator

The article concerns about a piezoelectric tube actuator hysteresis. The actuator can bend in two directions and application of this piezo elements can entail new features and capabilities of mechatronic devices. Unfortunately as other smart materials, piezoelectric materials are distinguished by hysteresis phenomenon. Authors present result of displacement measurement, which was performed for decreasing amplitude cosine input signal. Based on this result phenomenological generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model was matched. The results of the piezoelectric tube and the model displacement were compered.

Frederik Stefański, Bartosz Minorowicz, Amadeusz Nowak

Application of Jiles-Atherton Model for Modelling Magnetization Characteristics of Textured Electrical Steel Magnetized in Easy or Hard Axis

Paper presents the results of application of extended Jiles-Atherton model for modeling of the magnetic hysteresis loops of anisotropic, grain oriented Unisil M130-27s silicon electrical steel. During the modeling both anisotropy of the magnetic material as well as changes of average energy required to break pinning site were considered. Moreover, equation determining anisotropic anhysteretic magnetization was corrected to be coherent with isotropic model. Parameters of the model were determined during the evolutional strategy-based optimization process simultaneously considering six hysteresis loops measured for different value of amplitude of magnetizing field as well as for magnetization in direction of the easy and hard axis of the magnetic material. Source code for this process is available at the web page. High level of agreement between experimental results and results of modeling was achieved and confirmed by the value of coefficient of determination. Simultaneous determination of Jiles-Atherton model parameters based on six hysteresis loops enables successful assessment of average anisotropy energy density during the optimization process. Moreover, set of nine Jiles-Atherton model’s parameters is suitable to model functional characteristics of the magnetic core made of silicon electrical steel necessary for numerical optimization of construction of electric and electronic devices.

Roman Szewczyk

Tuning Rules of Conventional and Advanced Ship Autopilot Controllers

Ship autopilots are divided into conventional, capable of keeping desired course, and advanced which can track the path connecting waypoints on the route. The paper presents tuning rules for PID controller of conventional autopilot and for PI or state-space controller of advanced one. Single design parameters determining closed-loop dynamics are specified for each of them. The rules are implemented in software of autopilot prototype developed jointly with a Dutch company.

Leszek Trybus, Zbigniew Świder, Andrzej Stec

A Novel Approach to Optimization of Jobs in Groups

This study deals with scheduling groups of jobs, their arrival and delivery, and individual processing of each of them. All jobs in a group should be delivered at the same time after processing. The objective of the problem is to minimize the average delivery time of the group containing that job (waiting period). The authors present a novel way of modeling the optimization problem – a hybrid approach to modeling. This approach includes the design and implementation of the optimization model in the MILP (Mixed-Integer Linear Programming) environment, an iterative algorithm for solving the model under the dynamic emergence of new orders as well as transformation and linearization of the model in CLP/MILP environments. In addition, the paper proposes new functionalities based on the CLP (Constraint Logic Programming) environment and illustrative models for service providers (a restaurant).

Jarosław Wikarek

Multiple File Server with the Implemented Mechanism ACL

Presented – implemented and made available to users in the PIAP – a multi-access file server, whose functionality is achieved by implementing Access Control List ACL in the operating system Linux OS. Discusses the methodology for configuring the server constituting condition for achieving this objective. Analyzed the server implementation which allows the use of the ACL. The implementation of this mechanism was preceded by modifying a standard file system on the server to the version that supports Extended Attributes EA. In the Linux server has been implemented Samba server in which are located defined resources. Discussed the process of setting up a Samba server. To manage the obtained functionality has been developed and presented a method to allocate permissions for individual users to specific resources and proposed solutions for managing access ACL. Discussed the resource size constraints on the disk based on the properties usrquota and grpquota of the file system.

Marian Wrzesień, Piotr Ryszawa

Predictive Control of a Multivariable Neutralisation Process Using Elman Neural Networks

This paper presents development and simulation results of a computationally efficient predictive control algorithm based on a recurrent Elman neural network. The considered process is a multivariable neutralisation reactor. Process modelling and control issues are thoroughly discussed. In particular, the discussed computationally efficient predictive control algorithm with on-line trajectory linearisation and quadratic optimisation is compared to the truly nonlinear scheme with nonlinear optimisation repeated of each sampling instant on-line.

Antoni Wysocki, Maciej Ławryńczuk

Evaluation of Automatic Identification Systems According to ISO 50001: 2011

The basic techniques of automatic identification (auto-id) in logistics systems are presented in brief. Auto-id technologies are described with attention given to the existing criteria of their evaluation. A new approach to auto-id system evaluation is proposed. It consists in taking into account the interaction of the automatic identification subsystem with logistics system functional components. Also system energy consumption is taken account in accordance with [2] since this paper continues the series of papers [6-8]. A case illustrating the use of the new method of evaluating auto-id systems is presented. Conclusions are drawn and the direction of further research in this field is indicated.

Pawel Zając


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