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Über dieses Buch

This book presents recent progresses in control, automation, robotics and measuring techniques. It includes contributions of top experts in the fields, focused on both theory and industrial practice. The particular chapters present a deep analysis of a specific technical problem which is in general followed by a numerical analysis and simulation and results of an implementation for the solution of a real world problem. The presented theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines will be useful for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and for practitioners solving industrial problems.



Forming of Operational Characteristics of an Orthotic Robot by Influencing Parameters of Its Drive Systems

Power consumption is an important feature of an orthotic robot as it is supplied by batteries of a limited energy capacity. Reduction of the power consumption is obtained by proper selection of actuators, usually electrical, as well as parameters of a transmission. A simulation model of such robot was developed in order to evaluate various solutions of its drives. The model is based on a principle of reduction of loads to the drives. Active and inertial loads result from mechanical structure of the robot and parts of the human body. The drives are controlled in such a way as to reconstruct the assumed movement profiles in the joints. Simulations experiments upon the model revealed an influence of parameters of the electric motor as well as the gear employed on the robot characteristics. One of the key conclusions is that control of the gear ratio can be an effective method of trimming the power demand of the actuators. The performed calculations proved that an energetic gain at the level of 35% can be achieved.

Karol Bagiński, Jakub Wierciak

Lightweight RGB-D SLAM System for Search and Rescue Robots

Search and rescue robots ought to be autonomous, as it enables to keep the human personnel out of dangerous areas. To achieve desirable level of the autonomy both environment mapping and reliable self-localization have to be implemented. In this paper we analyse the application of a fast, lightweight RGB-D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) system for robots involved in indoor/outdoor search and rescue missions. We demonstrate that under some conditions the RGB-D sensors provide data reliable enough even for outdoor, real-time SLAM. Experiments are performed on a legged robot and a wheeled robot, using two representative RGB-D sensors: the Asus Xtion Pro Live and the recently introduced Microsoft Kinect ver. 2.

Dominik Belter, Michał Nowicki, Piotr Skrzypczyński, Krzysztof Walas, Jan Wietrzykowski

Affordable Multi-legged Robots for Research and STEM Education: A Case Study of Design and Technological Aspects

As much interest in various aspects of legged locomotion arose in the robotics community over the last decade, many custom design walking robots have been demonstrated. However, they are usually very complicated and expensive. Thus, in this paper we present two families of small-to-medium size legged robots, that share the same basic concepts of using inexpensive, off-the-shelf servos as actuators, and the idea of making the mechanical design technologically simple. Although developed with a similar idea in mind, these robots differ with respect to many design choices and the manufacturing technology. In this paper we try to asses critically those differences, formulating some guidelines for future designs.

Dominik Belter, Piotr Skrzypczyński, Krzysztof Walas, Donald Wlodkowic

Falcon: A Compact Multirotor Flying Platform with High Load Capability

Multirotor flying platforms are very popular research subjects in the field of robotics. However, there are some major disadvantages for this type of vehicles, such as limited flight time, insufficient lifting capability and reduced range of operation. In this paper, the multirotor flying platform


is presented. Its design is aimed to provide versatile, multipurpose research platform with high payload capabilities, maintaining compact dimensions and simple, reliable mechanical design. Presented platform was evaluated in various scenarios performing both autonomous and semi-autonomous flights.

Adam Bondyra, Stanisław Gardecki, Przemysław Gąsior, Andrzej Kasiński

TAPAS: A Robotic Platform for Autonomous Navigation in Outdoor Environments

Nowadays robotic researches are concerned about autonomous and robust operation outdoors in order to perform a variety of practical applications. Therefore, we present a robotic platform TAPAS designed for autonomous navigation in the man-made environments, like parks, and capable of transporting 5 kg payload. The article presents the hardware design and sensory system that allowed to create a fully autonomous vehicle unique due to its low cost, light weight and long battery duration. Presented solution was already thoroughly evaluated at the international robotic competition Robotour 2014, where TAPAS took ex aequo 4th place out of 13 robots. Taking part in the competition provided feedback that is discussed in the article and will be used for further developments.

