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Towards an African Linguistic Renaissance: A Case Study of a South African University

The inclusion of African languages as additional languages of learning, teaching and research is seen as a step in the right direction towards satisfying the aspirations of an African linguistic renaissance, which seeks to elevate the status of African languages in academia. As part of a national quest to transform higher education institutions, the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) in South Africa implemented a bilingual language policy under which an African language—isiZulu—should be used alongside English as a language of learning and teaching. Utilizing an African linguistic renaissance theoretical framework, this chapter uses data from an earlier thesis by this author to explore the attitudes of UKZN staff and students towards the university’s bilingual language policy and the extent to which this may help to realize an African linguistic renaissance. The chapter mainly adopts a qualitative approach using UKZN as the case study, although it also seeks to quantify some of the data, which was collected through in-depth interviews and questionnaires. This chapter shows that the university’s bilingual language policy received support among the isiZulu-speaking staff and students, in line with their demographic representation at UKZN. It further argues that the investment made by UKZN in developing the isiZulu language for academic proficiency at university level is justified by the impacts of the policy, contradicting arguments against using African languages for teaching and learning at university level which have been made on the grounds that they are inadequate for this function. The findings pose a challenge to African intellectuals and other South African universities, who need to assist in bolstering the importance of African languages.

Zama Mabel Mthombeni

Cyberspace: An Advantageous Terrain for War?

Cyber is an operational domain of conflict joining sea and air as other domains in which conflict may occur. Cyber defence is part of collective defence. Most crises and conflicts today have a cyber dimension, so treating cyber as an operational domain will enable to better protect one's missions and operations. Cybersecurity is a priority in the field of International Relations, as cyber espionage can harm any global economy and hacking attacks are the modern way of committing espionage. Countries are increasingly militarizing the cyberspace where there is an ongoing confrontation between states: such confrontation is a mirror image of the ongoing international tensions. On the subject of law, countries should develop internationally agreed definitions of key terminology in the cyberspace in order to determine what constitutes an act of cyber warfare. A further concept to be considered is cyber resilience. Organizations should understand the impact of a potential cyberattack and the steps required to prevent, survive, and recover from such an attack. In short, the cyber world, rapidly growing and increasingly sophisticated, constitutes a new sphere and implies a new type of relationship in international relations which need a “cyber policy” space, the most recent and most important area of interest in the theoretical and practical field.

Giorgio Spagnol

Just-in-Time Sentiment Analysis for Streamed Data in Greek

The growth of social-media platforms has been remarkable in terms of both number of users and volume of content generated. Twitter now reports approximately 166M daily active users who generate in excess of 500M tweets. Such volumes pose major challenges when it comes to providing analytics services and sentiment analyses for specific issues. As citizens tend to freely express their sentiments on social platforms, Twitter has inherently become an indispensable source for the public discourse in a wide variety of topics. Carrying out sentiment analysis on a timely manner on streamed tweets is undoubtedly a demanding endeavor. In this paper, we propose a Spark-based Twitter sentiment analysis software architecture that receives online streamed messages and compiles analytics. We outline the main elements of our proposal and discuss how they collectively help address the challenges involved in this big-data processing task. In particular, our framework: i) exploits the Spark machine-learning library to classify Greek tweets in a timely-manner, ii) manages streamed tweets in synergy with contemporary queuing and in-memory data systems, and iii) determines with high accuracy whether a sentiment is expressed by a genuine account. We report on the findings while experimenting with a novel model for sentiment analysis we created for Greek and ascertain the effectiveness of our proposed architecture.

Ioanna Karageorgou, Panagiotis Liakos, Alex Delis

Chapter 10. Conclusion: Resistance and the Quest for Water Commons

Resistance to river wrongs, despite having an appearance of collective struggle, is always personal, indeed, arising from the activism of a socially-sensitive person, and there lies our hope in making a closure to the quest for water commons in the not-so-distant future. But then, resistance to river wrongs must transform the mind and create a population of water or river-centric minds for ensuring river rights.

Imtiaz Ahmed

Chapter 3. Zeniths

Alignment of aspiration and action conditions holistic social changeSocial change. It is the logical derivate of AwarenessAwareness. Once we know how the multiple dimensions of our being impact what we do, it becomes natural to seek their optimization through intentional influence. Alignment is the third of 4 stages to individual change. The complementarity of these 4 stages, which seeks to bring out the complementarity of the 4 dimensions of our inner being, and of the 4 dimensions of the society that we evolve in, ultimately leads the person to their highest self, a ZENITH. The number of people who reach that stage conditions the progress meso-level institutions make toward reaching their collective Zenith. In turn, as more and more meso-entities move closer to their Zeniths, the draw of collective dynamics pulls additional individuals onto the new path. Whereas the two first dynamics involve individuals (microMicro) and institutions (meso), the structural changes that must occur to ensure sustainability encompasses the State (macro) and Supra-national levels (meta). The future depends on our determination to manifest Augmented HumanityAugmented Humanity (AH). The latter ensues gradually when a critical mass of individuals live up to their highest selves.

Cornelia C. Walther

Public Administration Reforms in the Emerging Markets’ Era

This chapter promotes an original framework for the public administration reform and introduces the main characteristics of the public administration model to increase the efficiency of the emerging markets. This topic is chosen due to the difficulty of the governments to deal with the ambiguous mechanism behind institutional change, public administration reform, and continuity. The approach is based on new institutional theory and institution-based view, which is considered as the adequate theory of administrative systems and markets by emphasizing the role of emerging markets through the development path.The 26 nations from the MSCI Emerging Markets Index are compared based on various longitudinal and cross-sectional variables. The longitudinal variables are GDP and the country’s share of world GDP at purchasing power parity. Cross-sectional competitive indices are global competitiveness index, indices of institution and market efficiency, doing business index, government effectiveness, the rule of law index, regulation quality index, e-government index, and corruption control index.There are two main contributions in this chapter. The first contribution is the relationship between public administration variables and the economic performance of nations. Results suggest that administration characteristics have a positive impact on country competitiveness and its business situation but no direct impact on the country’s economic growth. Economic growth is the result of the administrative system function. It is the result of the country’s improved competitiveness and the country’s market governance model under globalization pressures.The second is a variety of strategies under the comprehensive public administration reform model to solve the problem of government effectiveness and the country’s growth. Based on findings, public administration is a significant driver of socioeconomic and political development. Therefore, rather than focusing on the immediate solutions to deal with viable challenges of globalization and international competition, it increasingly helps rebuild and rearrange the public administration continuously, to develop the country’s capacity, recognize the new national and international opportunities, enter the markets, and encourage all governance actors to offer products and services efficiently and equitably. The findings propose new insights into public administration reform mechanisms by considering their relationship to the success of the emerging markets.

Nazak Nobari

Measuring Institutional Quality: A Review

To empirically assess the role of institutions and institutional quality in economic performance, it is necessary to select the proxy variable(s) for institutional quality. Although several indicators have been suggested in the literature, individuals and international organizations are still trying to introduce indicators that reflect the actual institutional quality of various countries. As institutions have different dimensions, several indicators have been suggested in the literature to measure the quality of institutions. However, there is no consensus among experts on which index should be used.Each scholar, especially those in transition countries, has used a different proxy variable, depending on the limitations to data access, to measure institutional quality. However, the key question is whether any indicator can be used as a proxy variable to determine institutional quality. The main purpose of this chapter is to answer this important question. To this end, most of the existing indicators are described descriptively and some important points regarding the use of each indicator are made. In addition, some indicators, including the rule of law and property rights as two measures of the quality of legal-economic institutions, are described in more detail.The literature review showed that not all indicators had a common characteristic. In fact, different indicators were proposed for each specific institution; thus, caution should be exercised when interpreting the results of empirical studies.

Ali Hussein Samadi, Masoumeh Alipourian

Open Access

Sketches for a Reparation Scheme: How Could a German-Italian Fund for the IMIs Work?

Given the deadlock in the current negotiations between Germany and Italy and the unavailability of judicial remedies for the victims, the two states could set up a reparation scheme. This chapter sketches some of the main features of such a hypothetical scheme, considering existing internal or international arrangements in the context of transitional justice (the Foundation ‘Remembrance, Responsibility and Future’ (Erinnerung, Verantwortung und Zukunft) scheme; the Australian DART scheme; the deal between Japan and South Korea on reparations to ‘comfort women’; the US/French schemes for reparations and restitution to holocaust victims; the Eritrea/Ethiopia reparations scheme; and the Iraq/Kuwait scheme). In particular, the emphasis is on the system of identification of the eligible victims, the question of financing and the fate of pending and future judicial claims. Assuming the states’ willingness to explore this project, the chapter outlines some of the ways the scheme could operate in practice, drawing from existing models.

Filippo Fontanelli

Open Access

A Plea for Legal Peace

This chapter advocates legal peace between Germany and Italy as the most sensible and appropriate way to deal with the aftermath of Sentenza 238/2014 of the Italian Constitutional Court and its declaration of the unconstitutionality of the 2012 International Court of Justice (ICJ) Judgment in Jurisdictional Immunities. This plea does not only arise from frustration with the current impasse but also from the suspicion that the public good of legal peace has never seriously been canvassed by the Italian and German governments. Section II takes stock of the legal developments relating to the dispute between Germany and Italy since Sentenza 238/2014 was delivered. It especially focuses on the attitudes of the governments concerned, both in the context of the ongoing proceedings before Italian courts and elsewhere. It finds such attitudes opaque and unduly dismissive of the necessity to devise legal peace in the interest of the victims and of the integrity of international law. Section III highlights how the behaviour of the governments so far was at odds with the successful outcome of other intergovernmental negotiations concerning reparations for crimes committed during World War II (WWII), a process which has not been entirely finalized, as evidenced by the 2014 Agreement between the US and France on compensation for the French railroad deportees who were excluded from prior French reparation programmes. The Agreement between the US and France and all previous similar arrangements were concluded under mounting pressure of litigation before domestic courts against those states (and/or their companies) that were responsible for unredressed WWII crimes, thus a situation resembling the current state of the dispute between Germany and Italy. It is telling that litigation ended when the courts took cognizance of the stipulation of intergovernmental agreements establishing fair mechanisms for compensating the plaintiffs and victims of the relevant crimes. Such practice, therefore, is essentially in line with the proposition that state immunity (for human rights violations) is essentially conditional on effective alternative remedies for the victims. This and other controversial aspects related to the law of state immunity—such as the nature of state immunity, the North American remedies against immunity for state sponsors of terrorism, and the persistent dynamism of pertinent practice—are revisited in section IV. The purpose is to suggest that certainty about the law of international immunities, as allegedly flowing from the 2012 ICJ Judgment, is more apparent than real and that this consideration should a fortiori urge the realization of legal peace in the German–Italian affair.

Riccardo Pavoni

6. Conclusion: Social Inclusion, Citizenship, and Beyond

This chapter gives an analytical conclusion and provides some reflective thinking on the policies of urban village redevelopment in Xi’an. It argues that in dealing with China’s rapid urbanisation, different understandings on the meaning of urban citizenship are at play. From the perspective of local authorities, urban citizenship remains at a narrow definition that implies membership identity with associated benefits. The populace’s understanding, however, broadly expands the notion of citizenship from a passive and static status on membership identity to the active process of realising that identity. The discrepancy between different understandings of citizenship is a major potential for triggering conflicts in urban redevelopment projects. In dealing with conflicts, the chapter suggests that cultivating a participatory environment and assisting a mature development of neighbourhood self-governance would contribute to a stable and harmonious urbanisation process in the future.

Xiaoqing Zhang

How a Good Governance of Institutions Can Reduce Poverty and Inequality in Society?

The main aim of this chapter is to explain how institutional change, measured with a set of governance indicators, can support the reduction of poverty and inequality in society that is an essential prerequisite for supporting economic growth of nations. This chapter shows a study that investigates 191 countries to clarify the relationships between institutional variables and socioeconomic factors of nations with different levels of development. Central findings suggest that a good governance of institutions supports a reduction of poverty and income inequality in society. In particular, results of this study show that the critical role of good governance for reducing inequality and poverty has a effect in countries with stable economies higher than emerging and fragile economies. Overall, then, the study described in this chapter reveals that countries should focus on institutional change directed to improve governance effectiveness and rule of law that can reduce poverty and inequality, and as a consequence support the long-run (sustainable) socioeconomic development of nations.

Mario Coccia

Chapter 12. Broker, Partner, or Troublemaker: Russian Involvement in Regional Conflicts and GCC Interests

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) that once actively participated in the Cold War (1946-91) against the Soviet Union now appears for Russia as a prospective area for intervention, business, and future collaboration. With its established “smart power” in the Gulf region, the Kremlin distinguishes itself from all other intervenors in the region’s conflicts and in its ability to engage with all parties regardless of where they stand, offering them both neutral intervention and air defence systems S-400s: a neutral intervention that engages with all parties without taking sides to support peace negotiation and S-400s to support their arms race when they decide to escalate. This chapter focuses on examining the extent to which Russia’s smart power has been able to transform its relationship with the countries of the Gulf region and build collaborations that meet the interests of both sides. Additionally, the chapter will discuss how GCC countries see Russia’s capacities to be a broker in Gulf conflicts (e.g. with Iran) and with other regional ones like that of Syria and Libya.

Ibrahim Fraihat, Yegor Lodygin

On the Rule of Law in China, Revisited

(September 2013)

Caijing: At the beginning of 2003, you three gentlemen talked about “China under the rule of law”, analyzing the problems China faced at that time, and pointed out that the rule of law was the key to future reforms. Ten years on, China has bid farewell to the previous political cycle. In your opinion, what progress has China made in the rule of law over the past ten years, and what have the shortcomings been?

