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Parties and candidates seeking office invariably try to attract votes by making promises that they believe will resonate with the electorate. Frequently, however, those promises are embraced without a careful consideration of what would happen if the candidate making the promises actually won the election and took power. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a mid-term assessment of the Trudeau government’s international policy based on the promises that the Liberals made while in opposition or during the election campaign. The chapter argues that the Trudeau government was able to forge a different path, but it is a difference primarily of tone. Taken as a whole, the specific international policy promises made by the Liberals during the 2015 campaign do not cast a negative shadow. However, the promises that the Liberals made during the 2015 election have been almost entirely eclipsed by the election of Donald J. Trump as president of the United States. At mid-term, the defining feature of the Trudeau government’s foreign policy has been its management of the challenges posed by Trump.
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Humphreys ( 2013).
Akin ( 2013).
Gerson ( 2013).
CBC News ( 2014).
Hume ( 2014).
Conservative Party of Canada ( 2015).
Blais ( 2015).
CBC News ( 2015b).
Clark ( 2015).
Elections Canada ( 2015).
Munk debate on foreign policy ( 2015).
Conservative Party of Canada ( 2006, 44–45).
Liberal Party of Canada, ( 2015, 68).
Quoted in Simpson ( 2015a).
Chin ( 2015).
Simpson ( 2014).
Nossal ( 2014).
Trudeau ( 2015).
Joseph ( 2015).
Nossal ( 2013).
Paris ( 2014, 306).
Harris and Kent ( 2016).
Chase ( 2016).
Liberal Party of Canada ( 2015, 71).
Berthiaume ( 2016).
Canadian Press ( 2015).
Chase ( 2015).
Fife ( 2016).
Bellavance ( 2016).
Zilio ( 2016).
Milewski ( 2015).
Zakaria ( 2016).
Akin ( 2016).
UNHCR ( 2017).
Petrou ( 2015).
MacDonald ( 2013).
Liberal Party of Canada ( 2015, 64).
Andrew-Gee ( 2015).
Kennedy ( 2015).
Hamilton ( 2015).
Liberal Party of Canada ( 2015, 70).
For details, see Nossal ( 2016b, 71–88).
Trudeau spoke in French, claiming that the Conservatives “se sont accrochés à un avion qui ne fonctionne pas et qui est loin de pouvoir fonctionner,” which Hansard translated as “The Conservatives threw in their lot with a plane that does not work and is a long way from ever working” (House of Commons 2016).
Brewster ( 2016).
Sheetz ( 2017).
Collins ( 2016).
Nossal ( 2008).
Chase ( 2017).
Fisher ( 2017).
Dale ( 2017).
House of Commons ( 2017).
National Defence ( 2017).
Ibbitson ( 2017).
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———. 2015. The interview. Cpcpcc video, 0:01:03, May 25. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c86-9HitWg0. Accessed 24 Aug 2017.
Dale, Daniel. 2017. Daughter diplomacy: Trudeau’s unorthodox play for Donald Trump’s approval. Toronto Star, March 16.
Den Tandt, Michael. 2015. Why Trudeau should keep CF-18s in the fight against ISIL. National Post, December 22.
Dornan, Christopher. 2015. The long goodbye: The contours of the election. In The Canadian federal election of 2015, ed. Christopher Dornan and Jon H. Pammett, 7–21. Toronto: Dundurn Press.
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Fife, Robert. 2016. Canada shut out of IS coalition meeting. Globe and Mail, January 18.
Fisher, Max. 2017. Canada’s Trump strategy: Go around him. New York Times, June 22.
Gagnon, Lysiane. 2016. Where is the PM when Quebec needs him? Globe and Mail, January 20.
Gerson, Jen. 2013. At Toronto fundraiser, Justin Trudeau seemingly admires China’s ‘basic dictatorship.’ National Post, November 8.
Gurney, Matt. 2015. Canada should stay in the fight against ISIL. National Post, December 17.
Hamilton, Graeme. 2015. Tom Mulcair appeals for tolerance as NDP’s niqab policy at odds with Party’s Quebec base. National Post, September 23.
Harris, Kathleen, and Melissa Kent. 2016. Trudeau unveils Canada’s plan to seek 2021 UN Security Council Seat. CBC News, March 16. http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/canada-united-nations-security-council-1.3491917. Accessed 25 Aug 2017.
Hopper, Tristan. 2016. Condemn Burkina Faso terror attack ‘with planes,’ not just words, victim’s mother tells Trudeau. National Post, January 18.
House of Commons. 2016. Debates, 42nd Parl., 1st Sess., June 7, 14h20.
———. 2017. Debates, 42nd Parl. 1st Sess., June 6, 10h25.
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Humphreys, Adrian. 2013. Justin Trudeau hosts ‘ladies night’ fundraiser despite ‘firestorm’ of controversy over ‘patronizing’ ad. National Post, November 7.
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Joseph, Rebecca. 2015. 1st planeload of Syrian refugees land on Canadian soil. Global News, 10 December.
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———. 2013. The liberal past in the conservative present: Internationalism in the Harper era. In Canada in the world: Internationalism in Canadian foreign policy, ed. Heather A. Smith and Claire Turenne Sjolander, 21–35. Toronto: Oxford University Press.
———. 2014. Primat der Wahlurne: Explaining Stephen Harper’s foreign policy. International Studies Association, March 29. http://post.queensu.ca/~nossalk/papers/Nossal_2014_Harper.pdf. Accessed 24 Aug 2017.
———. 2016a. Canada and the General Assembly: A global bully pulpit. In Canada and the UN: Legacies, limits and the Harper shift, ed. Robert Teigrob and Colin McCullough, 161–182. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
———. 2016b. Charlie foxtrot: Fixing defence procurement in Canada. Toronto: Dundurn Press.
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Simpson, Jeffrey. 2014. The trouble with bullhorn diplomacy. Globe and Mail, May 2.
———. 2015a. Want to be a world player, Canada? Get ready to spend. Globe and Mail, October 30.
———. 2015b. As allies gear up, Trudeau ramps down. Globe and Mail, November 17.
Taber, Jane, and Tu Thanh Ha. 2015. Immigration Minister Chris Alexander suspends re-election campaign. Globe and Mail, September 3.
Trudeau, Justin (@JustinTrudeau). 2015. To fight climate change we’re all in this together. Canada is back. #COP21. Twitter, November 30, 2:02 p.m. https://twitter.com/justintrudeau/status/671403931025698816. Accessed 24 Aug 2017.
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Zakaria, Fareed. 2016. Justin Trudeau reaffirms Canada’s position on the fight against ISIS in Davos. CBC News video, 0:01:42, January 20. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=efWSz7c3NaY. Accessed 24 Aug 2017.
Zilio, Michelle. 2016. Canada to pull fighter jets, triple training mission against Islamic State. Globe and Mail, February 8.
- Promises Made, Promises Kept? A Mid-term Trudeau Foreign Policy Report Card
Kim Richard Nossal
- Chapter 3
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