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Über dieses Buch

This book presents recent developments and new directions in advanced control systems, together with new theoretical findings, industrial applications and case studies on complex engineering systems, sensors, materials science, medicine, non-destructive testing and quality assurance. With a breakthrough in technology, the modern world is on the verge of new industrial revolution, at the stage of digital transformation when innovations from various industries collaborate and change each other. Innovations are the basis of the developed products and technologies. They are used to create new developments and advances as well as improve the state-of-the-art processes. However, the digital transformation both opens new opportunities and introduces additional risks. The successful industrial modernization is characterized by the combination of stable manufacturing regulatory structure with the new technological approaches of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Developments and advances of School of Non-Destructive Testing relate to technological trends in the areas of systems, decision making and control in the fields of aerospace systems, robotics and automation, power systems and sensor networks.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Innovation in Non-destructive Testing

Frontmatter

Informative Potential of Eddy Current Tomography

Abstract
Applicability of methods used in tomography for reconstruction of electrically conductive objects of complex structure to increase the information content of eddy current testing is evaluated based on physical modeling of the interaction of the eddy current transducer magnetic field with electrically conductive objects. Methods considered imply scanning the surface of an object using an eddy current transducer with a local test area and obtaining measurement information at different angles of mutual spatial orientation of the excitation magnetic field strength vector and the test object.
Aleksandr Goldshtein, Evgeny Yakimov

Application of Elliptical Properties in Building a Tomographic Image of an Inspected Object Using Multi-Element Ultrasonic Sensor Data

Abstract
The article discusses a proposed method that allows to reduce the amount of transmitted data from the receiving and data preprocessing to a personal computer, as well as the amount of digitized information and the time of its processing. The method is based on the main property of the ellipse. The developed data processing algorithm for a system with a multi-element sensor was tested in the MatLab software package. A block diagram and data processing algorithm have been developed for practical implementation on FPGAs. The amount of digitized information has been reduced by more than 10 times.
Yuliya Shulgina, Evgeny Shulgin, Ahmed Abouellail, Mariya Kostina, Oksana Terentyeva, Jianglei Chang

Gaussian Filtered Small-Angle Ultrasonic Computed Tomography Using Linear Arrays

Abstract
This paper describes the use of the Gauss filter to improve the quality of the tomogram with the shadow method of ultrasonic testing. The use of a window with different parameters was investigated on a model and tested on experimental data, and its optimal size was determined. The simulation and experimental results are given for one and two reflectors located in the testing zone. The resolution of the system consisting of receiving and transmitting antenna arrays with 16 elements is determined.
Jianglei Chang, Aleksey Soldatov, Pavel Sorokin, Mariya Kostina, Andrey Soldatov, Shupeng Xu, Anatoly Chiriev

Inspection of Transformer Mechanical Integrity Using Sweep Frequency Response Method

Abstract
Power Transformers are the most critical and hig-hcost elements of power network systems. They play an essential role in power transmission to the users. They require continuous and regular monitoring and assessment, in order to increase the power supply reliability and to avoid hazardous breakdowns. The transformer is ordinarily exposed to high current surges in the course of service, mainly due to short circuit, which impacts the mechanical winding formation. The proposed a diagnostic technique, in this paper, performs a sweep frequency response analysis on the inspected transformer. Although it is considered a highly responsive and powerful inspection method, the critical challenge relies in the appropriate interpretation of the measured frequency response, which remains a gray zone left for professional experts to detect the type and location of defects. An experimental setup has been developed for the proposed testing technique and an analytical digital simulation of the built transformer is carried out. The simulation results could detect the defect type and its location in the transformer winding.
Youssef Abouellail, Ahmed Abouellail, Aleksey Soldatov, El-Saady Gaber

Detection of Damages in Electrically Dead Power Lines

Abstract
The analysis of damages at power lines has been carried out. The tasks of power lines status monitoring have been determined. The solving techniques of tasks in hand have been proposed. The proposed monitoring system will let quickly detect and locate damages at power lines. The system technical requirements have been quoted. The characteristics of reflectometer REIS-105 have been considered. Test results have been quoted.
Victor Sergeev, Vladislav Yurchenko, Galina Vavilova, Michael Belik, Pavel Bezkorovainy

Thermoelectric Quality Control of the Application of Heat-Conducting Compound

Abstract
The article presents the results of experiments to determine the dependence of thermopower on the quality of applying a heat-conducting compound. The data of deposition quality of the heat-conducting compound, which is obtained by thermocouples, coincides with the data, which is obtained using thermopower, but with a slight deviation due to the intrinsic inertia of thermocouples and fluctuations in the ambient temperature. The analysis of the data revealed that the value of the emerging thermopower increases linearly with the deterioration of the quality of the thermal interface application.
Ivan Vasiliev, Aleksey Soldatov, Ahmed Abouellail, Mariya Kostina, Andrey Soldatov, Dmitry Soldatov, Svetlana Bortalevich