Wu Jinglian

Dialogue with Professor Kornai: China’s Road to Transformation

(December 2013)

Xu Chenggang: At this critical moment of restarting China’s Reform and Opening, we are honored to invite Professor Kornai to have a dialogue with his old friend of more than 30 years, Professor Wu Jinglian, to again discuss the major issues facing China’s economic reform. So let’s get into it. Most of the questions will first be answered by Professor Kornai, followed by answers from Professor Wu Jinglian.

Wu Jinglian

Chapter 2. Origins of Communist Politically Motivated Criminal Justice

This chapter presents detailed analysis of communist show trials, their categorization and the Soviet legacy of ‘Twofold Constitutionalism’. It offers a critical assessment of the Soviet system of criminal justice and its trials. My analysis of these trials is made in chronological order—from the earliest Soviet ‘agitation trials’Agitation trials (Russian\: agitatsionnye sudy) and show trials against ‘people’s enemies’People’s enemies (Russian\: vragi naroda) to a regional ‘model show trial’ in communist Hungary and persecution of political dissidents in the late Soviet period of “Brezhnev’s Stagnation” and “Perestroika”. One of the aims of the chapter is to demonstrate that the communist traditions of politicized justice became an unwritten Constitution of the USSR, dividing its legal system into two coexisting legal orders of formal and informal norms. To achieve this aim, the chapter provides two outcomes. First, it makes a categorization of the communist trials with a special emphasis on victims of arbitrary justice and goals pursued by these trials. Second, the chapter analyses major legal characteristics of political justice during the communist regime. Categorization of political trials under Communism and their features helps me scrutinize my hypothesis that, unlike in established democracies, trials against politicians in selected former Soviet republics can reveal a split into a nominal written Constitution and its informal unwritten counterpart.

Artem Galushko

John E. Roemer

The conversation shows the journey of a radical social scientist from Marxism to modern contributions to social justice, normative economics, political competition and many topics related to distributive justice, including recently climate justice.

Roberto Veneziani, Marc Fleurbaey

Kapitel 3. Literaturarbeit

Die Literaturarbeit setzt an einem theoriegeleiteten Ausgangspunkt an. Erstens wird angenommen, dass Organisationen ihre Umwelt beobachten; zweitens wird angenommen, dass Organisationen an beiden Seiten von Kommunikation beteiligt sind. Die Betrachtung und Analyse der Literatur selbst erfolgt nach der Methode einer theoriegeleiteten Literaturarbeit. Forschungsleitend für diesen Schritt ist die zentrale Frage: Wie wird organisationaler Umweltbezug als Kommunikationsprozess in Theorien, Modellen und Ansätzen ausgewählter wissenschaftlicher Disziplinen bearbeitet?

Britta Maria Gossel

Dr. Jordi de San Eugenio Vela on City Branding and Public Diplomacy

Spain | Dr. Jordi de San Eugenio Vela is Associate Professor of Place Branding at the University of Vic-Central University of Catalonia (Spain). He received his PhD (with honors) in place branding from Pompeu Fabra University. His research interests include place branding, public diplomacy, environmental communication, and human geography. His articles have been accepted for publication in various leading academic journals. Jordi is the co-author of the Spanish version of Robert Govers’ book Imaginative Communities: Ciudades, Regiones y Países Admirados (2020).

Florian Kaefer

Chapter 3. Modes of Urban Autonomy—The Constitutional Characteristics of Self-governance in Amsterdam, Paris and Hamburg

Big cities are complex, dense, diverse societies. The governing institutions of modern cities are confronted with urgent problems concerning for example traffic and transport, public safety, environment and climate, and social inequality. Taking on these issues requires effective and legitimate urban government. Although many big cities face similar challenges, the constitutional and legal arrangements that create the institutions and powers of urban governments differ greatly. Three cases are presented here: Amsterdam is a ‘standard’ decentralized authority; Paris has a special legal status; Hamburg is a Land in the German federation. A brief analysis of these three cities shows that cities may be relevant and distinct from a constitutional point of view, in terms of institutions, powers, and legitimacy. Based on the analysis, I propose two hypotheses concerning the constitutional foundations of urban government.

Gert-Jan Leenknegt

Chapter 13. European Cities Between Self-government and Subordination: Their Role as Policy-Takers and Policy-Makers

More than three decades after the entry into force of the European Charter of Local Self-government our chapter sets out to assess to what extent European cities are, in their roles as policy-makers and policy-takers, truly self-governing. Thereby we look at cities that fulfil three criteria: that they are located in a federal country in a broad sense, in a country with legal entrenchment of both the Charter and post-Lisbon EU law and that these city governments assume additional responsibilities which are elsewhere, mostly in rural areas, performed by specific umbrella entities (e.g. the Landkreise in Germany, Landbezirke in Austria and province in Italy). Section 13.2 of this chapter clarifies concepts and terminology of local self-government. These are rather controversial so that we need to explain our view on these issues. Section 13.3 presents a framework of legal standards for local self-government, derived from the Charter and, to a lesser extent, from EU law, regarding the twin roles of cities as both policy-makers and policy-takers. These European standards then form the lens through which Sect. 13.4 analyses how these roles are played by Germany’s kreisfreie Städte (“county-free cities”), Austria’s Statutarstädte (“cities with own statute”) and Italy’s città metropolitane (“metropolitan cities”). Section 13.5 concludes by assessing the extent to which these cities can thereby be considered as self-governing local authorities.

Karl Kössler, Annika Kress

Chapter 2. Cities and the Dutch Constitution

Were mayors to rule the world, cities would be their vehicle. And a strong vehicle at that. All over the world, cities are growing. Compared to their more rural neighbours, cities probably have never had much to complain about in the department of self-assurance.

Wytze van der Woude

Chapter 6. Comparative Constitutional Politics in the Chinese Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau

Hong Kong and Macau are cosmopolitan former Western European dependencies in East Asia that became autonomous Special Administrative Regions of the People’s Republic of China toward the end of the twentieth century. The Basic Law and the Lei Básica, Hong Kong’s and Macau’s contemporary constitutional charters, were designed to serve as jurisdictional firewalls that prevent the dissolution of the minuscule Regions into the far more powerful and populous Chinese mainland, whose Leninist polity officially rejects almost every fundamental value shared by English and Portuguese constitutional law that has been indigenised into the Regions. Notwithstanding the striking resemblance of the Basic Law and the Lei Básica, constitutional politics in Hong Kong and Macau could not be more different. This chapter identifies the root of this discrepancy not just in history and political culture, but also in two oft-overlooked differences between the charters in relation to electoral reform and the executive-legislative relationship. Both Regions, for all their autonomy, are not sovereign states; their relationship with mainland China critically shapes their divergent trajectories of constitutional development. The chapter closes by explaining why assimilating the Regions into the mainland, turning them into little more than two of China’s over six hundred cities, is neither supported by the law, nor in the ultimate political interests of the People’s Republic.

Eric C. Ip

Chapter 5. How Much Local Autonomy Is Good for a City? An Analysis of the Peruvian Constitutional Design for Cities and Its Effects in the Case of the Lima Metropolitan Area

The decentralization reform that started in Peru in 2002, which divided the country into regions, provinces and districts, was initially regarded as a just and long-postponed project. However, while the constitution grants all local governments political, economic and administrative autonomy, the rapid population growth many cities have experienced since then calls for the reevaluation of the whole design. This is especially the case for the Lima Metropolitan Area, of which the population has more than doubled since the 1980s. This chapter analyses the effects that being divided into various autonomous districts can have for the governance of a metropolis. We argue that the division causes practical difficulties for reasons rooted in the Peruvian constitutional design, and that this fragmentation hinders the provision of public services, reduces long-term planning and may cause spending inefficiencies. A reexamination of this flawed constitutional design for its cities could be the first step for Peru to finally adapt to its new urban reality as well as to keep up with future changes.

Alberto Cruces Burga, Andrés Devoto Ykeho

Chapter 14. Urbanization, Megacities, Constitutional Silence

Urban agglomeration is one of the most significant demographic and geopolitical phenomena of our time. The figures are striking. In 1900, approximately 150 million people, fewer than 10% of the world population, lived in cities.

Ran Hirschl

Group-Based Learning and Group Composition on the Provision of Public Goods: Incorporating Agent-Based Simulation and Gaming

Collective contribution to public goods is becoming important in modern social welfare and the understanding of its underlying mechanisms is critical to cultivate the contribution. Under the context of public service contribution and collaboration, group-based learning on improving the ability of using tools to contribute online contents and to conduct collective activities is important, yet its impact is still unclear. This work incorporates agent-based simulation and gaming to investigate the impact of group-based learning on cooperation in heterogeneous groups where individuals differ in their ability to contribute. We unfold public goods game to agent-based models incorporating a group-based learning mechanism to explore the individuals’ collaborative decision in addition to the influence from either the environment or from their past experience. A corresponding gaming session is designed and played to triangulate the simulation results, and has the potential to improve further simulation models. Simulation results suggest that small groups with competent individuals are prone to contribute more. Group-based learning is more effective in the context of contributions associated with a high cost whilst its influence is overwhelmed by other factors, such as a high responsive rate to the past experience, in those easy-to-operate contributions.

Shuang Chang, Hiroshi Deguchi

Chapter 3. Policy Formulation

The main objective of public policy-making process is the formulation of a solution to the problems of the society. These solutions need to be operational and able to guide different actors involved in various stages of public policy; they also should engage specific, sustainable, realistic, and time-limited measures. In traditional public policy models, policy formulation is the stage before policy-making. This phase involves identifying and/or creating a set of policy alternatives to address a problem and reduce the number of possible solutions involved in preparing the final policy decision.One of the basic concepts related to policy formulation is policy design. Policy formulation and policy design processes have a decisive influence on the results of implementation. In fact, the limited amount of human cognition and interest, as well as our limited knowledge of the social world, inevitably causes policy-makers to focus on some aspects of the problem and ignore some others. After switching to presidential system, Turkey took some steps in creating a policy formulation and design bureaucracy populated by policy professionals. In particular, innovation policies provide an interesting example of policy formulation and design.

Fatih Demir

Open Access

Chapter 4. Entertainment-Education as Social Justice Activism in the United States: Narrative Strategy in the Participatory Media Era

Narrative strategy is a cultural and communication practice by which social justice practitioners collaborate with entertainment industry executives, writers, and producers to shape positive portrayals of marginalized communities and social issues in entertainment narratives, critique negative portrayals, and produce and disseminate their own entertainment content. This chapter introduces the motivations and practices of an expanding cadre of leading post-millennial social justice organizations that leverage entertainment as social justice activism in the participatory media age. These civil society groups have developed distinct norms, values, and practices, grounded within a multi-platform media system that has changed dramatically since Miguel Sabido pioneered his entertainment-education (EE) model. Against a cultural backdrop of media transition and social upheaval, they also are creating their own entertainment media, empowered by contemporary participatory production tools and distribution platforms. The chapter explicates the theoretical underpinnings that connect with, and deviate from, the EE framework, pointing toward new exploration and research.

Caty Borum Chattoo

Chapter 2. Patriarchy, Religion, and Society

Societies across the globe have long-established binary gender identities based on biological sex, assigning gender roles based on external sexual attributes. These gender identities correspond to religious, moral, and political norms in these societies, which usually establish preferential leadership roles to biological males. Such roles are then limited to men that exhibit strong masculine traits and characteristics, principle among them the fathering of children and successfully raising them within and according to the norms of the society. The result is a generalized “rule of fathers” wherein religious, moral, and political power is exercised exclusively by those men to whom the attributes of successful fatherhood are attributed or assumed. Despite the predominance of this practice, patriarchy has not been without contestation by rival forms of leadership emanating from different qualifications (for example in matriarchy), from women who demonstrate the requisite masculine traits and strive for power on those bases, or from biological men who are not fathers or do not exhibit the typical traits of paternal leadership. The historical ways in which religious, moral, and political values have thus influenced the predominance of patriarchy and its several challenges illuminate and inform a consideration of the continuing power of, and the ongoing legacy of, patriarchy in the contemporary world.

Douglas J. Cremer

Chapter 23. Politics and a Contemporary Social Role for Adoption

In concluding The Politics of Adoption, this chapter reflects on the political dimension to the social role ofAdoptionsocial role of adoption—as evidenced in the law, policy and practice of many nations examined in the preceding chapters—and gives some consideration to the likelihood and desirability of a further phase of political re-shaping.

Kerry O’Halloran

Chapter 17. South Korea

South KoreaRegistrar/GeneralKorea, and, withRegulatory regimes for adoptionKorea, and a population of 54.6 million in 2018, has been described as “a country that once served as the world’s largest source of unwanted children, driven by povertyPoverty, governmental regulation, a culture of racial purity, homogeneity, family bloodlinesAdoptionbloodlines, and, shame, andTaboo taboosAdoptiontaboo, and against domestic adoptionAdoptiondomestic”. Much has changed in recent years, including the adoption process, but there remain some deep seated cultural issues that continue to obstruct a balanced acceptance of adoption—domestic and international—in this society.

Kerry O’Halloran

Chapter 8. Gold Smuggling and the Plunder of the DRC

The smuggling from mineral-rich DRC and the consequences for the regional war economy that has evolved over the last 25 years are considered in detail in this chapter. The smuggling from the DRC is not a result of tax policy but of a high transaction cost and is a direct product of the long years of war in the eastern DRC since the Rwandan genocide in 1994. This has resulted in large scale and widespread gold production using ASGM methods, and the smuggling of gold to neighbouring countries including Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania. This smuggling is in large measure because of the violence in the region, as well as the absence of infrastructure in the DRC for the international trade in gold, along with the absence of refining capacity. Neighbouring countries have therefore become the principal conduits and substantial beneficiaries of this international trade.

