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Über dieses Buch

This book presents recent progresses in control, automation, robotics, and measuring techniques. It includes contributions of top experts in the fields, focused on both theory and industrial practice. The particular chapters present a deep analysis of a specific technical problem which is in general followed by a numerical analysis and simulation and results of an implementation for the solution of a real world problem. The presented theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines will be useful for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and for practitioners solving industrial problems.



Distributed Temperature and Humidity Measurement System Utilizing IQMESH Wireless Routing Algorithms

The paper presents distributed temperature and humidity measurement system. The base of the system are IQRF radio transmission modules. It is assumed that system consists of one coordinator and multiple nodes. Data exchange is performed by IQMESH discovery routing algorithm. It divides modules into zones and assigns them Virtual Routing Number. Presented solution has several main advantages: modular construction, low price and easy implementation. The paper presents system and its components, describes provided solution (with main algorithms) and discusses usefulness of the application. In addition, paper points out possibility of system modelling (on the basis of example).

Piotr Bazydło, Szymon Dąbrowski, Roman Szewczyk

Integrated SCADA Checkweigher System

The dynamic weighing is a constantly developing field of metrology. The electronic weighing module is vulnerable to many sources of environmental disturbances. Some issues connected with dynamic weighing and the necessity of implementation of signal processing methods are discussed. Implementation of this feature is impossible in majority of SCADA systems. The paper presents integration of three advanced software environments: MATLAB, LabVIEW and iFIX SCADA in prototype dynamic weighing system. They were used for advanced signal processing, data acquisition and visualization/process control. The integration of the three above mentioned environments is an attempt to create the industrial system with capabilities to deal with major dynamic weighing problems. It is innovative because it connects industrial SCADA, laboratory/industrial LabVIEW and MATLAB. Algorithms responsible for process control and data exchange are presented. The paper includes description of capabilities, performance tests, as well as benefits and drawbacks of the system.

Piotr Bazydło, Roman Szewczyk

Miniature Transducer of Linear Displacement Based on Miniature Hall Effect Sensors

A measurement setup is proposed for the displacement transducer with a Hall-effect sensors. It is a differential system using “out of phase” signals from two sensors. Nd-Fe-B miniature magnets and Hall-effect sensors mounted in SM technique make possible design of very small size transducers. Simulation studies were carried out upon such differential system, using the curves of the sensor voltage signal obtained experimentally in special test stand. Is possible to propose configuration which allows to obtain a linear signal with a resolution of at least 0.3


m for the range of displacement of 1 mm.

Maciej Bodnicki, Janusz Grzybowski

Hybrid Vision System for Diagnostics of Technical Objects and Processes

The paper presents a hybrid system for vision diagnostics of technical objects and processes simultaneously in the visible and infrared band. The system consists of a hybrid vision head adapted for use in industrial conditions, control and measurement system and the optional cooling system using compressed air. In order to verify the concept of hybrid method the study was performed on selected objects in the laboratory conditions using the developed system. The next stage was to perform the vision diagnostics of technical process in industrial conditions. By combining the analysis of the images in the two spectral bands additional information about the examined object or technical process can be obtained.

Piotr Czajka, Wojciech Mizak

Functional Performance Testing of Routing Devices in Networks Based on IQMESH Protocol

This paper concerns performance testing of radio communication parameters using routing algorithm implemented in IQMESH protocol. It presents description of research methods and measuring station used during the tests. Three parameters of radio transmission have been checked: efficiency, RSSI and capacity. Measurements were performed in two ways. First, for single router in function of distance between router and coordinator. Second, for variety of routers to determine influence of number of packet jumps on communication parameters. In addition, this paper contains the results of the measurements with the characteristics and mathematical models.

Szymon Dąbrowski, Piotr Bazydło, Roman Szewczyk

Influence of the Humidity on Signal of Strength in Laboratory Weighing Scales

This paper concerns impact of the humidity on the weighing result, using ultra-precision laboratory balances. It presents description of research methods and measuring station used during the tests. Measurements were made for two mechanical weight solutions: without additional seals and with additional seals (of selected mechanical elements). In addition, this paper contains the results of the measurements, together with the characteristics and mathematical models illustrating the effect of humidity on the signal of strength.