Simulation Study of an Ultrasonic Signal Compression

Abstract
The paper presents three algorithms of an ultrasonic signal compressing. First one is a compression with linear time quantization. Second algorithm of signal compression calculates the rate of signal change and proportionally to it sets the sampling rate. Third algorithm of compression takes some number of random uniformly distributed samples from the original ultrasonic signal. The results of simulations for all three compressing algorithms are presented in the paper. An absolute error and mean square deviations for a wide range of compression ratios are calculated and compared for different compressing algorithms.
Olesya Kozhemyak, Oleg Stukach, Alexey Soldatov

Mathematical Model of the Throughput of an IP Network Switching Node with a Non-constant Amount of Space in the Router RAM

Abstract
This paper offers a mathematical model that allows determining the performance and throughput of an IP network node under conditions when the amount of space in the router RAM is not constant, that is, in the case of overloads and a number of other factors. The Cisco Packet Tracer software package is used as a network emulator. The results of mathematical and simulation modeling are compared.
Pavel Dunayev, Yermek Sarsikeyev, Olga Galtseva, Gufana Narimanova

Investigation of the Liquid Flow on Rough Surfaces to Solve the Problems of Liquid Penetrant Testing

Abstract
Cleanliness of the test surface is of particular importance in liquid penetrant testing. The surface cleanliness implies both the quality of surface cleaning from polluting substances, for example, oil, and the quality of its treatment, i.e. surface roughness. The surface roughness parameter increased to more than Rz = 20 μm can lead to unreliable test results since each groove on a rough surface will be a capillary for liquid spreading. Therefore, it will be difficult to completely remove the penetrant from the surface of the test object while removing its excess, which causes an indicator background of the surface and complicates defect detection. The study aims to determine the effect of liquid wettability on liquid penetrant testing results depending on the surface roughness. The paper proposes a mathematical model of liquid spreading on the rough surface depending on physicochemical properties of the liquid itself and material properties of the test object. The numerical modelling of the process is performed. The modelling results are confirmed experimentally, and statistical processing of the experimental results is performed.
Irina Lobanova, Aleksey Vodopyanov, Aleksey Kalinichenko

Innovations in Technical Diagnostics and Materials Science

Frontmatter

Diagnostics of Metal Nanopowders Produced by Electrical Explosion of Wires

Abstract
The features of using standard physicochemical methods of analysis for determining the basic characteristics of metal nanopowders are discussed. The methods for the analysis of the shape and size of particles, the value of the specific surface area, the particle size distributions, and parameters of chemical activity of metal nanopowders are considered. The combination of these diagnostic characteristics makes it possible to predict the technical properties of metal nanopowders and evaluate their qualities for use in technology. The experimental results of diagnostics of aluminum and tungsten nanopowders produced by the electric explosion of wires are presented.
Olga Nazarenko, Yulia Amelkovich

Influence of the Insulation Defects Size on the Value of the Wire Capacitance

Abstract
The study focuses on detection of defects in the single-core electrical wire insulation by changing the linear capacity of the electric wire. Numerical simulation was performed to create defects that are difficult to implement in practice. In the study, models of the following defects were created: local thinning of the wire insulation, eccentricity, foreign inclusion in the wire insulation. During the study, the depth and length of the ‘local thinning’ defect in the wire insulation, the shift of the core center relative to wire the center, length and thickness of the ‘foreign inclusion’ defect were varied. As a result, absolute and relative values of the geometric dimensions of the defects that cause a significant change in the wire capacitance are revealed. A significant deviation of the capacitance is taken at the level of 5% deviation from the nominal value of the capacitance of a defect-free wire in accordance with the requirements of normative and technical documentation and the accuracy of device for in-process testing of the wire capacitance. The paper reports the results of the initial study. Further research is required to increase the reliability of the models used.
Galina Vavilova, Vladislav Yurchenko, Li Keyan

New Factors of Reliability of Electric Furnaces for Vermiculite Firing with Mobile Base Plates