Roman Grynberg, Fwasa K. Singogo

Chapter 7. National Assembly as an Arena of Accountability Bargain: Issues, Challenges and Prospects

The chapter examined the extent to which the Nigerian National Assembly has been able to perform one of its constitutionally assigned roles of ensuring accountability and curbing corruption in the Fourth Republic. It employed a descriptive survey, relied on the thematic analysis of both primary and secondary data while it adopted an institutional approach as its explanatory framework. A total of 200 respondents were selected from Ogun Central and Ogun East Senatorial Districts of Ogun state through simple random sampling for the administration of the questionnaires. 190 copies of the questionnaires were returned which represent 95% of the total responses generated. The study revealed that conflict of interests, deformed membership, defective electoral process and conception of politics in terms of investment, the structural foundations of corruption in the larger society, wealth accumulation and materialist drive and personality influence, among others, continue to afflict the performance of the National Assembly, thus inhibiting the legislative institution from achieving its watchdog assigned role. However, the majority of the respondents and scholars believed that there is prospect for the National Assembly to overcome its challenges if it shows serious commitment and overt wherewithal to anti-corruption fight through its oversight role.

Gafar Idowu Ayodeji

Chapter 11. The Nigerian House of Representatives from 1999–2019: A Performance Assessment

Existing studies on the Nigerian House of Representatives (HoR) focus on examining the performance of the legislature base on its core functions of lawmaking, oversight and representation. This paper extends the scope covered by such studies. The paper reviews two versions of the Standing Order of the House of Representatives to identify major departures. Drawing from existing literature, the paper also examines how the academic qualification of Members of the lower chamber as well as party affiliation of the leadership have changed from Nigeria’s 4th to 8th Assembly. By focusing on the proportion of Bills passed within each legislative session, the paper highlights a major weakness in the Volden and Wiseman methodology of assessing legislative effectiveness that measures the effectiveness of individual Members rather than focusing on the legislature as an institution. Secondary data were collected from Nigeria’s House of Representatives, the National Institute for Legislative and Democratic Studies (NILDS) and PLAC (Policy and Legal Advocacy Centre) from 1999 to February 2019. Descriptive analysis by way of trend analysis, charts, tabulation and percentages, were used for the analysis. It was found that: (1) whereas Nigeria’s population have changed from an average of 48,096,105 within 1960–1966 to 152,157,666 within 1999–2018, the total number of Members in the House of Representatives have only grown from 320 to 360: representing a 12.5% change as against population that has recorded a percentage change of 216.36%; (2) a comparative analysis of two versions of the Standing Order of the House of Representatives shows that the House has recorded significant feet in strengthening its internal rules to allow for effective selection of members into committees unlike in the past where committee membership was based on party affiliation/nomination; and (3) the educational qualification of members elected into the House of Representatives within 1999–2019 also shows that the lower chamber has continued to attract persons with higher educational qualification as representatives. The paper concludes that, the Nigerian House of Representatives from 1999 to 2019 has a performance score of 20%, measured by proportion of Bills passed. While the 8th HoR came on board with high expectation as reflected by the number of Bills presented, it performed below expectation against this benchmark.

Terfa W. Abraham

Chapter 12. The Nigerian Senate, 1999–2019

The legislature as recognized by Baron Montesquieu is the first arm of government in the order of importance because laws must be made before interpretation and enforcement. Therefore, every democracy across the world accords this all important arm of government all the support that it requires to effectively discharge its duties. The Nigerian National Assembly remains the least developed arm of government in the country due to the fact that it was suspended by the successive military administrations that ruled Nigeria. While both the Executive and Judicial arms were never disrupted, legislature has severally been disrupted. Following the country’s return to democratic rule in 1999, there were scepticisms as to whether the military will strike again to dislodge the nation’s nascent democracy. However, democracy has continued to deepen with effective legislature that has contributed no less profoundly in consolidating democracy in Nigeria. This study examined the Nigerian Senate, 1999–2019 (20 years) and found that it remains a major driver in bringing about good governance in the country. It also looked at the existing relationship between the executive arm and the National Assembly.

Patrick Nnadozie Udefuna

Chapter 13. Giving Voice to the Voiceless: The Challenges of Women Legislators in Nigeria’s National Assembly

Despite their numerical strength of approximately 49% of the population and their potentials for leadership, women in Nigeria still constitute a minority in leadership of the legislature among others. This is in contrast to the increase in women’s representation and leadership in many national legislatures in different parts of the world, particularly in Africa where Nigeria is seen as a leader. This chapter advocates the need for increased representation and leadership of Nigerian women in the legislature. Bringing to the fore the wave in women’s representation in different parliaments across the world, the paper discussed the advantages of having more women in leadership positions in Nigeria’s national legislature. It also identified the challenges to their representation and leadership role in the national parliament and suggested solutions.

Angela Ajodo-Adebanjoko

Open Access

Chapter 4. Why Gayborhoods Matter: The Street Empirics of Urban Sexualities

Urbanists have developed an extensive set of propositions about why gay neighborhoods form, how they change, shifts in their significance, and their spatial expressions. Existing research in this emerging field of “gayborhood studies” emphasizes macro-structural explanatory variables, including the economy (e.g., land values, urban governance, growth machine politicsGrowth machine politics, affordability, and gentrification), culture (e.g., public opinions, societal acceptance, and assimilation), and technology (e.g., geo-coded mobile apps, online dating services). In this chapter, I use the residential logics of queer people—why they in their own words say that they live in a gay district—to show how gayborhoods acquire their significance on the streets. By shifting the analytic gaze from abstract concepts to interactions and embodied perceptions on the ground—a “street empirics” as I call it—I challenge the claim that gayborhoods as an urban form are outmoded or obsolete. More generally, my findings caution against adopting an exclusively supra-individual approach in urban studies. The reasons that residents provide for why their neighborhoods appeal to them showcase the analytic power of the streets for understanding what places mean and why they matter.

Amin Ghaziani

Chapter 10. New Paradigms of Natural Disaster Reporting and Its Risk Communication in China in the New Media Age

China is one of the countries most affected by natural disasters. Disaster reporting and risk communication have played critical roles in face of the unexpected and catastrophic natural disasters in China, and even more so in the digital age. The innovative development of social media and new media technologies brings enormous potentials for exploring new paradigms of effective communication and reaching the public proactively and effectively. It serves as a catalyst for not only disaster professionals, but also media and science communication practitioners, even the lay population to engage in the communication. This chapter first introduces the diversified active players involved in the arena in the new media age. It then discusses the new media approaches and advanced technologies applied in practice. To further understand the tendencies, we summarize some of the new dynamics of risk communication in China. The chapter closes with discussions on how to contribute to effective risk communication with sufficient qualified professionals and quality contents.

Tianhai Jiang, Rajib Shaw

Chapter 1. Technology Roadmapping Maturity Assessment: A Case Study in Energy Sector

Whether technology roadmapping (TRM) is success or failure from a perspective of maturity assessment, it may depend on how the TRM is viewed and what criteria or metrics are used for the evaluation. Therefore, before providing the cases, it seems necessary to conduct brief overview on criteria or metrics used for evaluating the success level of TRM. After reviewing key criteria or metrics, this section of chapter will cover some TRM case studies for illustrating how maturity have some influence on their consequences of success or failure.

Chih-Jen Yu, Tuğrul U. Daim

Chapter 2. Public Service Broadcasting and Democracy: Main Research Topics and Suggestions for the Future

This chapter provides a review of the main research topics in Public Service Broadcasting (PSB) that have been discussed in the last years, such as digitalization and new technologies development, business model and funding, policies and regulation, and public value and citizen interest. Based on this thematic summary, this chapter offers suggestions on how to move forward in PSB research and identifies some of the main challenges and limitations on this area of inquiry.

Manuel Goyanes

Chapter 9. Canadian Communication Policies in the Post-Netflix Era

During the twentieth century, regulation of broadcasting and telecommunications in Canada in culture and media sectors was based on notions such as national sovereignty and public service. Moreover, all policies put forward until the turn of the 2000s followed the same orientation. Since its establishment in Canada in 2010, Netflix, the international film streaming platform, has benefited from a favorable environment for its development following the 1999 decision of the CRTC (Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunication Commission), the federal regulatory authorities, ensuring the exemption of digital media from the Canadian public system rules, that is, the requirement to broadcast a percentage of Canadian content and contribute to the national television and film production. This is while domestic companies from the audiovisual sectors are subject to a strict unchanged regulation.

Michel Sénécal, Éric George

Analyzing the Influence of the Smart Dimensions on the Citizens’ Quality of Life in the European Smart Cities’ Context

In the last years, the creation of public value in the smart cities (SC) is conceived as a strategic approach to public management based on the promotion of networked governance with the aim at improving the quality of life (QoL) of the cities’ residents (Rodríguez Bolívar, Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 3325–3334, 2019). This chapter seeks to analyze whether SC are those with a higher QoL in the urban environment as well as to investigate the smart dimensions that could have an influence on the QoL of the cities’ residents. Findings based on a sample of European smart cities indicate that the smart city’s promise of increasing the citizen’s QoL is true, but it seems to be mainly focused on the outcomes (smart living dimension) and not on other smart dimensions that focus on the process to obtain the outcomes (smart governance, smart economy, or smart environment, for example).

Manuel Pedro Rodríguez Bolívar

Chapter 4. The Events of September 11, 2001: Apex Crime

In this chapter we examine the attacks involving the Pentagon, the World Trade Centre and the aborted attack presumably on the White House. The event is considered as involving authorities in the designation of the act and the stipulation of an official narrative and also police and forensic investigators in the identification of evidence and perpetrators or other crime relevant evidence. In terms of this analysis, 9/11 appears to deviate from expectations that examiners review relevant inculpatory and exculpatory evidence.

Willem Bart de Lint

Chapter 7. The Intelligence Crime Blur: Shaping Opinion, Smudging Records and Spiking Policy

In this chapter we examine the properties of intelligence blurring. Intelligence activities occur everywhere but are obscured from view in what we refer to as counter-forensics. These blurring or obscuring activities begin with information operations which are aimed at beliefs so that people may have a view of matters of strategic interest that are aligned with the objectives of the sovereign. In addition, there is a large body of information, some of which may include inculpatory information pertaining to intelligence crimes, which remains classified. The large secret archive has disciplinary power. Lastly, intelligence actors capitalise on deep relations within the political class to blur party and policy distinctions.

Willem Bart de Lint

Chapter 8. ‘Choice of the Manner in Which Thou Wilt Die’: The Australian Courts on Compulsory Voting

This chapter explores judicial norms and rhetoric around compulsory voting in Australia. These legal principles and tropes are derived from two classes of cases. The first are decisions, from courts elevated in the hierarchy, about why compulsory voting is constitutionally legitimate. These decisions have survived a turn from respect for parliamentary sovereignty over electoral law towards implied political rights and freedoms. The second class of cases involve courts, both low and high in the judicial pecking order, reflecting on what amounts to a ‘valid and sufficient reason’ for not turning out to vote. Ultimately, the courts have been remarkably supportive of compulsion, albeit with a bleak, rather than positive, vision of the role of compulsion in electoral democracy. In rhetorical terms, Australian courts have treated electoral compulsion as akin to military conscription or to choosing the manner of one’s death.

Graeme Orr

Chapter 12. Compulsory Voting: The View from Canada and the United States

This chapter examines past and present debates over compulsory voting in Canada and the United States. It also considers the likelihood of the adoption of compulsory voting in both countries, paying particular attention to their legal environments and federal political structures. It then goes on to examine mass attitudes toward compulsory voting in both countries, and considers the potential consequences of the adoption of compulsory voting in Canada and the United States, beyond the almost certain increase in their relatively anemic turnout rates. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the prospects for higher voter turnout in Canada and the US, with or without compulsory voting.

Shane P. Singh, Neil S. Williams

Chapter 4. A Turn: From Global Reformism to Euro-Atlanticism

This chapter analyses Zimmern’s shifting project for world order between the wars. While in the 1920s he promoted global reform focused on the creation of cosmopolitan democracy, during the next decade he turned to proposing a Euro-Atlantic community. The chapter shows that despite such shift, his envisaged British Commonwealth—characterized by Burkean liberalism and the Zionist-based harmony between depoliticized nationalities—continued to serve as a template. For Zimmern, the League intellectual cooperation could play a key role in fashioning cosmopolitan democracy modelled largely after the Commonwealth. In the 1930s, he combined such British imperial exemplar with Augustinian Protestantism. Endorsing anthropological pessimism, Zimmern qualified his progressive belief. Simultaneously, he intended to utilize Christian love as a source of pre-civic moral solidarity among the peoples of Euro-Atlantic democracies. Based on such underlying religio-moral solidarity, they would display civic patriotism to face the undemocratic other.

Tomohito Baji

Chapter 3. Zionist Internationalism

This chapter examines the ways in which Zimmern depended on cultural Zionism to imagine a multinational and multicultural British Commonwealth. He applied Ahad Ha’am’s account of non-statist Jewish nationalism to depict nationalities as fundamentally depoliticized and deterritorialized entities. Inspired by Ahad Ha’am’s idea of competitive imitation, he also developed his own view of symbiotic acculturation in the Commonwealth. Moreover, the transatlantic intellectual exchange Zimmern had with American cultural pluralists, specifically Horace Kallen, served to reinforce such symbiotic vision of the empire. The chapter argues that Zimmern’s British Commonwealth rooted in the depoliticized pluricultural harmony was intended to challenge prevalent Anglo-centric imperial projects, although his conception was not completely detached from Eurocentric racial limitations either.