Szymon Dąbrowski, Piotr Bazydło, Roman Szewczyk

Heating Process of the Most Important Mechanical Elements in Laboratory Weighing Scales

This publication refers to the research conducted in the field of the analytical balances mechanical stability. In the publication there is a description of research methodology and the measuring stand used during the test. The aim of the study was to determine the heating time constant of the selected mechanical components of the device. The tests made it possible to estimate the time required to thermally stabilize the balance and to determine the effect of device heating on the measurements. In addition, the publication contains the results reflecting changes in the temperature of selected elements of the device. The characteristics were approximated with the first-order inertial model, which allowed for the determination of the mechanism warm-up time constant value.

Szymon Dąbrowski, Michał Nowicki, Piotr Bazydło, Roman Szewczyk

Modified Monte Carlo Method for Calculating the Expanded Measurement Uncertainty

A modified Monte Carlo method for calculating the measurement uncertainty is presented. The method is based on a random number generator for drawing the possible values associated with the output quantity. The set of the random values are represented by the Flatten-Gaussian distribution, which is a convolution of rectangular and normal distributions. The model of measurand must be defined a linear or linearized mathematical function. The numerical and practical examples of the use of the proposed method are also presented.

Paweł Fotowicz

Influence of Environmental Conditions on Graphene Resistance

The influence of the wet and warm atmosphere on CVD graphene was investigated. The CVD graphene grown on Cu foil and then transferred onto the BK7 glass substrate was applied in the experiments. The environmental conditions were established using designed environmental chamber. The wet (RH = 80%) and warm (T = 32 ºC) atmospheres were applied for up to eight hours every day for nine days experiment. Rest of time the sample was stored in room conditions. The small changes of the graphene resistance were observed during experiment. SEM and EDS observations demonstrated crystallization of the water impurities like chlorides and organics on the graphene surface under applied conditions. The changes of the graphene wettability caused by condensed contamination may cause the observed resistance changes.

Grzegorz Gawlik, Paweł Nowak, Anna Kozłowska, Mateusz Wojtasiak, Roman Szewczyk

Unconventional Double R/U Converter for Measurement of Two Quantities by a Single Differential Sensor

This paper describes an original four arm single mesh resistance circuit. It has the similar structure as the bridge circuit but is unconventionally supplied by the current source which is switched over between opposite arms. The two output signals of this circuit are sums of two voltages obtained after switching on each bridge diagonal. The processing of this signals allows to find two measured variables which differently influencing arm resistances. The two dimensional (2D) converter of the resistance changes to voltages based on this input circuit is build. It is described in detail and its dynamic properties are examined. The achieved results confirm that this unconventional signal conditioning circuit can be successfully used in continues measurements of two parameters, e.g. two geometrical components of the strain or the strain and temperature by a single differential sensor.

Adam Idźkowski, Paweł Świętochowski, Zygmunt L. Warsza, Wojciech Walendziuk

Automatic System for Identification of Temperature Parameters of Resistors Based on Self-heating Phenomena

Paper presents new way of identification of temperature parameters of precise resistors. Presented method allows removing heating system and temperature measurement system from the test stand, and is suitable for resistors with extremely low TCR. This approach is based on observation of resistance variation caused by the flow of constant current of known value. Presented method has high measurement accuracy. It is also suitable for process automation, and allows for the simplification of the test stand and shortening of the time required to perform the resistor TCR measurement.

Andrzej Juś, Paweł Nowak, Roman Szewczyk

Influence of Protective Layer on the Functional Properties of Monolayer and Bilayer Graphene Hall-Effect Sensors

Paper presents the results of investigation of the influence of protective layer on the basic functional properties of experimental graphene Hall-effect sensors. Both monolayer and bilayer type of graphene structure was investigated under external magnetic field. Measurement system for obtaining





) characteristics of Hall-effect sensors was developed using Helmholtz coils as a source of magnetic field. Results of executed tests are presented in the paper as charts, which were analyzed and discussed. Finally, the conclusions were formulated, which are included in the last section of the paper.