Abstract
The article reviews measures to increase the reliable operation of electric furnaces for vermiculite concentrates firing over the entire period of their existence since 2003. A significant step forward in this research was the find that the implementation of suspended heating systems in the electric modules of furnaces, both types such as modular-triggering furnaces and in furnaces with mobile base plates, where the swelling process of the raw material is carried out during the process of its vibrotransportation in the thermal field of the heating system. The imbalance of inertial loads is an additional factor for reducing of operation reliability in furnaces with mobile base plates. The methods of their balancing, discussed in this research, provide the dynamic balance of all moving parts of these furnace units. A study of analytical models of temperature distribution, carried out in previous researchers of the authors, showed that uniform heating can only be achieved in systems with a variable interval for the placement of heaters. The research results carried out in this work at the accepted values of the minimum and maximum intervals show that, compared to the old systems located on the refractory base of the firing modules, the difference temperature decreases significantly, which proves the effectiveness of this approach.
Anatoliy Nizhegorodov, Aleksey Gavrilin, Boris Moyzes, Kirill Kuvshinov, Saule Sakipova

Complex Studies of the Innovative Vortex Burner Device with Optimization of Design

Abstract
This article dwells on the scientific study of the vortical device for the efficient combustion of fossil fuels. The innovative burner device under investigation is based on principal of vortical motion of fuel air mixture. There is a precombustion chamber, where inflammation and partial combustion of the swirling flow takes place. Mathematical model has been developed and discussed in the article too, which enables to calculate the distribution of the tangential speed of the swirling flow, the distribution of the angular velocity, static pressure drop, and air resistance loss in the space of the vortical burner chamber (precombustion). The article also describes experiment on defining the geometric dimensioning of the burner discharge nozzle in relation to a combustion chamber. During the experiment, the exhaust nozzle was moved into the chamber. The recommended degree of deepening is 47–50% of the total length of the precombustion chamber.
Askar Baubek, Alexandra Atyaksheva, Mikhail Zhumagulov, Nurlan Kartjanov, Inna Plotnikova, Nataliya Chicherina

Cause Analysis of the Facility Failure Leading to the Explosion

Abstract
It is almost impossible to imagine human life without electrical energy in the modern world. The power industry is involved in many areas of human activity. Therefore, improving the reliability of the power supply facilities is a burning issue. This work studies a transformer substation located in an urban area. The research identified the main factors and causes leading to accidents in transformer substations located in urban areas. The fault tree of accidents leading to explosion or fire on transformer station is constructed and analyzed. The probability of the accident has been assessed by the expert method. It has been shown that the most likely causes are mechanical damage to the transformer oil tank and leakage of mineral oil through the welding joint. This work studies the worst scenario, which considers the most severe possible outcome. The calculation has been shown that residential and administrative buildings are located in possible damaged areas. To develop control measures a diagram bow tie was proposed. It presents the barriers aimed at preventing the causes and consequences of accidents.
Anna Vtorushina, Yuliya Anishchenko, Elena Liukiiu

Designing of a Laboratory Complex for Spectral Analysis of Measurement Data of Different Materials

Abstract
The article describes the process of development and testing of a laboratory complex for spectral analysis of measured data, which is based on a signal processing method based on measuring the frequency and amplitude of the signal (spectral method) with further evaluation using fast Fourier transform. The described laboratory complex consists of a spectrum analyzer connected to a personal computer with special software installed on it, a loudspeaker and a laser sensor. The this substantiates the relevance of the development, due to the fairly wide use of spectral analysis methods in science, technology and production, the advantages of using a laboratory complex in comparison with analogues were shown. the description of the experiments to measure the speed of objects, control their location, vibration measurement, the procedure of verification and calibration that is performed with the use of this complex, as well as the use of the system of automatic regulation and stabilization of production processes.
Renat Khamitov, Maria Kolchurina, Irina Kolchurina, Kira Ponomareva, Inna Plotnikova

Method of Polarizing Infrared Spectroscopy for Studying the Orientation of Protons in Protonated Crystals

Abstract
A method of definition of the focused localization of protons in the protonated crystals is offered. The method is based on the shooting of infrared (IR) ranges in polarized light and the analysis of integrated IR of a strip of absorption of valent fluctuations of X–H bonds depending on the rotation angle of the polarization plane φ relatively crystallographic axis of the crystal. The direction of the dipolar moment of X–H bonds answers a maximum of this dependence. The results of the researches of flat samples of crystals of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 are given. The places of localization and orientation volume proton-containing centers are shown. The use of polarizing IR spectroscopy of materials with impurity proton-containing centers is a convenient method of definition of localization and orientation of protons and allows to study of interaction with other ions. The operability of the offered method is confirmed with the coincidence of theoretical and experimental results.
Yury Borodin