Tomohito Baji

Chapter 2. Empire and Classical Republicanism

This chapter looks into the transhistorical associations Zimmern created between ancient Greece and the contemporary British Empire, demonstrating that his description of fifth-century BC Athens in The Greek Commonwealth (1911) played a critical role. It constituted both the ancient surrogate and the progenitor of his idealized British Commonwealth. The chapter shows that Zimmern embedded Burke’s arguments in this epoch-spanning chain, imagining a unified transoceanic imperial public as the incarnation of liberalism—the ideology he defined as an integrated body of civic and pre-civic coactive moralities. While mirroring the Athenian citizenry with robust republican virtues, such British imperial public for Zimmern prefigured imminent democratic world politics required in an interdependent global society.

Ph.D. Tomohito Baji

Chapter 12. The Implementation of European Privacy Law in Malta

This chapter seeks to discuss the implementation of the various privacy law measures in the Republic of Malta. The status of privacy law in Malta is complicated by the fact that it is a matter which is subject to two complementary systems of international law of which Malta is a member. Malta is a full member of the EU and as such subject to EU law such as the General Data Protection Regulation and Directive 2016/680 but there are important dimensions of privacy which are outside the remit of the GDPR or the Directive, yet which are regulated by wider European law. The GDPR and the Police Directive did not set out to provide privacy safeguards and remedies in the context of national security since they would have been “ultra vires” had they tried to do so. On the other hand, many European states have, before or since the Snowden revelations, beefed up their domestic legislation and/or witnessed landmark decisions by their own national constitutional courts on privacy-related matters both within and outside the remit of the GDPR and the Police Directive. There are therefore emerging European benchmarks against which the status of privacy law in Malta may be measured, and some of these will be applied in this chapter.

Mireille M. Caruana, Joseph A. Cannataci

Chapter 2. Brilliant Beginnings

This chapter looks at Colin Clark’s early career. He was strongly influenced by his father, James, whom he emulated by becoming an entrepreneur in ideas, rather than merchandise. Clark attended Winchester College where his contemporaries, as later at Oxford, included Sir Kenneth Clark and Hugh Gaitskell. He won a scholarship to read chemistry at Brasenose College, Oxford before becoming entranced by economics. Clark fell into the orbit of former Guild socialist, G. D. H. Cole and was a member of the Cole group of young men and women formed after the 1926 General Strike to discuss the socialist issues of the day. Professionally, Clark was hired by William Beveridge, Director of the London School of Economics (LSE), as a research assistant for both him and Alwyn Young who, in turn, introduced him to the power of increasing returns. In 1930 Clark was appointed to the Economic Advisory Council because of his statistical prowess and watched some of Britain’s top economists grapple with the issue of the depression. He prepared figures for an early version of the multiplier which Keynes and Richard Kahn would use to justify the case for public works to address the British economic slump.

Alex Millmow

Chapter 18. The Monash Years

This chapter looks at Colin Clark’s return to Australia and his subsequent appointments at Monash University, the Institute for Economic Progress and The University of Queensland. It was abbreviated by a brief foray in London working for a libertarian think-tank. In October 1969, Clark took up a position at Monash University. The Catholic Church in Melbourne funded a research institute for him to pursue his interests in population and economic development. He also resumed his controversial media profile writing about economic and political issues including inflation, environmentalism, urban issues, decentralisation, population and world hunger. He engaged in public debate with leading feminist, Germaine Greer on abortion and with the controversial biochemist, Paul Ehrlich on zero population growth. With inflation stirring, Clark linked it with high-taxing, high-spending governments. The solution, he argued, was to suppress the level of public spending followed by a reduction in taxation to restore private demand. In 1976 Clark spent time in London with the Centre for Policy Studies set up to broadcast of neoliberal ideas. He continued his work on welfare reform including the possible introduction of negative taxation. However, the Conservative Party leader Margaret Thatcher, steered clear of his radical reforms to welfare and a disheartened Clark returned to Australia.

Alex Millmow

Chapter 4. Electoral Mapping of Social Mediasphere in India

The role of the media was critical during the election and it was further exaggerated since social media joined the election in the form of Twitter, Facebook, YouTube and WhatsApp. Social media is now inevitable and found in every sphere of lived activities. Election is a live activity in democratic world. Everyone wants to capture the live activities including election, to know how and to what extent election has been influenced by social media through political contents. Social media emerged as a political tool and found precarious over a period of time. This chapter discussed the correlation between social media and election and how both are inseparable as well in spatial representations and interpretations.

Shekh Moinuddin

Chapter 3. Spatial Mapping of Social Mediasphere in India

Communication is the best way to convey your thoughts and meaningful interactions. The hybrid nature of communication makes the space compressed. Places do matter to communicate and to establish a relation between geographies and spaces. Media as mediators flourished differently in order to connect, accumulate and constitute spatiality. Sometimes it is difficult to recognize space and communication together in the hybrid structure because boundaries get blurred and ambivalent. This chapter constitutes various aspects of spatiality of social media.

Shekh Moinuddin

Chapter 7. Comparison Between Chinese and Western Legal Orientations: Obligations and Rights

There are at least two perspectives in understanding the orientation of law: on the one hand, from the perspective of the interest subject of law, law can be oriented towards both group and individuals.

Falian Zhang

Chapter 3. Legal Culture

Culture is a broad concept that is difficult to define strictly and precisely.

Falian Zhang

Chapter 8. Comparison Between Chinese and Western Legal Nature: Public and Private Laws

The traditional division between public laws and private laws is an important quintessence of Western legal systematic civilization.

Falian Zhang

Chapter 2. Comparison of Syntactic Features Between Chinese and Western Legal Languages

Engaged in the study of English and Chinese legal language and their translation, people may find that it is difficult to understand and translate legal documents. The main reason lies in the special sentences of legal language.

Falian Zhang

Chapter 11. The Second Gulf War

Preventative War and Regime Change

The roots of the Second Gulf War were deeply embedded in the conclusion of the First Gulf War and the events of 9/11. Iraqi President Saddam Hussein survived the First Gulf War bloodied but unbowed, in control of Iraq with many of his most powerful military units intact, and in an uncooperative frame of mind. Iraq’s alleged possession of WMD’s was a major and ongoing source of friction and conflict after the war’s conclusion. This issue became more topical after the 9/11 attacks on the US, as policymakers raised the specter of Iraq providing terrorists with the products of its WMD programs. President George W. Bush therefore put to the public a policy that calls for immediately employing military force based on any evidence that a dictator or other aggressive revisionist possesses, or can create, a WMD program. He thereby invoked a forward defense strategy of taking on threats far from US borders, and a preventative stance that temporally sought to prevent major security threats from manifesting themselves rather than waiting for the emergence of a threat, or for an attack to occur.

David J. Lorenzo

2. Localizing the SDGs in Baltimore: Challenges and Opportunities of the USA Sustainable Cities Initiative

As one of the oldest cities in the USA, Baltimore is a vibrant and diverse community that nevertheless faces significant development challenges, such as depopulation, inequality, poverty, unemployment, and infrastructure degradation. In the same year that the member countries of the United Nations adopted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the city of Baltimore was in the grips of civil and racial unrest at a level not seen in many US cities since 1968. With this backdrop, when the UN Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) selected Baltimore as one of the first three cities to participate in the launch of the USA Sustainable Cities Initiative (USA-SCI) to localize the SDGs, it was clear that there would be many challenges to overcome to take advantage of a yet-unknown set of potential benefits. One of the key partners for the localization effort was the Baltimore Neighborhood Indicators Alliance (BNIA) at the University of Baltimore, and having the local community indicators project be a part of the localization process became critical to ensuring Baltimore saw the effort to fruition. Over the course of a year, the USA-SCI effort in Baltimore yielded a wealth of insights and ideas for furthering inclusive, coordinated sustainable development efforts for other cities. Key lessons include the need for leadership at all levels of government, the focus on raising awareness in the USA about the benefits of SDG localization among local civil society stakeholders engaged in sustainability efforts, and the value of local data integration to track progress toward the global goals.

Seema D. Iyer

Kapitel 5. Risikomanagement in der Supply Chain

Individuelle Kundenanforderungen hinsichtlich Qualität, Preis, Flexibilität und Verfügbarkeit, die zunehmende Konzentration auf die eigenen Kernkompetenzen sowie der zunehmende globale Wettbewerb veranlassen viele Unternehmen zu einer engeren Zusammenarbeit innerhalb ihrer Wertschöpfungsketten. Die daraus resultierenden schlanken Netzwerke sind durch niedrige Bestände, optimierte Durchlaufzeiten, gut ausgelastete Kapazitäten und die sich daraus ergebenden hohen Abhängigkeiten gekennzeichnet. Aus diesen Abhängigkeiten, aber auch aus dem Marktumfeld, politischen Unruhen sowie Naturkatastrophen entstehen Risiken, deren Beherrschung für den Erfolg des beschaffenden Unternehmens und des gesamten Wertschöpfungsnetzwerks unerlässlich ist.

Rainer Lasch

Open Access

Chapter 4. Civility as Public-Mindedness During COVID-19

This chapter examines the implications of COVID-19 for civility as public-mindedness. First, the pandemic has exacerbated various types of morally uncivil behaviour, such as discrimination and hate. Moreover, COVID-19 has created opportunities for some political actors to put forward sectarian agendas, grounded in partial interests and controversial beliefs, that breach the demands of justificatory civility. Furthermore, some policies to contain the pandemic have resulted in unreasonable ‘strains of commitment’ for members of marginalized sectors of the population, such as racial minorities, women, the LGBTIQ+ community, and older people; governments should acknowledge this aspect when publicly justifying these policies. Finally, justificatory civility during the pandemic has been undermined by scientific uncertainty around particular aspects of the virus itself; limited research on its social and cultural dimensions; and the politicization of science for personal or partisan advantage. The chapter advances numerous suggestions to counteract these challenges to moral and justificatory civility.

Matteo Bonotti, Steven T. Zech

Open Access

Chapter 3. Civility as Politeness During COVID-19

This chapter examines new challenges to the politeness dimension of civility presented by COVID-19. First, the pandemic has made it more difficult for people to identify norms of politeness and behave appropriately in circumstances that were previously less contested and problematic. Furthermore, signalling respect and consideration towards others via polite speech or behaviour is more likely to go awry during COVID-19. Additionally, the lack of clarity surrounding norms of politeness may prevent polite acts from helping to mitigate conflict and facilitate cooperative social exchange. Finally, citizens and politicians can exploit disruptions around politeness norms to engage in behaviour that under normal circumstances would be considered impolite. The chapter also identifies potential solutions that governments, businesses, and citizens can adopt to respond to these challenges.

Matteo Bonotti, Steven T. Zech

Open Access

Chapter 2. Understanding Civility

This chapter introduces the concept of civility and identifies its two main dimensions. The first, politeness, is related to norms of etiquette and good manners. Politeness involves both structural and agential components, and presents two important functional aspects: it can be used to signal respect and consideration for others, and it can help facilitate social cooperation. The second dimension of civility, public-mindedness, involves treating others as free and equal members of society. Civility as public-mindedness presents two sub-dimensions. The first, moral civility, demands that we respect other people’s fundamental rights, liberties, and equal civic standing, for example by avoiding racist and discriminatory speech and behaviour. The second, justificatory civility, requires that we refrain from justifying political rules based on self-interested or sectarian reasons.

Matteo Bonotti, Steven T. Zech

Profoundly Understanding the Multiple Relations in Ecological Civilization

Ecological progress is coordinated and integrated with economic, political, cultural and social progress. Economic development is the foundation, social development the goal, political development the guarantee and cultural inheritance and innovation the soul. In promoting ecological progress, we should bear in mind the current conditions while looking to the future; push it forward comprehensively with clear priorities; practice it in China but also take the lead in the world; and focus on outstanding environmental problems while emphasizing systematic and overall effects. We cannot drain the pond for fish or kill the hen for eggs—that’s sacrificing our offspring’s well-being for immediate interests and short-term growth; nor can we give up development and willingly stay in poverty for environmental protection. It’s hard to realize a sound ecosystem cycle without livelihood improvement, and livelihood won’t sustain either if we neglect the improvement of environmental quality. Therefore, we must adopt green development, take the path of sustainable development and walk into a new era of ecological civilization.

Hongchun Zhou

Chapter 12. Youth Anxiety and Pathological Security-Seeking in Turbulent Times

In this chapter, the author links high levels of youth anxiety with a security dilemma affecting people in the Global North. Using examples from Australia and Canada, it is argued that some wealthy societies experience a dual ontological-physical security dilemma whereby the enactment of a dominant national identity is directly linked to practices that harm the self and others. Meanwhile, political efforts to transform those identities pit younger people against older generations opposed to such change. The result is the (re)production of insecurity for everyone, but particularly younger people who will bear the brunt of current failures to effectively address the sources of contemporary global and human insecurity. Thus, a commitment to ontological security-seeking can result in the maintenance of harmful and destructive practices linked to that identity. The chapter ends by discussing the International Relations classroom as a site where security, state practices, national identity, anxious young people, and possibilities for social transformation intersect.

Wilfrid Greaves

Chapter 1. Strategy, Independence, and Governance of State-Owned Enterprises in Asia

State-owned enterprises (SOEs)—refer to Sect. 1.2.1 below for a definition—are important, especially in an Asian context. According to Fortune Magazine’s (2018) 500 list, three out of the world’s top-10 largest companies by revenues were Chinese SOEs: State Grid (rank 2), Sinopec (rank 3), and China National Petroleum (rank 4). Depending on the degree of direct and indirect government support, the next five ranks contain at least a group of near-state enterprises—near-state meaning companies in which the state either is a minor shareholder or has an institutionalized stake: Royal Dutch Shell, Toyota Motor, Volkswagen, BP, and Exxon Mobil. This only leaves two of the world’s ten largest companies neither belonging to nor being backed by the state, Walmart (rank 1) and Berkshire Hathaway (rank 10).