Adam Bondyra, Michał Nowicki, Jan Wietrzykowski

NAO-mark vs QR-code Recognition by NAO Robot Vision

Nowadays, the research on robot on-map localization while using landmarks is more intensively dealing with visual code recognition. One of the most popular landmarks of this type is the QR-code. This paper is devoted to the experimental evaluation of vision-based on-map localization procedures that apply QR-codes or NAO marks, as implemented in service robot control systems. In particular, the NAO humanoid robot is our test-bed platform, while the use of robotic systems for hazard detection is the motivation of this study. Especially, the robot can be a useful aid for elderly people affected by dementia and cognitive disorientation. The detection of the door opening is assumed to be important to ensure safety in the home environment. Thus, the paper focus on door opening detection while using QR-codes.

Jan Figat, Włodzimierz Kasprzak

Hive Collective Intelligence for Cloud Robotics: A Hybrid Distributed Robotic Controller Design for Learning and Adaptation

The recent advent of Cloud Computing, inevitably gave rise to Cloud Robotics. Whilst the field is arguably still in its infancy, great promise is shown regarding the problem of limited computational power in Robotics. This is the most evident advantage of Cloud Robotics, but, other much more significant yet subtle advantages can now be identified. Moving away from traditional Robotics, and approaching Cloud Robotics through the prism of distributed systems or Swarm Intelligence offers quite an interesting composure; physical robots deployed across different areas, may delegate tasks to higher intelligence agents residing in the cloud. This design has certain distinct attributes, similar with the organisation of a Hive or bee colony. Such a parallelism is crucial for the foundations set hereinafter, as they express through the hive design, a new scheme of distributed robotic architectures. Delegation of agent intelligence, from the physical robot swarms to the cloud controllers, creates a unique type of Hive Intelligence, where the controllers residing in the cloud, may act as the brain of a ubiquitous group of robots, whilst the robots themselves act as proxies for the Hive Intelligence. The sensors of the hive system providing the input and output are the robots, yet the information processing may take place collectively, individually or on a central hub, thus offering the advantages of a hybrid swarm and cloud controller. The realisation that radical robotic architectures can be created and implemented with current Artificial Intelligence models, raises interesting questions, such as if robots belonging to a hive, can perform tasks and procedures better or faster, and if can they learn through their interactions, and hence become more adaptive and intelligent.

Alexandros Gkiokas, Emmanouil G. Tsardoulias, Pericles A. Mitkas

The Autonomous Return Control System for Mobile Platform, Used in CBRN Hazards

Paper presents the system that allows the mobile robot to return safely in case of connection lost especially in CBRN environment. Such a difficult work conditions forced using visual navigation as a supporting sensor, since the classical methods may be not applicable. Following article shows the methodology, structure and implementation of autonomous return for mobile platform. The structure of data fusion from divers’ sensors – camera, odometers and IMU, algorithm implementation and results obtained are presented.

Robert Głębocki, Antoni Kopyt

Navigation Module for Mobile Robot

Presented paper is a part of project that aimed to develop the mobile platform to support the Police operations especially in difficult terrain or inside buildings, where maneuverability is limited. A mobile platform was adapted so that multiple modules may be installed – navigation, manipulator or specific tools equipment. The navigation module that initializes the autonomous

come back

was a main feature that was to be developed. Presented article shows principles of the navigation system and results of autonomous return. The hardware, sensors used, software, dataflow, algorithms, are precisely presented as well as the results that validated the system operations.

Robert Głębocki, Antoni Kopyt, Paweł Kicman

An Efficient PSO-Based Method for an Identification of a Quadrotor Model Parameters

This paper considers the method of Quadrotor’s model parameters identification. Nowadays, restrictions are being imposed on the drons, forcing their control algorithms to be robust and faultless. This can be partially ensured by Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) as well as dedicated state estimators (e.g. Extended Kalman Filter). Although those methods can be easy implemented and used, in all scenario, the parameterized model is needed. In this work we proposed the identification method for parameters of the quadrotor’s orientation model, based on the PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization). We also add different physical aspects to model, so it can characterize the real Quadrotor more precisely. The conducted experiments shows that the PSO, can provide fast and reliable estimation of the model parameters. It also reveals interesting nature of the proposed models.

