is a new code that utilizes elements of the Immersed Boundary (IB) and Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) as well as a Direct Forcing (DF) scheme. As a computational method, it is very flexible and it appears to be ideal in solving fluid-particle interaction problems including problems with deformable boundaries. Proteus uses a regular Eulerian grid for the flow domain and a regular Lagrangian grid to follow particles that are contained in the flow field. The rigid body conditions for the fluid and the particles are enforced by applying the external force acting on the boundary of particles. A penalty method is used, which assumes that the particle boundary is deformable with a high stiffness constant. The velocity fields for the fluid and particles are solved by incorporating a force density term into the lattice Boltzmann equation. This force term is determined by using a technique that is based on the direct forcing scheme.
preserves all the advantages of LBM in tracking a group of particles and, at the same time, provides an alternative and better approach to treating the solid-fluid boundary conditions. Because of this it provides for a smooth boundary interface, with only a few nodes assigned for the size of particles. This new method also solves the problems of fluctuation of the forces and velocities on the particles when the “bounceback” boundary conditions are applied. The method has the capability to simulate deformable particles and fluid-structure deformation. The results of the Proteus code have been validated by comparison with results from other computational methods as well as experimental data. Some of the validation results will be given in the presentation of this paper.