Henrique Schneider

Austerity, Human Rights Erosion and Political Radicalization: Implications for Eurozone Governance Reform

The chapter contributes to the analysis of the process of human rights and social cohesion erosion set in motion by austerity programmes in the Eurozone and to enquire about how this experience influences the current debate on the Eurozone governance reform in the context of COVID-19 crisis. The orthodox neoliberal adjustment policies imposed on several EU countries between 2010 and 2017 exacerbated economic recession, increased inequality and generated an extensive violation of human rights leading to far-reaching political radicalization. This experience has influenced the current debate on Eurozone reform functioning as a negative mirror of ineffective solutions and citizens’ distrust risks, which might contribute to the emergence of new and more adequate solutions. The main argument put forward if that a pragmatic governance reform of the Eurozone likely to be facilitated by a change in Germany’s position, is a necessary but not a sufficient condition to respond effectively to COVID-19 crisis insofar the EU has also to enhance the priority to human rights protection in order to regain citizens’ confidence and interrupt the trend of rising political influence of anti-EU radical parties which constitute one the most significant risks for the EU in the current crisis context.

Miguel Santos Neves

An Exploration of the User Concept in Satellite Design and Its Implications for Social and Economic Development in Africa

Space-derived data lies untouched in data vaults, while many potential use cases for space applications are not exploited by the space industry. This gap may exist because the conceptualisation of the user in the space industry is too narrow, and yet influences the architecture and thence outcomes of a satellite mission. Assumptions about users and markets are not made on the basis of data and market research, in itself typically difficult to obtain, especially in Africa. This results in a lack of understanding of the end user and their social and economic context which feeds back to inadequately scoped requirements in satellite design. This limitation has impact especially for developing country applications, where the user and beneficiary concept elide in often unexamined and unchallenged ways. This study explores the gap between potential users in Africa and satellite technology and mission design, and how this gap is not solely economic in origin.

Kechil Kirkham

Chapter 3. The Banking Industry in the Aftermath of the Financial Crisis

This chapter defines the structural, organizational, and issue salience dimensions of our analytical framework in the context of global financial turmoil and the ensuing Eurozone crisis. It provides the essential coordinates for analyzing the case studies, by elucidating the overall structural conditions, competitive patterns, lobbying resources, and public issue salience of banking regulation. The first section reconstructs the main competitive challenges faced by the European banks during and after the crisis. Then, this chapter maps the corporate and non-corporate interest groups in banking regulation, together with their organizational characters and resources. The last section shows the increase in public salience of issues related to banking regulation, as defining the politicized context in which the post-crisis reform process took place.

Giuseppe Montalbano

Chapter 12. Public Procurement Oversight and the Scourge of Corruption in the Public Sector: A Comparative Analysis of South Africa and Kenya

This chapter critically examines the robustness of public procurement oversight and a scourge of corruption in the public sector in South Africa and Kenya. In so doing, a comparative analysis of South Africa and Kenya is conducted. The chapter relied on qualitative research methodologies. The study furthermore adopted secondary quantitative research methods using cross-country comparative strategy. The chapter discovered that both South Africa and Kenya do conform to international laws and standards in designing institutional architecture prescribed to govern the space where public procurement is exercised. However, what appears to be a challenge is that internal controls are hugely used as front to tick a box and for obtaining legitimacy to international community. Weak internal controls are deliberately designed so that one way or the other, corruption activities are galvanized. This is enabled by limited access to information pertaining to procurement contracts between the public and the private sector. Thus, the internal statutes designed by these countries embody a specific clause that bars practical transparency, rendering state coffers to the hands of the corrupt. It would be best if both ex ante and ex post oversight are concurrently applied and strengthened so that significant impact in putting corruption to a complete halt, is realized.

Msuthukazi Makiva

Chapter 7. Public Procurement Governance: Toward an Anti-corruption Framework for Public Procurement in Uganda

For most developing countries, public procurement is a fertile ground for corruption in Government. In Uganda, specifically, corruption in public procurement involves the abuse of the procurement processes and diverting from established legal frameworks takes a multitude of forms. It is perpetuated procurement planning distortions, through supplier collusion, dodgy computation of costs by evaluation teams, poor quality goods and services delivered, pitiable performance of civil and construction works etc. These and many other manifestations suggest that corruption has a significant impact, not just in delivery of public services, but it also inhibits development of the national economy and has significantly inhibited good governance in the country. This chapter develops a conceptual framework on the vitality of public procurement for the good governance agenda and demonstrated the primacy of public procurement for good governance. It also evaluates more pertinently, the sufficiency of existing anti-corruption mechanisms in addressing corruption challenges in public procurement in Uganda. The chapter notes the inefficiency of a number of anti‐corruption initiatives in Uganda and observes the lack of effective coordination of anti‐corruption efforts within the public sector and among the various state and sector actors. This deficiency constitutes the main reason why the corruption battle is almost lost. The chapter concludes with a proposed framework to address the public procurement corruption malaise, with a set of critical success factors (CSFs) that government can apply in striking against the corruption dilemma.

Benon C. Basheka

Chapter 2. An Overview of Public Procurement, Corruption, and Governance in Africa

This chapter presents a general overview of the African context of corruption–procurement–governance nexus. African states attached importance to public procurement, not as a means of advancing public interests but the desires of the political elites. The African procurement system is characterized by monumental corruption, which had contributed greatly to the incessant regression in the socioeconomic development of the continent. This chapter identifies the challenges associated with poor service delivery, which are attributable to corruption in public procurement in Africa. It also presents a survey of public procurement practices in some African countries, expressing the need for concerted effort by the African government to induce mechanisms that would sanitize the procurement system management. The major mechanism in the direction is to strengthen the various institutions of governance in a way that would entrench the culture of checks and balances in public procurement.

Nirmala Dorasamy

Chapter 1. Conceptualizing Procurement, Corruption, and Governance

This chapter conceptualizes procurement, corruption, and governance, indicating how corruption in the public procurement system facilitates the crisis of governance. Having identified the primacy of institution in state administration, the authors note that effective oversight of the procurement system was essential to safeguard the interests of the public. The weakness of the oversight institution makes procurement a source of corruption that endangers governance. Thus, when political actors compromise procurement system, its impacts extend to weaken the constitutional responsibilities to tame the corruption monster. It gives the actors the leverage to exploit the structural deficiencies to advance personal interests. The central position of the chapter is that any society whose procurement system is fraught with corruption would not only slow down governance but would facilitate a cycle of dysfunctional government process that retards growth and development.

Omololu Fagbadebo, Nirmala Dorasamy

Chapter 7. Examining Police Interactions with the Mentally Ill in the United States

Mental illness has already become a complication and controversial topic within the criminal justice system in the eyes of medical and psychological professionals and the public-at-large. People with such a medical condition cannot function normally and routinely make irrational decisions in many situations. According to the American Psychiatric Association, in a single year nearly 1 in 5 (or 19%) of U.S. adults experience some form of mental illness. The Statistics Help Officer Training (SHOT) project is an ongoing officer-involved shooting database at Western Connecticut State University in Danbury in Connecticut. According to the SHOT data, it is revealed that at least 1 in every 4 (or 25%) of all police shootings in the United States involve an individual who exhibited symptoms of mental illness. As such, it should be obvious that police officers should be better trained to deal with the mentally ill in order to better identify relevant and underlying mental health conditions, direct those individuals to proper resources for treatment, and to avoid the use of force by police personnel.

Hasan T. Arslan

Chapter 7. Chinese Income Distribution over the Past 40 Years: Theoretical Development and Innovation

China’s income distribution theory has grown based on the combination of the practice of reform and opening-up over the past 40 years and the theory of Marxist political economy as well as the combination of China’s history and reality and the international experience of income distribution. The theory of income distribution with Chinese characteristics is an innovation of Marxist political economy, neoclassical economics and development economics.

Heng Quan

Chapter 10. Policy Framework for Promoting Income Growth and Income Distribution Reform in the New Era

China has entered a new era. The 18th CPC National Congress called for increasing personal income in step with economic development to “ensure that the people share in the fruits of development.” The 19th CPC National Congress in 2017 stressed that the Party will work to see that “individual incomes grow in step with economic development, and pay rises in tandem with increases in labor productivity.” The goal is that by 2020 the per capita income as a percentage of GDP will double compared to the 2010 level. This ambitious plan offers a basic policy framework for China’s future income growth and income distribution system.

Heng Quan

Chapter 10. The Tale of Two Terms: The Reagan Diplomatic Transition

Most strategists assumed that the Cold War, in large measure shaped by the nuclear bomb, would be resolved in a string of mushroom clouds. As this chapter will illustrate, that the Cold War ended without such a clash was due in large measure to the efforts of American president Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in spurring the process to reduce nuclear arsenals. These two charismatkjljklic leaders, who differed in so many ways, were an oddly matched pair who sought to lessen the prospects of a nuclear war. Reagan, the older of the two, was a convinced, out-spoken anti-Communist, who came to the White House with little understanding of the Soviet Union and largely uniformed about the intricacies of nuclear weaponry. Without intellectual or analytical pretensions, his fear that these destructive weapons might be used would lead him to urge the development and deployment of a questionable missile defense system and seek a halt to building nuclear weaponry. Gorbachev, a dedicated communist bent on domestic reform, provided the imaginative leadership that redirected Moscow’s relations with the West even while it led to the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Aiden Warren, Joseph M. Siracusa

Chapter 9. Carter’s Lost Opportunity

Journalists who had followed James Earl (Jimmy) Carter’s rise from Georgia politics to the White House in 1977 assumed that he would concentrate on the immediate issues of inflation and unemployment. They discovered soon enough, however, that the new president had assembled a full spectrum of foreign policy objectives designed to achieve success where presumably his predecessors had failed. To Carter, the Nixon-Kissinger-Ford policies had divided the country and diminished the presidency by employing tactics abroad divorced from the nation’s values. That approached had failed, demonstrated most graphically by the intellectual and moral poverty of the long U.S. engagement in Vietnam. The nation’s perennial anticommunism had caused it to lose sight of the American mission. Convinced that previous administrations had exaggerated the Communist threat, he promised more relaxed, flexible, and rewarding relations with the U.S.S.R., anchored to the pursuit of U.S.-Soviet cooperation on a wide range of issues, including a SALT II treaty on arms control. Asian peace and security, believed Carter, required a more constructive Sino-American relationship.

Aiden Warren, Joseph M. Siracusa

Chapter 8. The Search for Détente: Nixon and the Ford Transition

Richard M. Nixon, in assuming the presidency in January 1969, inherited a body of Cold War policies that had changed little since mid-century. To discourage feared Soviet expansionism in Europe, successive administrations, with variations in language and style, had sustained the precepts of containment as they proclaimed the country’s adherence to NATO. To protect the non-European world against Communist encroachment, U.S. officials sustained the nation’s undying opposition to Communist-led governments and movements everywhere, as manifestations of the Kremlin’s expansive power. That said, Nixon informed the nation, “In light of the recent advances in bilateral and multilateral negotiations involving the two countries, it has been agreed that a meeting [between the leaders of the United States and the Soviet Union] will take place in Moscow in the latter part of May 1972.” A new era of arms control had begun, one that focused on attempts to limit, and eventually, to reduce strategic nuclear weapons systems—one that lasted until the end of the Cold War.

Aiden Warren, Joseph M. Siracusa

Chapter 6. New System of International Relations? Which Way Forward into the Rest of the Twenty-First Century?

The chapter addresses the viability of China’s claims and insistence for the need of a new more just, democratic and inclusive system of international relations, and Beijing’s “from within” and “from outside” the existing global order, third path approaches, and strategic behavior. The discussion depicts how China continues to selectively demonstrate its “responsible stakeholder’s stands regarding the centrality of some of the existing systemic structures such as the UN, WTO, WHO, G-20, and in parallel sought the establishment and enlargement of new international structures and platforms in which Beijing is playing a leading role—BRIC, SCO, CICO, BRI, and AIIB, enhanced by its global network of strategic partnerships.

Nicolai S. Mladenov

Chapter 7. Cold War 2.0 and Mega Depression Risks?

The chapter discusses the general state of the play and U.S. leadership stands in the pre-COVID-19 international system. Ideological and economic factors and confrontation between the U.S. and China help form the warning analysis of the risks that Cold War 2.0 and Mega Depression trends and threats pose for the future system of the international relations into the rest of the twenty-first century.

Nicolai S. Mladenov

Chapter 2. American Post-World War II Grand Strategy and Modes of World Leadership

The chapter explores different periods of the successful emergence and rise of the United States on the world stage, with emphasis on its post-World War II modes of Western leadership guided by a centrist bipartisan Grand Strategy, a research and study priority of Chinese strategists as an example of both positive and negative strategic experience. The chapter touches upon the theoretical and practical limits of the U.S. unipolarity strategy, as evidenced in the first decade of the twenty-first century with signs of relative power decline, which led to the 2016 U.S. presidential debate for the need of a new American Grand Strategy, replicated during the 2020 November elections.