Visual Control Methods—The Basis of Quality Control

Abstract
The current information processing speed is very high. To effectively manage a company, information should be speedily processed to make timely decisions at all hierarchy levels, from managers to executors. Information visualization in these conditions significantly speeds up these processes and reduces risks. The quality management system of a modern company includes elements and methodology of various performance improvement concepts, such as risk management, total quality management, lean manufacturing, six sigma, and the theory of constraints. The emphasis in process organization is placed on visual methods. Despite the fact that visualization as a method is considered within the concept of lean manufacturing, there are methods for representing information in a visual form defined in other concepts. The paper discusses the use of the methodology for information visualization in terms of different quality management system concepts. A comparative analysis of modern concepts for improving performance, an overview of the methodology designed to display information in the quality management system in a visual form is made, and successful examples of using various methods of information visualization for quality management in companies are given.
Ludmila Redko, Marina Yanushevskaya

Innovations in Biomedical Engineering

Frontmatter

Test Signal Generator for High-Resolution Electrocardiography

Abstract
The paper presents the first results of developing a generator of test high-resolution electrocardiographic (ECG) signals for testing electrocardiographs and the ECG interpretation algorithms. The flowchart of this generator and the experimental results are given in this paper.
Pavel Baranov, Diana Avdeeva, Andrey Kolomeytsev

Vibration Installation for Research of Erythrocytes Agglutination

Abstract
Proposed a method for establishing a human blood group based on the light flux registration passing through blood samples in the form of drops. In them there is a process of agglutination of red blood cells. This article describes the design of the vibrating installation, which will be used to study the vibration modes of droplet samples in order to find the necessary frequency and amplitude of vibrations for better detection of agglutinates during blood typing.
Marina Shulgina, Alexander Aristov, Yulia Rozenbaum

New Approaches to Stratification of Patients by the Level of Sudden Cardiac Death Risk Using the Data on Energies of Cardiac Micropotentials Obtained by Nanosensor-Based Hardware and Software Complex

Abstract
The problem of human cardiovascular diseases is one of the critical health problems. The most serious aspect is sudden cardiac death (SCD). A new method and approaches to recording micropotentials by the nanosensor-based hardware and software complex are elaborated for dynamic personalized monitoring of the heart. Tables with data on functioning of the patient’s heart during multiple examinations are automatically generated in one Excel file. The study presents results on cardiac micropotentials in groups 1A—volunteers died from cardiogenic shock, and 1B—volunteers with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) survived. Relative average values of the total energy for all time intervals are given in the following amplitude ranges: (0.5–1.0) µV; (1.1–3.0) µV; (3.1–5.0) µV; (5.1–20.0) µV in a dynamic pattern. The results are divided into 3 ranges: the total energy value of more than 150%, less than 50% and in the range of (50–150)%. The most significant changes in the micropotential energy by a factor of (4, 5) can be observed in the range of (5.1–20) µV. It is shown that the excess of the micropotential energy over 150% and the decrease in the micropotential energy below 50% are predictors of SCD.
Diana Avdeeva, Ivan Maksimov, Wenjia Guo, Maxim Ivanov, Nikita Turushev, Mikhail Yuzhakov, Stepan Enshin, Sergey Mazikov, Ekaterina Marchenko, Mariya Balakhonova

Search for the Frequency of Ultrasonic Exposure to Intensify Drug Treatment of Gallstone Disease

Abstract
The chapter describes the search for the frequency of ultrasonic vibrations using the COMSOL Multiphysics interactive environment for the treatment of gallstone disease using a technique based on the ultrasonic intensification of drug dissolution of calculi. The found frequency is the most effective, but at the same time it does not have an excessive thermal effect on the skin surface in contact with the emitter.
Ekaterina Dikman, Yuliya Zyuzkova, Irina Nam, Andrey Kolomeytsev, Anatoly Chirev

Engineering of Humic Acids in Biostimulants of Plant Growths

Abstract
The generalization of literature data and the results of our scientific research over many years has led to the conclusion that physicochemical effects on natural organic materials can be key in the manifestation of their biological activity to reduce the toxicity of pollutants in the environment and improve plant growth. The bioactive properties of humic substances were studied using luminol-dependent luminescence and bioluminescence. It was shown that humic substances have the highest physiological activity for germination of wheat seeds at the concentration of 0.01 g/l. Possible to reduce the concentration of humic substances by the mechanoactivation or the UV-irradiation. The results of this work are promising for the development of approaches for the biological recultivation of polluted or depleted lands using humic preparations isolated from peat. The evaluation of morpho-physiological responses of wheat and the enzyme activity of a soil in presence of an irradiated humic acids were discussed.
Olga Tchaikovskaya, Vlada Chaidonova, Natalya Yudina, Inna Plotnikova
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