Maciej Kachniarz, Oleg Petruk, Maciej Oszwałdowski, Jacek Salach, Tymoteusz Ciuk, Włodzimierz Strupiński, Roman Szewczyk, Wojciech Winiarski, Krzysztof Trzcinka

Temperature Dependence of Functional Properties of Graphene Hall-Effect Sensors Grown on Si Face and C Face of 4H-SiC Substrate

Paper presents the results of investigation of the temperature influence on the basic functional properties of graphene Hall-effect sensors. The measurement system utilizing Helmholtz coils as a source of external magnetic field and environmental chamber for setting temperature was developed. Two types of monolayer graphene structures grown on both Si and C face of SiC substrate were investigated in the room temperature (about 20 ºC) and their functional properties were compared. Next, the temperature influence on functional properties of both types of graphene structures was investigated using environmental chamber. The results of measurements are presented as charts and analyzed in the paper. On the basis of the results, conclusions were formulated, which are included in the last section of the paper.

Maciej Kachniarz, Oleg Petruk, Maciej Oszwałdowski, Jacek Salach, Tymoteusz Ciuk, Włodzimierz Strupiński, Roman Szewczyk, Wojciech Winiarski, Krzysztof Trzcinka

Temperature Influence on the Magnetic Characteristics of Mn-Zn Ferrite Materials

The subject of this paper was to investigate the temperature influence on the magnetic characteristics B-H of crystalline soft magnetic materials. Four different Mn-Zn ferrite material were investigated. The investigated ferrites were formed into ring-shaped cores with closed magnetic circuit and magnetizing and sensing windings were coiled on them. All cores were placed in the cryostat which was used to set temperature. Magnetic B-H characteristics was measured by computer controlled hysteresis graph. The results of the investigations were presented in the paper and analyzed. On the basis of presented results, the conclusions were formulated, which are also included in the paper.

Maciej Kachniarz, Jacek Salach, Roman Szewczyk, Adam Bieńkowski

Graphene Joule Heating Measurements in Environmental Chamber

The paper presents results of Joule heating measurements in graphene samples performed in a specially designed environmental chamber. The experimental stand was designed and described in the paper, paying particular attention to the project of the environmental chamber. The graphene samples preparation process was also discussed. Results of the testing were presented and analyzed and the conclusions are formulated, which are also included in the paper.

Anna Kozłowska, Maciej Kachniarz, Grzegorz Gawlik, Roman Szewczyk, Mateusz Wojtasiak

Surface Electromyography Amplifier with High Environmental Interference Resistance

In this paper design of a miniature, low cost surface electromyography amplifier is proposed. Presented device can be considered to be resistant to common environmental interferences. Proposed design consists of main amplifier board and second board containing DRL circuit and reference voltage source. Major disturbance is provided by mains (50/60 Hz) - most emphasized interference in this paper. Design includes appropriate set of filtration circuits. Moreover comparison with four commercial and hobbyist devices is provided.

Tomasz Mańkowski, Jakub Tomczyński, Piotr Kaczmarek

Electromagnetic Protection in High Precision Tri-axial Thermometric AC Bridge

The effective protection against electromagnetic influences in the measuring circuit of thermometric AC bridges is discussed. The equivalent AC circuit of the SPRT sensor when connected to the bridge is discussed. The capacitance C of the connection cable and output capacitance of the bridge inductive divider can change impedance of this circuit from the serial RL to parallel RC one. The tangent of the impedance phase angle as a criterion of the type of equivalent circuit is proposed. The precision AC thermometric bridge with the double shielding technique is designed. Bifilar connections by two-axial concentric cables with two shields and equipotential protection is used. Circuit is automatically balanced and has advantages of the coaxial bridges and the equipotential protection. The term tri-axial bridge is proposed for it. The detail analysis of this automatically balanced circuit resulted on its high immunity to interferences and over 100 times smaller impact of the capacitive leakage. The efficiency of solution is verified experimentally in a few high accuracy (10

− 7


− 8

) AC bridges.