Nicolai S. Mladenov

Chapter 12. Why Norway as a Green Battery for Europe Is Still to Happen, and Probably Will Not

From a climate perspective, the green battery idea is tremendously attractive. Norway has some of Europe’s greatest renewable energy resources, and domestic consumption of electricity is derived almost solely from renewables. Utilizing Norwegian hydropower and wind to contribute to a European energy transition seems like an obvious choice. However, despite building subsea cables to Germany and Great Britain for renewable energy exports, and greatly increasing domestic wind power generation—enabled by a past vested interest compromise between the power sector and the energy-intensive industry—there is little enthusiasm for the green battery idea. While climate arguments are part of most actors’ reasoning, these arguments seem distinctly secondary. Rather, the main idea is one of increased power exchange, i.e., Norway as a provider of balancing power, selling excess renewable energy at a profit, building cables not for climate reasons, but for profit. We suggest a long-term future with some new cables and more wind power. However, in the short term, the green battery is not edging closer to fruition, but rather the opposite. With industry interests currently dominating power sector interests, no new cables will be built for now, while wind power has meanwhile become fraught with political tension.

Espen Moe, Susanne Therese Hansen, Eirik Hovland Kjær

Chapter 1. Openness of Government Affairs in China: Development in 2017 and Prospect in 2018

In order to comprehensively demonstrate the progresses, achievements and problems of the openness of government affairs in China in 2017 and further advance the work of openness of government affairs, the Innovation Project Team on the Rule of Law Indices of CASS Law Institute carried out a third-party assessment of the work of openness of government affairs with respect to the disclosure of information, policy interpretation and response to public concerns of 54 departments under the State Council before the reform of state institutions in 2018, 31 provincial-level governments, the governments of 49 larger cities and 100 county-level governments and looks at the prospect of the openness of government affairs in China in 2018. The assessment shows that governments at various levels have made marked progress in the openness of government affairs in 2017, but some problems remain to be solved. In view of this situation, they should have a correct understanding of and straighten out the mechanism for the openness of government affairs, and strengthen the informatization of government websites.

Innovation Project Team on Rule of Law Indices, CASS Law Institute

Chapter 10. Investigation Report on the Advancement of Openness of Government Affairs in Guizhou Province

In recent years, the Government of Guizhou Province has carried out many explorations and innovative practices in the field of open government work, which have played an important role in the economic and social development, poverty alleviation, and building of a moderately well-off society in an all-round way in Province and provide precious local experience for the advancement of ruling the country by law in an all-round way and the modernization of local governance in China. This investigation report consists of the following four parts: the new demands on the openness of local government affairs in a new era; innovative practice of Guizhou Province in advancing the openness of government affairs; characteristics of the innovative practice of Guizhou Province in advancing the openness of government affairs in an all-round way; and the prospect of advancement of the openness of local government affairs in an all-round way in a new era.

Project Team on the Openness of Government Affairs in Guizhou Province

Chapter 11. The Sichuan Sample of Enhancing Social Governance Capacity Through Openness of Government Affairs

Advancing the openness of government affairs in an all-round way is the inevitable requirement of the new era in the process of strengthening and innovating social governance, as well as an important means of promoting the formation of democratic, open and efficient governance pattern in China. In recent years, the Government of Sichuan Province has adhered to the people-centered development idea, proceeded from the principles of improving the relationship between the government and the public and invigorating mass organizations, explored ways of further optimizing the environment of dissemination of government information, establishing and improving the mechanism for the positive interaction between the government and the public, utilizing the open government platform to innovate the Internet + social governance mode, and constructing an open government supervision and assessment system with extensive public participation, and achieved good results. Meanwhile, some problems still exist in the open government work in the province, which need to be solved by continuously carrying out exploration and innovation, pressing ahead with greater efforts the openness of government affairs, and maximizing the public sense of gains and sense of recognition.

The Office of Disclosure of Government Information, the People’s Government of Sichuan Province

Planning and Designing Smart Sustainable Cities: The Centrality of Citizens Engagement

Smart Sustainable Cities is a concept regarded differently by various relevant stakeholders. This also applies to the concept of engagement throughout the design and planning of these cities to achieve smartness. The perspectives on the centrality of engagement vary between academicians, professionals, private sector, governments, and others. This research focuses on the significance of stakeholders’ engagement in designing and planning SSCs, mainly citizens engagement. It explores the characteristics of a SSC and the relationship between its dimensions, initiatives and projects which require interaction that can only be granted through proper engagement of citizens. It explores pathways of influence for SSCs and the engagement process through the Spectrum of Citizen Engagement. This paper argues that no smartness of cities is achieved without citizens empowerment. It concludes that smartness of cities is more than digital, technical, or technological; Smartness of cities is about People and SSCs are about providing the ability and opportunity for everyone to be an active citizen.

Sukaina Al-Nasrawi

From Eunomia to Paideia: The Educating Nature of Law

Education and Law are two of the institutions which most directly influence the configuration of the individual and of society. Furthermore, there is a close relationship between them in that each determines the development of the other. From their very beginnings, political and legal philosophy have asked what is Law, what is education and what should the relationship between them be. This chapter deals with the relationship between Law and education from this philosophical-practical perspective. It begins by illustrating the notable similarities between both and then goes on to address two questions: (1) whether Law should educate citizens in moral virtues; and (2) if the education of citizens should concern itself with reinforcing obedience to laws. As regards the first, I shall discuss Aristotelian thinking, while for the second Rousseau’s.

Vicente Bellver

Chapter 9. Global Governance: A Theoretical Framework

Since the end of the Cold War, globalization has accelerated at an unprecedented pace and global issues have become increasingly important, making global governance a key research topic in international political economy. A review of published research on global governance finds that most have focused on specific areas or issues but few have discussed the basic theory or logic of global governance. With critical reference to the foundations of institutional economics, this paper aims to establish an analytical framework for research on global governance. This framework consists of basic assumptions, key concepts, theory (or the logical relationships among concepts), and core issues. Our goal is to reduce the cost of exchanging ideas and raise the level of discussion so as to promote the development of global governance theory.

Yuyan Zhang, Lin Ren

Zhou X (A) v. The Administration Commission of Huzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone, Zhejiang Province (Dispute over Administrative Compensation for Housing Demolition and Resettlement): Understanding of the “Direct Loss” in Subparagraph 8 of Article 36 of the State Compensation Law

1. Pursusant to the Subparagraph 8 of Article 36 of Law of the People’s Republic of China on State Compensation, if other damage is done as a result of infringement on the property rights of a citizen, a legal person, or other organizations, compensation shall be paid for the direct losses. When it comes to land or house expropriation and demolition, and when determining the scope and amount of compensation for illegal demolition by the administrative agency, the “direct losses” stipulated in Law of the People’s Republic of China on State Compensation cannot be simply interpreted as the losses resulted from resettlement of the demolished houses, excluding the indemnity rights and interests that owners of the demolished houses should enjoy in the demolition and resettlement of rural houses. The abovementioned “direct losses” should be inclusive of both the loss from resettlement (i.e. the cost) after the demolition of houses and the indemnity rights and interests that owners of the demolished houses should enjoy in the demolition and resettlement of rural houses.

Xiaobin Wang

Hong Kong Stoll Industrial (Group) Co., Ltd. v. The People’s Government of Taizhou City, the People’s Government of Hailing District, Taizhou City (Dispute over the Investment Attraction Agreement): The Determination of Administrative Agreements and the Concept of Trying Administrative Disputes Involving Consensual Agreements

An administrative agreement generally includes the following elements: First, one party to the agreement must be the administrative subject; second, the administrative subject exercises the administrative authority; third, the purpose of the agreement is to achieve social common good or administrative goals; fourth, the main content of the agreement stipulates the relationship of rights and obligations in administrative law. Due to the complexity of administrative management and the diversity of the content in the agreement made by both parties, that an agreement is an administrative agreement or a civil one should not be determined only by its name, nor by a few or individual provisions, but should be determined by taking into comprehensive consideration the above elements and the main content of the agreement.

Baojian Geng, Qin Yin

The People v. Yang X and Shi X (Misappropriation of Public Funds): Assessment and Application of the “Special Circumstances” Warranting a Sentence Lesser than the Statutory Penalties

Xiaoyang Shang

The People v. Sun X (A), Sun X (B) et al. (The Crime against Organizing, Leading and Participating in Organizations of a Triad Nature; the Crime against Intentional Homicide and the Crime against Extortion, etc.): The Applicable Laws for Non-incremental Penalty in Retrial and Withdrawal of Indictment, and Adjudication Method in Case Reopening

In cases where a retrial is not initiated because of a protest by the People’s Procuratorate, the retrial judgment generally shall not increase the punishment of the defendant in the original trial. The principle is not to increase the penalty in the retrial, and the additional penalty in the retrial is the exception and specific reasons should be explained.

Yunteng Hu, Su Qi

5. Thought Leadership und Reputation – Yin und Yang der Licence to operate

Unternehmen als First Mover für gesellschaftliche Akzeptanz

Umsatz, Gewinn, Rendite: Anspruchsgruppen erwarten heutzutage quasi selbstverständlich, dass Unternehmen ihre funktionalen Leistungsversprechen erfüllen. Die (kauf-)entscheidenden Assets sind künftig die soziale und die expressive Reputation einer Organisation. Wer sich mit einer emotional attraktiven Identität darstellen kann und dabei noch gesellschaftliche Normen und Werte einhält, der ist vorn dabei. Thought Leadership ist dafür ein sehr vielversprechendes Konstrukt, da es Personen und/oder Unternehmen in die Lage versetzt, sich als Vordenker, Impulsgeber und First Mover zu positionieren. Ohne die enge (inhaltliche) Verzahnung mit dem Steuerungsmodell des Reputationsmanagements bleibt Thought Leadership aber ein zahnloser Tiger.

Ulrich Bihler

4. Public Affairs Management für den guten Ruf

Schmaler Grat zwischen Turbobooster und Hochrisikofaktor

Heutzutage müssen sich Organisationen im Reputationsmanagement einer doppelten Herausforderung stellen: Einerseits sehen sie sich einer sensibilisierten Öffentlichkeit gegenüber, die zunehmend auf sozioökonomische und ethische Gesichtspunkte achtet. Andererseits stehen sie zum Beispiel durch die Arbeit von Verbänden und Initiativen so sehr im Licht der Öffentlichkeit wie nie zuvor. Organisationen kommen nicht mehr umhin, für ihre Reputation ihren kommunikativen Horizont zu erweitern. Sie müssen die Normen der Gesellschaft frühzeitig aufdecken, mit den neuen Anforderungen aktiv und kommunikativ umgehen und als vertrauenswürdiger Akteur mitgestalten. Doch Vorsicht: Organisationen spielen hier auf dünnem Eis. Wer Public Affairs vertrauensvoll und sinnstiftend managt, dessen Reputation steigt an; wer Vertrauen und Sinn missbraucht, der wird geächtet.

Ulrich Bihler

12. Ausblick

Zur möglichen Zukunft modernen Reputationsmanagements

Die Zukunft für Reputationsmanagement ist noch facettenreicher, als es dieses Buch schon skizziert: mit noch mehr Chancen, noch mehr Herausforderungen, noch mehr Verantwortung. Modernes Reputationsmanagement wird für viele Unternehmen die relevante strategische Stellgröße für ihren wirtschaftlichen Erfolg. Dementsprechend wird die Bedeutung, aber auch der Invest in Reputationsmanagement weiter zunehmen. Denn künftig wird es ein schmaler Grat zwischen gutem Ruf und Nachruf sein!

Ulrich Bihler

Analysis of the Land Use Situation of China in the Last Decade

This paper analyzed the situation of the land use in China in the last decade. During 2008 to 2018, land approved by the government for construction use from agricultural use has increased at the start, and decreased since 2012. The percent of industrial land, residential land and commercial land are decreasing while the land for infrastructure is growing generally. The GDP per hectares continues to fall due to the high efficient use of construction land. The distribution of land resources was more market-oriented and quite stable since 2011. Except for some periods, land price was rising all the time in the last decade, especially in 2009, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2017. The local government relies highly on land and this situation has not improved significantly in 2012 to 2018. In the near future, it is expected that the demand for land will decreasing compared with the last decade, the price will go up steadily.

Juan-er Zheng, Ling-xia Cao, Wen-bin Tan, Feng Deng

Chapter 6. Opportunities to Create Value

Opportunities to create value exist at all stages of a real estate development process. In the initial product “Conception” phase—in which vision, strategy and market positioning are defined—value is created by focusing on “outputs” in terms of concrete benefits for customers and stakeholders. In the “Production” phase, value can be created by adopting an integrated industrial approach, increasing productivity, quality and safety. Finally, in the “Got-To-Market” post-development operational phase, value can be created by considering the real estate product as an integral part of a complex value proposition that has the ambition to foster the progress of the socio-economic ecosystem of reference. We have also identified four “tactics” that can be adopted to pursue value creation. First, to pursue product optimization and flexibility through an iterative process of prototyping, verification and revision. Second, to forge consensus and create strategic alliances with complementary partners of value. Third, to simultaneously pursue the enhancement of the three “Cs”: Container, Content and Context. Finally, to seek opportunities in areas of market discontinuity where there are clear supply and demand differentials.

Andrea Ciaramella, Marco Dall’Orso

Digital Humanities and Smart City. University as a Service and Uni-Living Lab for the City: Thinking the Case of La Rochelle Thanks to Social Sciences and Humanities

The methods of the social sciences (geography and present-day history) can be put to good use in a synthesis on the Smart Project in La Rochelle. The methodology applied submits to the analysis of numerous sources from the actors involved in this project, but also scientific communications dealing with the current proposal in La Rochelle (LR). It also facilitates the development of various disciplines (economics, management, computer science, ecology, sociology and other engineering, human and social sciences). The concepts of sustainability and intelligence are at the heart of this program and the issue of data allows them to be thought of jointly. This work therefore sets up an analysis aimed at clarifying the relationships to these notions and contextualizing them through various direct sources and testimonies. A comparative perspective will be put in place in relation to a similar project, in this case that of Barcelona, in order to bring out the relative deficiencies and assets of the case of La Rochelle. The case of the La Rochelle Smart City project allows a more detailed understanding of the links between urban digitization and social sciences and humanities.