Jarosław Gośliński, Stanisław Gardecki, Wojciech Giernacki

User Needs and Requirements for the Mobility Assistance and Activity Monitoring Scenario within the RAPP Project

The aim of RAPP project is to provide a software platform in order to support the creation and delivery of robotic applications (RApps) targeting people at risk of exclusion, especially older people.This paper describes the user requirements of one of the three pilots defined in RAPP: mobility assistance and activity monitoring scenario. Target users are elderly people who have been operated of hip fracture and are hospitalized at Bermingham Hospital (Matia Foundation) for rehabilitation and walking functionality recovery; the formal caregivers assisting them such as physiotherapits, physicians and nurses; and the family members.Within the RAPP project ANG-med smart rollator will be developed by Inria to assist the users during the recovery process. Functionalities, scenarios and interfaces are defined according to the user requirements collected. Of particular interest is the treatment of the ethical aspects of the project to safeguard the autonomy and dignity of the research participants.

Miren Iturburu, Eneko Goiburu, Javier Yanguas, Edurne Andueza, Elia Corral, Cristina Alderete, Ana Orbegozo, David Daney, Vincent Prunet, Jean-Pierre Merlet

Safety Module Based on Gyroscopie in the System for Verticalization and Aiding Motion of the Disabled

This paper presents conception of the gyroscopic module designed for individuals with impaired lower limbs for System for Verticalization and Aiding Motion. Their mathematical models were subjected to further studies and analyses. Having determined the final solution, computer numerical simulation was carried out in order to analyze its behavior and to select appropriate actuators and mechanical structural members.

Danuta Jasińska-Choromańska, Marcin Matyjewicz-Maciejewicz

Gait Trajectory Planing for CIE Exoskeleton

In this paper construction of CIE Exoskeleton is presented. CIE Exoskeleton is equipped with four actuated joints in hips and knees, which is minimal set of actuators to enable paraplegic operators to walk in exoskeleton with use of crutches. Moreover, we proposed a novel statically stable gait pattern which can be used by paraplegic subjects to restore locomotion even the exoskeleton ankle joint is not actuated. Proposed gait trajectory enables to shift center of pressure form a rear leg to a forward leg without leaving a stable pose. Furthermore the preliminary results of tests on planar gait trajectory planing accuracy were presented. Preliminary tests on accuracy of planar gait trajectory planing indicate that a step length cannot be estimated only from planar model due to pelvis or exoskeleton rotation during walking. It was shown that this effect can be partially compensated by using a linear correction function.

Rafał Kabaciński, Piotr Kaczmarek, Mateusz Kowalski

Specification of Abstract Robot Skills in Terms of Control System Behaviours

Robotic systems possess diverse effectors and receptors influencing their capabilities. For this reason description of robot tasks in a human-understandable form, being strict and abstracting the hardware limitations at the one hand, yet enabling straightforward transformation into robot actions at the other, has been elusive. Herein we propose a method of specification of tasks in terms of abstract object-level relations. This approach imposes the introduction of manipulation primitives modifying those relations by influencing object parameters. To narrow the scope of research in this paper we focus on one of the most elementary robot skills: grasping. We decompose the robot control system using the embodied agent-based methodology, define a set of required behaviours and express the skill as a sequence of those behaviours. To enable the future automatic translation from specification to code, we developed a formal specification of the introduced concepts.

Tomasz Kornuta, Tomasz Winiarski, Cezary Zieliński

Construction and Signal Filtering in Quadrotor

The article shows the kinematic model and the construction concept of the Quadrotor. Furthermore, it exhibits the way of steering four rotor flying vehicle and performs basic movements such as rotation, inclination and change altitude of flight. Much effort has gone into selecting the proper filtration algorithm to reduce the noise from machine vibes. This article presents the fusion of the FIR and Kalman algorithms. A few graphs show a comparison of the fast Fourier transform for both filters. The main objective was to calibrate the filters to achieve low noise level and sufficiently fast response time, which are crucial in the flying machines.

Arkadiusz Kubacki, Piotr Owczarek, Adam Owczarkowski, Arkadiusz Jakubowski

Adaptive Optical Inspection System with Use of Reconfigurable Manipulator

The article presents the system for optical inspection of cylindrical objects combined with reconfigurable manipulator. The system is configured using the optical system with telecentric lenses and digital monochromatic camera. To feed the elements into inspection area the industrial manipulator is used. The manipulator is equipped with tool coupler to allow reconfiguration of the system for other elements subjected to manipulation. The system uses closed loop control to position the inspected element based on image recording and analysis for feedback information. Thanks to such setup the system is capable of inspecting different types of objects and the reconfiguration is simply made by software adjustment.