Aleksander A. Mikhal, Zygmunt L. Warsza

Simple Methods to Measure the Additive Error and Integral Nonlinearity of Precision Thermometric Bridges

Determination of the accuracy of AC bridges with the high precision adjustable transformer voltage dividers based on the strongly magnetic coupling coils is referred in this paper. Metrological model of the temperature measurements by resistive sensors connected to these bridges is presented. The additive, multiplicative and linearity components of error in temperature measurement are considered. Method for determining the zero of the bridge error is developed. It is based on the non standard connection mode of the equipotential pairs of current and voltage terminals of standard resistance to the bridge. It is estimated that up to 1 MΩ of this resistance, the effective resistance obtained on the bridge input is less than 10

− 10

Ω. Four-terminal standard resistors of 0.1 Ω up to 1 MΩ are used in experiments to find bridge zero readings. Results indicate that the additive error of the tested precision bridge is about 0.5 LSB and is independent from the nominal standard resistance value. The conditions under which in temperature measurements remains only the linearity bridge error are formulated. Proposed is the unconventional method of measure and estimating the bridge nonlinearity named as dichotomy method. It applies algorithm based on the division of the measurement range and then obtained subsequent intervals always in half. Graphical interpretation and the analytical expression for the nonlinearity error are given. Sets of paired four terminal reference standard resistors are proposed for use in control. The resistance of each of them separately and of the given serial physical connection of them both has to be measured by tested bridge. The reasons affecting the accuracy of the physical realization of resistance summation is discussed. By calculations and experimental verification is find that in measurements by dichotomy method the bridge linearity error of 0.1 ppm or less can be discovered. Conclusions and final remarks are included. Both methods are simply and can be easily implemented in any metrology lab and be used also in automatic calibrators.

Aleksander A. Mikhal, Zygmunt L. Warsza

Study on Graphene Growth Process on Various Bronzes and Copper-Plated Steel Substrates

The paper presents the aim, way of proceeding and results obtained during the research made in the project GRAPHTRIB to determine the metallic substrates, other than copper, to realize graphene growth process. The various silicon and silicon free bronzes were the objects of investigations. The obtained results presented in the paper aren’t encouraging.

Tadeusz Missala, Roman Szewczyk, Marcin Kamiński, Marek Hamela, Wojciech Winiarski, Jakub Szałatkiewicz, Jan Tomasik, Jacek Salach, Włodzimierz Strupiński, Iwona Pasternak, Zdzisław Borkowski

Study on Tribological Properties of Lubricating Grease with Additive of Graphene

This paper presents results of study on coefficient of friction of surfaces in case of lubrication with use of lubricating grease with 2% graphene additive, same grease without graphene additive and in case of no lubrication. Besides differences in coefficient of friction there are also shown differences in wear of specimens used in experiment. Results indicate that additive of graphene in lubricating grease decreases coefficient of friction as well as wear of friction pairs.

Tadeusz Missala, Roman Szewczyk, Wojciech Winiarski, Marek Hamela, Marcin Kamiński, Szymon Dąbrowski, Dawid Pogorzelski, Małgorzata Jakubowska, Jan Tomasik

Resistance of MAX 6325 Reference Voltage Source on Operating Temperature Variation

The article presents the problem of the Zener diode based reference voltage sources resistance to changes in operating temperature. The test stand, measurement methodology and results are presented. Reference voltage sources are crucial elements of analog-to-digital systems. They set the standard to which the measured voltage is compared to. Therefore, the stability of their work is critical for many areas of precision metrology.

Paweł Nowak, Andrzej Juś, Roman Szewczyk

Magnetic Thermogravimetric Analysis of CuCo and CuFe Amorphous Alloys

In the paper the investigation of the temperature dependent magnetic weight change of the Cu

100 − x



, x = [10, 15, 20] and the Cu




amorphous alloys is presented. The idea and the test stand of the magnetic thermogravimetry analysis is described. The results of the measurements for investigated CuCo and CuFe amorphous alloys, as well as discussion of the results are given.

Michał Nowicki, Peter Švec, Dorota Jackiewicz, Roman Szewczyk

Advancement in Development of Graphene Flow Sensors

This article describes the research, development and tests of prototype graphene flow sensors. The prototype sensors were checked for impact of different parameters on value of electric charge generated on the graphene’s surface, such as volume flow value, flowing liquid ions concentration and liquid temperature. The information about developed transducers which convert signals from graphene sensor is presented.