Antoine Huerta

Chapter 3. The Rise of Data Capital

Data as a human-created resource is naturally one capital, which changes the game in terms of how we respond to the new economy. It is beneficial to entrepreneurs (and innovators) for many purposes, such as reclassifying capital, accounting intangibles, anchoring traditional markets, and making human capital shareable. This chapter is through case studies to compare data capital and intangible capital and to consider workforce implications under big data. An experiment of quantifying social media clout capital is given in the last.

Chunlei Tang

Parents Who Hit, Troubled Families, and Children’s Happiness: Do Gender and National Context Make a Difference?

According to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 19, “children have the right to be protected from being hurt and mistreated, physically or mentally.” The 2030 UN Sustainable Development Goal 16 target 16.2 (“end abuse and violence against children”) aims toward the elimination of corporal punishment of children. Physical punishment by parents (and others) is banned by law in a growing number of countries. This chapter explores if girls are more affected by the violent family context than boys, and if countries where corporal punishment is banned do have lower level of parental maltreatment of children. We analyze data from Belgium, Denmark, Italy, and the USA collected among 12–16 year-old adolescents (n = 10,216) as part of the third sweep of the International Self-Report Delinquency survey (ISRD3) to answer the question of whether the association between troubled family life, use of violence by parents, attachment to parents, and subjective wellbeing (happiness) is different for girls than for boys, and whether it is contingent on national context. The findings suggest that gender and national context indeed do matter. We conclude the chapter with an expression of two concerns: about the universal implementation of Article 19 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child across different national contexts, and, likewise, about the challenge of promoting a Culture of Lawfulness so the children of the next generation will be happier than the present one.

Ineke Haen Marshall, Candence Wills, Chris E. Marshall

Epilogue

The Epilogue reflects on various interpretations and aspects of justice interwoven in the contributions to this book. Against the baseline of what is considered in the United Nations as “justice”, the text addresses first Artificial Intelligence, then goes into spiritual justice, and, finally, focuses on the secular justice as a part of its administration and delivery in Member States of the United Nations. After reflecting on these “Heavens-to-Earth” interpretations of justice, the authors formulate recommendations involving a “common language of justice.” With it the United Nations—a global ecumenical organization—celebrating its seventy-fifth anniversary may respond to the challenges involved in the implementation of the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda and beyond, as far as democracy and the rule of law are concerned. In this regard, at the domestic and international levels the coronavirus pandemic opened a new legal scenario (“the Day After”). At its heart is “Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions”—the cross-cutting goal of the 2030 Agenda.

Sławomir Redo, Helmut Kury

Selfish, Therefore Reciprocal: The Second Marginal Revolution of Mises

Selfishness in economics seems to appear typically in utility-valuation theory of consumer. But it is not the case. While British moral philosophers sought to mitigate it with conscience, no integration was achieved. In the Marginal Revolution, the unconscious and passive acceptance of saturation kept the selfish agent from realizing his aim, as he made to consume undefined amount of goods at whose last unit he stops consuming for the advent of saturation, where Gossen’s second law of equal marginal utility holds. Only Menger, however, denied such an exchange. Departing from his cardinal guise, Mises improved the theory dissociating selfishness from saturation, which a rational agent should deny. Rothbard formulated this alternative as the relevant unit of defined amount of goods. When one makes exchange according to this principle, selfishness will bring reciprocity. Thus, long-awaited integration of selfishness with societal benefit is established. Morgenstern, on the other hand, took a path to re-cardinalize the theory relying on the equivalent exchange scheme and substituted utility of money for that of goods. But the validity of his Expected Utility Theory is dubious and the Misesian purely ordinal theory seems quite justifiable even now.

Akihiko Murai

Self-interest and French ‘Philosophie économique’ 1695–1830

In this chapter, we focus on the French economists that, all along the eighteenth century, formed what we call “philosophie économique”. In Sect. 2, this current of thought is precisely defined: a review of the troops shows how its members (Boisguilbert, Quesnay, Turgot, Condorcet and Say) refer to a new view on the nature and role of self-interest, and why, in their opinion, self-interest is supposed to reach positive results, both at the individual and collective levels. Section 3 deals with how, in this approach, the Legislator is supposed to act in this new environment, trying to use self-interest as a means of government, and how it is supposed to make decisions. Section 4 concludes, stressing the fact that, parallel to the recognition of the positive role of self-interest, more and more critical voices arose to stress at the same time the limits of this approach and the essential role played by other important elements—religion, morals, altruism—neglected by “philosophie économique”.

Gilbert Faccarello, Philippe Steiner

Open Access

Chapter 18. Participatory Administration and Co-production

The German administrative system is well known for its time-honoured subsidiarity principle regarding the delivery of social and welfare services, especially at the local level. The public (municipal) sector is only allowed to provide these welfare services if the civil society, welfare organisations and citizens’ initiatives are not able to do it on their own. Against this background, the co-production of public services is deeply rooted in the German administrative culture. However, in more recent times, often prompted by fiscal problems, but also triggered by an increasing demand for more citizen participation, the co-production of services and the involvement of multiple actors have gained increasing importance. Against this backdrop, the chapter outlines these shifts from ‘traditional’ modes of service delivery and decision-making to co-producing features and participatory elements. It also addresses some of the resulting key problems and pitfalls, such as accountability, transparency and legitimacy.

Stephan Grohs

Chapter 13. Utilization of Digital Technology for Zakat Development

The nature of digital technology, which can induce efficiency, transparency, and access widening, is basically in line with the objective of zakat in enlarging the impact of zakat for poverty alleviation and public welfare. However, lack of advancement on the use of digital technology may lead to a failure in addressing poverty and equality problems. This emphasizes the importance of digital technology which is able to tackle the entire process of zakat management in terms of operation, collection, and distribution. This study analyzes the endeavor of the National Board of Zakat of Indonesia (BAZNAS) in applying digital technology to create muzakki and mustahik identification number in order to establish a structured database. On the fundraising side, BAZNAS collects zakat fund through website, mobile application, artificial intelligence, e-pay, as well as e-wallet to ease muzakki in paying zakat. In the case of zakat distribution, BAZNAS utilizes the technology to create ATM Beras (Rice Automatic Telling Machine) that is designed for the poor to get easy access to rice using their identification card on the machine.

Irfan Syauqi Beik, Randi Swandaru, Priyesta Rizkiningsih

Media Wars: Transparency and Aggravation in International Investment Arbitration

Against the backdrop of an ongoing arbitration “war”, disputing parties often end up waging parallel media wars to further promote their interests and to mount pressure on their opponent. Media coverage of pending disputes can admittedly promote transparency and public participation in a field centered around state decisions that are often taken for the sake of the public interest—or allegedly so. On the flipside, however, media involvement can also prove to be an extra arrow in the quiver of either party, which by openly sharing or anonymously leaking information to the public domain aims at advancing its position in the dispute. This double-edged role of the press has engaged the attention of tribunals having to decide on requests for provisional measures or non-aggravation orders brought by respondents and claimants alike. This chapter focuses on the role of the media as an actor and tool in investment arbitration and discusses the different facets, modalities and possible limitations to their involvement.

Alina Papanastasiou

Towards a Republicanisation of International Investment Law?: Conceptualising the Legitimatory Value of Public Participation in the Negotiation and Enforcement of International Investment Agreements

The chapter takes a closer analytical look at one of the central manifestations of the currently changing character of international investment law as a politicised area of law, namely the increasing, and increasingly more formalised, opportunities for an active involvement of interested citizens and other private actors in the preparation, negotiation and subsequent enforcement of international investment agreements. We identify and illustrate practical examples of public participation in the investment treaty-making processes as well as the implementation mechanisms of investment agreements once entering into force. The chapter furthermore illustrates that the options for public participation as increasingly provided for in connection with these treaties are often, and in principle rightly, perceived as valuable means to foster the legitimacy of the regulatory features stipulated therein. Turning to the conceptualisation of this legitimatory value of public participation, it is argued that a closer look at its quasi-constitutional foundations reveals that this approach is most appropriately qualified as an alternative to, or surrogate for, democratic legitimacy that finds its overarching normative basis in the legal principle of republicanism and can thus be considered as a possible sign for a republicanisation of international investment law. Against this background, and adopting a more overarching perspective, we also present some thoughts on the usefulness and validity of a broader claim towards a republicanisation of international investment law as a normative ordering and guiding idea for conceptualising current trends in international investment law-making as well as for the future progressive evolution of this area of international economic law.

Karsten Nowrot, Emily Sipiorski

Chapter 12. How Governments Go About Digital Transformation

Digital technologies have not only revamped the business arena but have also promoted digitalization in government services and governance. The digitalization of government has continually advanced, from the early days when information technology was used to support government work to extensive IT-based restructuring on a large scale, and then again to the comprehensive digitalization of both frontend and backend government work. In recent years, with developments in mobile technologies and smart technologies, some governments have also begun to actively promote smart mobile services.

Ma Huateng, Meng Zhaoli, Yan Deli, Wang Hualei

Chapter 6. Welfare State and Migration at Work: United States vs. European Union

This Chapter compares America to Europe, focusing on migration and welfare state policies. Both, the US and the EU, have organized its various states as a federation. The US has established an integrated federal system; Europe has not. There are no EU-wide taxes of a meaningful order or magnitude, no income tax, no health care federal program. In the US the federal programs such as Medicare, Medicaid, Unemployment Benefit program, and the Affordable Care program, are all meaningfully functioning across the various states of its federal system. Fiscal externality, triggered by migration and tax competition may explain why the US coordinated federal system delivers smaller welfare state and allows more skilled immigration compared to the EU weakly-coordinated federal system. On his travel to the USUnited States (US) at the beginning of the nineteenth century19th century Alexis De Tocqueville attributed the distinct nature of the USUnited States (US) regime as related to individualism.

Assaf Razin

Chapter 3. Ethos and Mechanisms

Ethos constitutes the second pillar of performing human and civility because individuality makes sense only among other human beings. For that, they need some societal mental habits, rules of the game, or a set of “social self-understanding,” in the words of Charles Taylor (Modern Social Imaginaries. Duke University Press, Durham, p. 69, 2004). “Ethos,” the author’s preferred notion, sets the boundaries and it regulates and normalizes one’s interaction with oneself and with others. This chapter focuses on analyzing the features of ethos. The triumviri that the author claims to capture the effective functioning of those features include covering temporal scope (past, present, and future), paying attention to human spheres (economy, society, and polity), social realms (private, collective, and public), having a proper approach (inclusive, meritocratic, and isonomic), focusing on the right end (integrity, achievement, and flourishing), utilizing exact mechanisms (participation, due process, and dialogue), and promoting freedom in all its form (negative, affirmative, and assertive).

Farhang Rajaee

Chapter 6. The Mughals: a Civitas of Divine-Transcendence

This chapter focuses on analyzing the features and the functions of a civilization grounded in a worldview of wholeness and a sense of holiness with one over-powering God, the author calls divine-transcendence. Before, enumerating them, he defines divine-transcendence. Then, he offers a portray of such a civilization that he claims the Mughals of India best represents it. The portrait captures three aspects of that civilization: The meaning of presence for Indians and two examples of people with presence (the first, a conqueror with a vision who created the polity and the second a statesman with a vision who turned it into a civilization). For the Mughals, the first was Babur and the second Akbar. The second aspect was ethos which for the Mughals related to three notions of divine religion as the point of reference, universal conciliation and focus on welfare of mankind. The theater of the Mughals comprised of the institutions of monarchy, hierarchical society and guided economy.

Farhang Rajaee

Chapter 4. Theater, Structures, and Institutions

Theater constitutes the third pillar of performing human and civility. For an ethos to find practical expression in the concrete world, there is a need for in an arena that the author has chosen theater to convey this notion with is also known as the public sphere. Chapter 4 focuses on analyzing the features of such a space. It is meant by theater the aggregate of artificial structures and institutions, at the service of presence. The triumviri that the author claims to capture what theater services, include governance (recognition, friendship, reverence), politics (opportunity, transparency, uniformity), economy (imagination, cooperation, compassion), society (individuality, collectivity, communality), culture (family, polity, the world), education (perception, knowledge, authenticity). Their combination creates a sense of cohesion, trust, cooperation, and coexistence.

Farhang Rajaee

Chapter 8. Ethical and Societal Issues of Automated Dark Web Investigation: Part 3

Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) have to proactively prevent, detect, and deter terrorist activity involving use of the Internet and the dark web. This demanding task not only involves investigations of specific case scenarios but also searching the Internet and dark web for potential terrorist-related content independently of an individual case. Especially such case independent searches of the Internet and dark web can and need to be supported by automated tools to be reasonably effective. This chapter discusses the relevant political, ethical, and societal aspects of LEAs using an automated tool and aims to provide guidance for the development and use of such a tool by LEAs supporting their fight against terrorism.

Ulrich Gasper

Chapter 7: Amartya Sen on Financial Capabilities

This chapter discusses Amartya Sen’s capability approach in relation to financial capabilities. It zooms in on the behavioural dimensions behind the financial crisis, but also on why consumers do not yet trust banks today. The chapter uses survey data of Dutch bankers to show that the regulation after the crisis has not helped bankers to use their moral compass. This is, paradoxically, due to a lack of autonomy. Bankers are generally not irresponsible persons but the pressure of targets, the detailed compliance procedures, and the lack of moral leadership in banks constrain them in using their moral compass. Also, at the consumers’ side, capabilities are lacking. Consumers tend to suffer from decision-making stress in combination with widely available credit and insufficient financial knowledge. The capabilities of some disadvantaged groups may, for example, be strengthened with earning opportunities in the community economy and community currency systems.