Jordan Mężyk, Piotr Garbacz, Wojciech Mizak

Assistive Robots as Future Caregivers: The RAPP Approach

As our societies are affected by a dramatic demographic change, the percentage of elderly and people requiring support in their daily life is expected to increase in the near future and caregivers will not be enough to assist and support them. Socially interactive robots can help confront this situation not only by physically assisting people but also by functioning as a companion. The rising sales figures of robots point towards a trend break concerning robotics. To lower the cost for developers and to increase their interest in developing robotic applications, the RAPP approach introduces the idea of robots as platforms. RAPP (A Software Platform for Delivering Smart User Empowering Robotic Applications) aims to provide a software platform in order to support the creation and delivery of robotic applications (RApps) targeting people at risk of exclusion, especially older people. The open-source software platform will provide an API with the required functionality for the implementation of RApps. It will also provide access to the robots’ sensors and actuators employing higher level commands, by adding a middleware stack with functionalities suitable for different kinds of robots. RAPP will expand the robots’ computational and storage capabilities and enable machine learning operations, distributed data collection and processing. Through a special repository for RApps, the platform will support knowledge sharing among robots in order to provide personalized applications based on adaptation to individuals. The use of a common API will facilitate the development of improved applications deployable for a variety of robots. These applications target people with different needs, capabilities and expectations, while at the same time respect their privacy and autonomy. The RAPP approach can lower the cost of robotic applications development and it is expected to have a profound effect in the robotics market.

Pericles A. Mitkas

Simulation-Based Evaluation of Robot-Assisted Wireless Sensors Positioning

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can significantly enhance the capability to monitor and control working environments. However, to fulfill the issued sensing tasks the network topology with desired properties (e.g. coverage, connectivity, lifetime, etc.) has to be created. The adequate deployment of sensor devices in the sensing area is needed for acquiring and managing data. In many applications it is necessary to use mobile devices that can move the sensors to the desirable positions in a given workspace. In this paper, we investigate the problem of mobile sensors deployment to get high coverage of a sensing area and ensure network connectivity. We discuss and compare two approaches to the positioning of sensors – pre-defined and self-configuring deployments. Finally, we propose a two-phase approach to WSN formation process, in which created preliminarily regular network topology is adapted to a given application scenario. We assess the quality of deployment strategies based on the results of simulations.

Ewa Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz, Andrzej Sikora

Small Remotely Operated Screw-Propelled Vehicle

This paper concerns a small remotely operated screw-propelled vehicle that was a topic of a master thesis tilted “Design of screw-propelled vehicle”. It begins with introduction, which briefly overviews basic features and applications of screw-propelled vehicles. The second chapter describes in detail designed remotely operated vehicle. The third chapter is focused on the simulation model of the vehicle implemented in Matlab-SIMULINK environment. The last chapter concludes the work done.

Dymitr Osiński, Ksawery Szykiedans

HMI with Vision System to Control Manipulator by Operator Hand Movement

In the paper, the vision system for control of manipulator by operator’s hand movement is presented. The Authors propose method which uses specific colors of markers. The fast camera 3iCube (frequency 50 Hz) was used and connected with PC by USB 3.0. The position of the manipulator was controlled by industrial controller. Connection between PLC and PC was realized by TCP/IP protocol. The two green markers were used to scale operator’s working area. One green marker indicated a base coordinates of manipulator. The red marker was held in hand by operator. Movement of the red marker was in ratio 1:2 to manipulator. The research was focused on the correctness of detection of markers and response trajectory of the manipulator. Proposed method can be used to control manipulator movement by operator without uses classic control panel. The research proves possibility of application of the vision system for control of manipulator.

Piotr Owczarek, Dominik Rybarczyk, Dariusz Sędziak, Michal Kašpárek

A Comparison of Control Strategies for 4DoF Model of Unmanned Bicycle Robot Stabilised by Inertial Wheel

Three control strategies have been compared in the paper, comprising LQR, LQI and LMI-optimised LQR-like control in application to stabilisation of 4DoF model of unmanned bicycle robot with inertial wheel. The robot had been modeled by nonlinear state-space equations, and controller design has been based on its linearisation. As a result of numerical simulation based on Euler integration procedure, the characteristics of the proposed strategies have been found with respect to the introduced performance indices.