Marcin Safinowski, Wojciech Winiarski, Oleg Petruk, Roman Szewczyk, Oskar Gińko, Krzysztof Trzcinka, Marek Maciąg, Waldemar Łoboda

Noise Assessment in Whitney Elements Based Forward Transformation for High Resolution Eddy Current Tomography

Paper presents the results of application of Whitney elements based method for performing the forward transformation in eddy current tomography. Accuracy and the noise level of such a forward transformation is the most important factor determining efficiency and metrological properties of eddy current tomography. Comparison of the experimental results of measurements on eddy current tomography test stand, and results of modelling utilizing Whitney elements indicated high accuracy of modelling. However, results of modelling present unacceptable noise level. Sources of this noise are analysed in the paper, indicating the guidelines to overcome this barrier.

Roman Szewczyk, Jacek Salach, Juha Ruokolainen, Peter Råback, Kamil Stefko, Michał Nowicki

A Problem of a Selection of the Stabilization Technique of False Alarm for Radar Target Detector

In this article a few selected constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection procedures has been presented. The various behavior of these algorithms for specific scenarios of local clutter or multiple target situations has been analyzed. Among presented algorithms one have been selected by author in order to implement it in the module of Radar Target Detector. Operations of algorithms have been simulated in Matlab.

Ewelina Szpakowska-Peas

Investigation of the Functional and Environmental Characteristics of Elements with Graphene Coating

This paper presents environmental and functional tests to determine the areas for graphene coated element application. The researches were held for the following environmental testing of samples with graphene: cold, dry heat, rapid temperature changes and sinusoidal vibrations.

Krzysztof Trzcinka, Tadeusz Missala, Iwona Pasternak, Włodzimierz Strupiński, Wojciech Winiarski, Marcin Kamiński, Roman Szewczyk, Michał Nowicki

Influence of Electromagnetic Pulse Disturbance on the Functional Properties of Ultra-High Resolution Analog to Digital Converter

This paper presents the results of the research on electromagnetic pulse disturbances impact on the performance of the 31 bit resolution analog-to-digital converter. The research was held for the following operating conditions of the AD converter: with and without the galvanic isolation through the signal lines. The results of measurements were calculated as the standard deviation in the number of the ADC’s elementary divisions. Standard deviation was used to quantify the impact on the accuracy of the AD converter measurements.

Krzysztof Trzcinka, Roman Szewczyk

Influence of Operating Conditions on the Functional Properties of Ultra-high Resolution Analog to Digital Converter

This paper presents the results of measuring the impact of disturbances on the properties of a 31 bit resolution analog-to-digital converter. The researches were held for the following AD converter operating conditions: with battery supply or with switching power supply, for different ambient temperatures, with the galvanic isolation of the signal lines. The results of the measurements were calculated using standard deviation in the number of scale intervals. Standard deviation was used to quantify the impact on the accuracy of the measurements of an AD converter.

Krzysztof Trzcinka, Roman Szewczyk, Tomasz Charubin, Wojciech Winiarski, Marek Maciag, Michał Nowicki

Flowmeter Converter Based on Hall Effect Sensor

This paper presents results of research on the Hall effect sensor as a converter for single- and multi-jet water meters. The research was carried out on industrial single- and multi-jet water meter. The analysis of magnetic field simulations based on finite elements method and studies of magnetic field distribution provide guidelines for utilization of Hall effect sensor in flowmeters applications in order to improve sensing abilities, such as resolution and sensitivity.

Michał Urbański, Michał Nowicki, Roman Szewczyk, Wojciech Winiarski

Analysis of Response Time of Carbon Dioxide Sensor in Chemical Sensor System for Mobile Robot

The aim of this paper is analysis of NDIR carbon dioxide sensor response time. The NDIR sensor is part of chemical sensor system designed for mobile robot PIAP-GRYF made by Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurement PIAP. This paper presents analysis of response time of an CO


Engine K30 NDIR sensor, manufactured by SenseAir, both as the analog voltage signal and digital text output. This will help to determine the time inertia of sensor in presence of a rapid concentration increase of carbon dioxide.

Michał Urbański, Roman Szewczyk

Examples of Robust Estimation with Small Number of Measurements

Two robust methods of assessing the value and the uncertainty of the measurand from the samples of small number of experimental data are presented. Those methods should be used when some measurements results contain outliers, i.e. when the values of certain measurement significantly differ from the others. They allow to set a credible statistical parameters of the measurements with the use of all experimental data. The following considerations are illustrated by the numerical example of the interlaboratory measurement data key comparison. Compared are the results obtained by a classical method with rejection of outliers with two robust methods: a rescaled median absolute deviation MAD


and an iterative two-criteria method.