Adam Owczarkowski, Dariusz Horla

Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Spatial Data within a Semantic Map for Service Robots

A semantic map which comprises quantitative and qualitative space representations with semantic information seems to be an obligatory part of every robotic system designed to work hand in hand with humans. In this paper we present a semantic map architecture developed for the Courier service robot performing indoor delivery tasks. In our approach we propose to represent not only objects, but also spaces. With such a representation, the state of the world is a set of object-inspace relations, rather than object-object relations, which helps to reduce the total number of spatial relations.

Maciej Przybylski, Daniel Koguciuk, Barbara Siemiątkowska, Bogdan Harasymowicz-Boggio, Łukasz Chechliński

Social Inclusion with Robots: A RAPP Case Study Using NAO for Technology Illiterate Elderly at Ormylia Foundation

What really happens in terms of social inclusion and exclusion differentiates among European Countries, cultures and social groups and is being affected by socio-economic factors, social perceptions and societal changes. There are also variations among elderly in the European Union concerning their retirement from labor, institutionalization (residential or independent living), opportunities for further development or leisure and many more. A lot of EU projects focus on services that can be easy to access and affordable by elderly, enhancing the independency and autonomous living of the seniors. RAPP (EU-FP7) is addressing this need by offering a solution in the form of a software platform that will support the creation and delivery of robotic applications (RApps) targeted to people at risk of exclusion, especially older people. In this paper we are focusing to technology illiterate elderly, a group of seniors engaged for RAPP by Ormylia Foundation.

Sofia Reppou, George Karagiannis

On the Application of QR Codes for Robust Self-localization of Mobile Robots in Various Application Scenarios

This paper presents an experimental analysis of the application of QR matrix codes as landmarks for mobile robot navigation. The QR codes not only provide means for positioning in reference to a global coordinate system over a wide range of viewing configurations, but they may also carry useful information that can be easily read by means of a low-cost camera. Moreover, QR codes can be applied on the mobile robots themselves, providing means for co-operation between the robots and the intelligent environment infrastructure (external cameras). Implementation of these tasks requires to determine how big the landmarks should be, how far from the robot they can be located, at which incidence angles, etc. In the paper we study methods to determine the location of the QR code-based landmarks in two practical setups related to mobile robot navigation. We demonstrate experimental results as to the maximum range of detection of the landmarks and the precision of localization available using off-the-shelf cameras.

Marta Rostkowska, Michał Topolski

Reconfigurable Agent Architecture for Robots Utilising Cloud Computing

The paper presents the general architecture of the control system of a companion robot. As companion robots have to perform diverse and complex tasks, while computational capabilities of the local robot control computer are limited, the control system is split between the robot and the cloud. Moreover, the system is composed of agents, that are arranged into an application on demand of the user. Some of those agents are created on the robot and some in the cloud. As the requirements change the composition of the system changes too.

Marcin Szlenk, Cezary Zieliński, Maksym Figat, Tomasz Kornuta

Kinematic Interactions Between Orthotic Robot and a Human

Wearable robots are one of the most spectacular examples of mechatronic devices. They are person-oriented robots that can be defined as those worn by human operators, whether to improve the function of a semi-functional limb or to replace it completely. The paper presents deliberation on design of a kinematic layout of an orthotic robot. The analyses are opened by a short gloss about types of human gait. That gives a base to consider kinematics of coupled human lower limb and a robotic manipulator. The author indicate that the proposed design of an orthotic robot which moves user’s legs by moving his feet, allows using it without strenuous fixers known from present models. Also author proves that maladjustment of joints axes and pivots and/or length of exoskeleton components has no influence on walking process and very slight one to sitting characteristics.

Ksawery Szykiedans

CIE-Hand towards Prosthetic Limb

In this paper design of a compliant anthropomorphic five-finger gripper is presented. The device is intended to be used as a basis for a hand prosthesis development. Influence of the gripper underactuation on grasping capabilities was evaluated. In a series of tests, forces exerted on a manipulated objects were measured. It has been proven, that the gripper compliance significantly reduces forces required to perform secure grasps. Software synergies which are leading to dimensionality reduction of the input vector are presented. Their use allows to control an execution of basic grasp types using only two-dimensional control space.