Evengniy T. Volodarsky, Zygmunt L. Warsza

Statistical Properties of Skewness and Kurtosis of Small Samples from Normal and Two Other Populations

Statistics of skewness and kurtosis distributions and their basic parameters for a set of samples of certain small numbers of elements are find. These distributions were determined using the Monte Carlo method. The samples were repeatedly taken at random from a normally distributed population and for comparison from the population of a two other simple distributions. Knowledge about statistics of skewness and kurtosis should allow to obtain a more reliable estimate of the standard deviation and the uncertainty of the measurand value estimator from samples of a small number of measurement observations, when range of their value distribution is known.

Zygmunt L. Warsza, Marian J. Korczyński

About a Certain Way of the Membrane Kinetic Energy Transformation into Electric Energy

The paper outlines the way of vibration energy recovery of continuous systems. The research object was a circular membrane with a piezoelectric element. Vibrations were described analytically and verified by the experiment using laser vibrometer. Force input function was set by acoustic wave with different frequencies. The results obtained in the laboratory experiments confirmed the need of taking into account the changes in system parameters in direct energy efficiency evaluation of the mechanical and electric transformation.

Aleksandra Waszczuk-Młyńska, Stanisław Radkowski

Affordable 2D Laser Scanning Device for Accurate Acquisition of Environment Maps

This paper presents a prototype of an accurate 2D laser scanner for environment map acquisition. The scanner is built using an off-the-shelf infrared laser distance sensor, which can rotate in a plane. It is driven by a small DC motor and its angular position is controlled by an encoder. The design of the scanner was aimed at obtaining high accuracy of geometric measurements, but the device has rather a low speed of scanning. The sensor was in-depth tested to determine its accuracy and application possibilities. Tests results are presented in this paper together with a comparison to selected commercial laser scanners.

Marek Wąsik

Use of Automated Image Analysis in the Study of Mechanisms of the Formation of Nitrided Layers

This paper presents a developed model solution designed to identify material properties, and characteristics of the manufacturing processes of surface layers, based on automatic image analysis of material microsections. The characteristics of the mechanisms of formation of nitrided layers, and those occuring during the process phenomena are discussed. The objectives of the use of the methods of digital image processing, and analysis, as well as specific sets of tasks are described. Among presented possibilities of the use of methods of digital image processing, and analysis, the following techniques are discussed: improving the quality of images, segmentation, morphological transformations, and pattern recognition. The presented model includes different stages of the analysis, such as: automatic selection of procedures involving the specified methods of image processing, and analysis, automatic identification of nitriding zones, and their characteristics, automatic identification of technology, and the characteristics of the gas nitriding process.

Tomasz Wójcicki

Measurement of Selected Parameters Describing Biomechanical Phenomena Occurring in the Implant-Bone System

The paper presents results of measurements of selected parameters describing phenomena that occur in implant-bone system in the case of a cement-less mounting of the mandrel within the closer shaft of a thigh bone. The main aim of the study was to observe phenomena, which take place in the implant-bone system and to determine values and character of displacements resulting from the applied load.

Marcin Zaczyk

Rotational Speed and Transducer Frequency as Factors Affecting Possibility to Detect Defects in Axisymmetric Elements with a Method of Eddy Currents

The article describes the influence of two factors on the possibility to detect material defects in an axisymmetric element with a method of eddy currents. The factors the authors focused their analysis on include a rotational speed of the element tested, a frequency of the transducer, additional a placement of the measuring head (either on an inner or an outer surface of the test object). The investigations were carried out for a rotational speed n = 15; 30; 45; 60; 90; 120 rpm, and a transducer frequency f = 0.06; 0.1; 0.5; 1; 2 kHz. An SSEC III PC defectoscope was used for the control. The tests were performed on two bearing rings of different type. In both cases, artificially made surface or subsurface defects, in form of 1 mm blind holes, were analyzed. The authors conducted 120 measurements of the size of inner and surface defects altogether, and then classified larger and smaller distortions of the initial signal values as surface and subsurface defects respectively.

Andrzej Zbrowski, Wojciech Jóźwik


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