Jakub Tomczyński, Tomasz Mańkowski, Krzysztof Walas, Piotr Kaczmarek

Merging Robotics and AAL Ontologies: The RAPP Methodology

Cloud robotics is becoming a trend in the modern robotics field, as it became evident that true artificial intelligence can be achieved only by sharing collective knowledge. In the ICT area, the most common way to formulate knowledge is via the ontology concept, where different meanings connect semantically. Additionally, a considerable effort to merge robotics with assisted living concepts exists, as the modern societies suffer from lack of caregivers for the persons in need. In the current work, an attempt is made to merge a robotic and an AAL ontology, as well as utilize it in the RAPP Project (EU-FP7).

Emmanouil G. Tsardoulias, Cezary Zieliński, Włodzimierz Kasprzak, Sofia Reppou, Andreas L. Symeonidis, Pericles A. Mitkas, George Karagiannis

In-Motion Balance Recovery of a Humanoid Robot under Severe External Disturbances

This paper presents a balance controller for a humanoid robot to maintain balance on tilting platform while mimicking captured human motion trajectory in real time. The controller uses only two available feedback information: about the robot’s orientation from its Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and about inclination of the platform from attached to it smartphone’s IMU. Platform tilts in two planes at the same time. The controller is based on the static stability of an inverted pendulum, but by using IMU data it is able to respond to more dynamic movements. Experimental results show that the proposed controller can enable a humanoid robot to stably track human movements on tilting platform under severe external disturbance like: uncertain configuration of the robot, its construction elasticity, servomotors backlash, and unpredictable simultaneous movements of the robot and the platform. A video of the experimental validation can be found at


Mikołaj Wasielica

Exploring OpenStreetMap Publicly Available Information for Autonomous Robot Navigation

Autonomous outdoor navigation had been a topic researched for years, but there is still a lack of affordable robots that can efficiently navigate in man-made outdoor environments. Therefore, we present a navigation method developed for TAPAS robot, which was designed for outdoor perception, localization and navigation using fusion of data from multiple sensors. The novelty of the presented approach lies in the usage of publicly available OpenStreetMap information. The proposed system was used in Robotour 2014 competition and allowed to achieve ex aequo 4th place out of 13 teams. The article contains also the summary of experience gained during the competition and future enhancements that can be applied to proposed solution.

Jan Wietrzykowski, Michał Nowicki, Adam Bondyra

Two Mode Impedance Control of Velma Service Robot Redundant Arm

The previous research on reactive torque control of redundant arms led to conclusion, that initial arm kinematic configuration is vital for task executed with the use of Cartesian impedance control. To provide that, in the article the control system is proposed with the two following modes of impedance control of redundant manipulators: Joint space and Cartesian space. For this purpose the system was treated as embodied agent with two behaviors of its Virtual Effector (hardware abstraction layer). Each behavior has been decomposed to several components described by automatons and communicate asynchronously with upper layers of the control system. The whole system has been finally verified on real manipulator.

Tomasz Winiarski, Konrad Banachowicz, Dawid Seredyński

The Social Construction of Creativity in Educational Robotics

One of the main benefits of educational robotics is its potential to inspire curiosity and creativity in students. Creativity in educational robotics has been typically associated with the constructionist learning paradigm and the processes of building, programming and manipulating task-centric robotic platforms. On the other hand, there has been a growing tendency recently to use anthropomorphic social robots in education that act not only as tools but also as peers and teaching assistants. Since the role of anthropomorphic social robots is to engage as social actors, designing and manipulating robots as a form of creation is no longer a goal for educational robotics. This paper argues that a new form of creativity concerns the meanings students make of anthropomorphic robots in the course of human-robot social interaction. This is based on the following assumptions: creativity is socially constructed and the main reason for students to be interested in robotics is a fascination with the illusion of life. In particular, this paper proposes to encourage the ability to create meanings through exploration of a mismatch between humanlike robot design and the human frame of reference.

Karolina Zawieska, Brian R. Duffy


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