Irene van Staveren

Reflections on the Future of Think Tanks, Drawing on Three Decades in Public Policy Research

Kenneth R. Weinstein, President and CEO of The Hudson Institute in Washington, DC, explores the Future of Think Tanks and Policy Advice in the United States.

Kenneth R. Weinstein

Chapter 2. The Origins of Management Thought: From Fifth Millennium B.C. to the Fifth Century

This chapter describes the main sources and origins of global management thinking over the centuries, from the emergence of the first human civilizations to the early feudalism era. Managerial aspects of the ancient world’s management monuments—treatises of thinkers, statesmen, leaders of economies, and social, religious, and military leaders—are disclosed. The objects of comparative analysis of views on economic management were representatives of ancient states—Egypt, Front Asia, China, India, Greece, and Rome. This chapter also briefly describes management ideas in the Old and New Testaments.

Vadim I. Marshev

Chapter 3. World Management Thought in the Fifth to Nineteenth Centuries

This chapter further describes the main directions and works that reflect the development of management ideas, attitudes, and concepts in Western countries in fifth to nineteenth centuries. This chapter is perhaps one of the first special treatises on management, the authors of which were organizers of industries, statesmen, academics, high school teachers, including the first business schools. The objects of comparative analysis of views on economic management were representatives of a number of European countries, as well as well-known creators of management ideas—classics of political economy, philosophy, law. The chapter ends with characteristics of the famous treatise “The Doctrine of Management” by Lorenz von Stein.

Vadim I. Marshev

Chapter 4. The Emergence and Formation of Management Thought in Russia (Ninth to Eighteenth Centuries)

This chapter examines genesis, formation, and the development of management thinking in Russia of the ninth to eighteenth centuries. The authors of ideas here are state and religious figures, academics, representatives of various Russian categories, and classes, including representatives of the nascent third word. The sources were ancient records and tales, legislation, monographs of scientists and thinkers, archival documents, and memoirs. Of particular interest is the Sylvester’ treatise “The Domostroy,” containing many original ideas of household management. Among the heroes and creators of Russia’s management thought of this period are princes, emperors and representatives of imperial families, statesmen, advisers to emperors, and scientists such as Yurij Krizhanich, Ivan Pososhkov, and Michail Lomonosov.

Vadim I. Marshev

Chapter 5. Management Thought in Russia in 1800–1917

This chapter of the textbook reflects the development of management thought in Russia in the 1800–1917. At this time, the works of M. Speransky appeared, for the first time, сameralist branches at Russian universities were opened, treatises on management of higher school and materials of the-trade and industry and Industrial Congresses (which focused on relevant issues of management) were published, and management reforms led by Russian government officials were implemented. The objects of comparative analysis of views on the management of the Russian state and private economy were representatives of four major socio-political movements in Russia that existed in Russia during the period under review—the revolutionary democrats, the populists, the bourgeoisie, and the proletariat. In addition, this chapter discusses various forms of creating and developing management ideas—the opening of commercial and legal schools, special training courses in management, holding major all-Russian trade and industrial congresses, etc.

Vadim I. Marshev

Chapter 5. The Integration Paradox: Culturalizing Belonging at the End of the “Multiculturalist Era”

This chapter expands on previous arguments by analyzing discourses on the alleged failure of multiculturalism in Europe and the increasing culturalization of mainstream politics. It argues that this not only presents an integration paradox but, in a much more fundamental sense, also entails a redefinition of the basis of European liberal democracy. In a sustained theoretical reflection, the chapter argues against conceptions of liberalism that aim to invisibilize problems of cultural accommodation within a sanitized discourse of individual rights. Its core purpose thus concerns—on a theoretical level—a way of turning the experiences of pervasive pluralism and large-scale immigration into emancipatory sources of liberal democracy rather than into driving forces of its erosion.

Christoph M. Michael

Chapter 4. Redefining Local Self-Government: Finnish Municipalities Seeking Their Essence

Finnish municipalities have strived to manage an extensive number of statutory tasks with insufficient financial resources. Local government reforms have followed the politics of bigger scales, which is feared to cause problems in implementing the principles of locality and subsidiarity. This chapter aims to discuss what is happening to local self-government in Finland in the context of recent reforms. We reflect on the municipalities’ struggle with the concept of local self-governance and the contents of the European Charter of local self-government. The chapter builds on knowledge based on the previous literature and recent studies. Strengthening local autonomy and supporting municipalities’ financial resources would require loosening regulation at the central government level, while at the local level municipalities need to seek their essence and reinvent themselves.

Hanna Vakkala, Anni Jäntti, Lotta-Maria Sinervo

Chapter 6. Local Self-Government and the Choice for Local Governance Arrangements in Nine Swiss Municipal Tasks

After a discussion of local self-government and its measurement for Switzerland, this chapter adopts a sectorial perspective, considering the decision-making competencies in nine tasks perceived by municipal actors. It shows that because of the increasing complexity of tasks, the cantonal reforms of functional allocation and the rise of federal and cantonal regulations, the degree of local self-government has generally decreased in recent decades, and that more and more municipalities are choosing governance arrangements. Furthermore, logistic regressions reveal that a lower degree of perceived political discretion leads to service delivery under a governance mode instead of in-house delivery by the municipality. These results question the understanding of local self-government as a territorially defined concept, since governance schemes exceed both territorial and representativeness scopes of local government.

Nicolas Keuffer

Chapter 3. Beyond Charter and Index: Reassessing Local Autonomy

The Chapter examines the concept of local autonomy in modern European states by analysing theoretical approaches. The classical, deductive approach defines local autonomy mostly through legal, economic and financial conditions, especially by formal structures. This proves to be too weak to define the internal strength of local authorities and their real political-administrative power. A more multidimensional definition of autonomy, including indicators as importance, capacity, as well as discretion and democracy at local level is needed. The authors utilise the indicators, used by the Local Autonomy Index (LAI) developed by Ladner et al. and the European Charter of Local Self-Government to find out what is still missing. The contribution redounds to stimulate the scientific debate on local autonomy in Europe. Until the concept of local autonomy will fit for all European states with extremely differentiated local authorities, the research in this field remains a conceptual and heuristic endeavour. Especially, because local government and democracy are until now territory-based, whereas the reality is one of multilevel and cross-border governance.

Jochen Franzke, Linze Schaap

Chapter 5. The U.S. Military

“The U.S. Military” describes the functional and geographic commands, as well as the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard, and Space Force services. It provides key information on how to “read” a uniform, types of funding and appropriate uses, and the best ways to interact with the U.S. military. It also covers the military’s values, culture, organizational structure, and doctrine, updated to reflect the military engagements in Afghanistan and Iraq, especially the increasing use of private security contractors in peace and stabilization operations.

Jim Ruf, Kelly Mader-Schonour, Stephen Spinder, Kpatcha Massina

Chapter 3. Non-Governmental Organizations

This chapter describes non-governmental organizations that respond to humanitarian emergencies, natural disasters, and violent conflicts and provide peacebuilding, long-term development, and advocacy. It provides basic information regarding the structure, staff and missions of NGOs found in peace, stabilization, and relief operations. It also includes a discussion of the growth of civil society as an important component of peacebuilding as well as the challenges of on-the-ground coordination among the NGO community and between NGOs and other civilian and military actors. This chapter also discusses the difference between neutrality and impartiality in terms of humanitarian assistance, as well as the pros and cons of NGO activity and the issues being debated within the NGO world itself.

Pamela Aall, Jeffrey W. Helsing

55. More than Happiness: A Stoic Guide to Human Flourishing

Stoicism is a school of ancient Greco-Roman philosophy whose influence has persisted to the present day. This exploratory chapter presents the ethical philosophy of Stoicism as a guide to personal and professional flourishing and well-being. A philosophical system founded around 301 BC in Athens by Zeno of Citium (c. 334–262 BC), Stoicism was later developed by its three best known Roman practitioners: Seneca (c. 4 BC–65 AD), Epictetus (c. 55–135 AD), and Marcus Aurelius (121–180 AD). It lays great emphasis on resilience and mental freedom gained from living a life of moral virtue in accordance with nature, thereby gaining a state of “imperturbable tranquility.” As a robust philosophy and way of life, through the ages, Stoicism has inspired a wide range of writers, thinkers, and practitioners such as Shakespeare, Montaigne, Goethe, Kant, Alexander Pope, Nietzsche, Pascal, Descartes, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, John Steinbeck, Victor Frankl, Michel Foucault, Pierre Hadot, Tom Wolfe, JK Rowling, and Admiral James Stockdale. Stoicism is especially an excellent philosophy for those in positions of power and leadership and for those in high-stress jobs. Additionally, Stoicism has inspired many modern approaches to personal development (such as “Self-Help” movement), influenced logotherapy and psychotherapy (in particular, cognitive behavioral therapy and its precursor, rational emotive behavior therapy). It is also popular with the US military and the National Health Services (NHS) in the UK.After briefly reviewing the history, development, and key tenets of Stoicism, this chapter will focus on the writings of Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius to distill perspectives and strategies that can serve as pathways to living a life that is eudaimôn, the term the ancient Greek philosophers used for a life “well-lived” marked by “happiness,” “fulfillment,” or “flourishing.” As a case in point, the chapter will illustrate Stoicism as a source of resilient leadership through the life example of Admiral James Stockdale, who endured 7 1/2 years of extreme torture as naval POW in Hanoi Hilton, Vietnam, sustained by the teachings of Stoicism as his unassailable “inner citadel” and main survival kit. Stoicism seems ideally suited for leadership development and the pursuit of well-being since it has its core as character, self-mastery, and purposeful action – the hallmarks of effective leadership and flourishing. Of all the Western philosophies, Stoicism seems perhaps the most immediately relevant and useful for our turbulent times. The practice of stoic philosophy will benefit medical doctors, psychotherapists, nurses, military service men and women, entrepreneurs, politicians, attorneys, social workers, and law and order personnel, to name a few.

Satinder Dhiman

Chapter 7. Analysis of Data

The importance of cognitive psychological influencescognitive psychological influences, national securitynational security policies, and military capabilities in shaping a powerpower projecting state’s perceptions and response to emerging nuclear threatsnuclear threats was discussed in Chapters 2 , 3 , 4 , and 5 . The Analysis of Data chapter incorporates these influences and applies them to the four proliferation cases using the Differential Effects of Threat Perception’s two decision-tree heuristicsdecision-tree heuristics to forecast the power-projecting state’s degree of perceived threatperceived threat, and how it is projected to respond to the non-power-projecting state’s proliferation efforts.

Brian K. Chappell

Chapter 6. The Middle East States and Threat Perceptions

Adversarial rhetoricrhetoric has a cognitive influence on the powerpower projecting state decision-makersdecision-makers’ threat perceptionsthreat perception and how they perceive the intent of the non-nuclear-weaponnuclear weaponacquiring state’s proliferation ambitions.

Brian K. Chappell

Chapter 4. National Security Policy and Nuclear Policy

A state’s national security policy provides the structural framework for protecting its citizens and national security interests. These objectives provide the foundation for how a state will conduct its foreign policy, address threats, and promote its values and economic well-being. A state’s nuclear policy provides the governing philosophies of its nuclear arsenal, primarily concerning their security and conditions under which nuclear weapons could be employed.

Brian K. Chappell

Chapter 8. Women in State-Building Jihadi Organizations: Security

A security gap is one of the first gaps to be filled by state-building jihadi organizations. As the fragile central government loses its effectiveness, state-building jihadi organizations take over the responsibility of restoring order in their territories by using their military. Restoring order and security ensures proper delivery of public goods and services and eventually increases the jihadi organization’s legitimacy in the eyes of the population. Establishing military and policing institutions is also vital for these groups to defend themselves from both internal and external rivals and enemies. To expand their control over the population and to implement their version of sharia law, state-building jihadi organizations incorporated women into the police force, with the objective of extending their control over women, something culturally and religiously impossible for the male dominated structure to achieve. Observing the proper implementation of the proclaimed “pure” version of sharia law by these female officers ensured the maintenance of the “true” Islamic society these organizations envisioned.

Hamoon Khelghat-Doost

E-Government Mechanisms Development: Comparative Analysis of British and Russian Cases

The main goal of the study is to identify shortcomings in the implementation of e-government mechanisms in Russian Federation and to propose recommendations for improving these mechanisms. Particular attention in the article is paid to current trends and problems in the field of e-government, which are based on high rates of technological development, informatization and digitalization. The relevance of this study lies in the need to improve the state system and its industries in the context of digitalization, as well as its dynamic transformations in order to meet the urgent needs of citizens. In this context, successful development and operation experience of e-government in the United Kingdom is indicative. In order to achieve the goal set in the study, the authors conduct a composite graphical analysis of the UK and Russian e-government websites. As a result of identifying the significant advantages of e-government in the UK, as well as taking into account the current challenges of digitalization and the needs of society, the authors develop recommendations for improving e-government mechanisms in Russia.

Svetlana Morozova, Alexander Kurochkin

Chapter 7. Young and Male Asylum Seekers: A Security Threat to the European Union?

This chapter looks at the demographic composition of the young people who have been seeking refuge in Europe since 2015 and analyzes the fear with which these young men have been received in Europe. It also discusses the imagined threats they pose for the continent, including terrorism and the threat to the Christian identity of Europe.

Elżbieta M. Goździak

Chapter 1. CyberBRICS: A Multidimensional Approach to Cybersecurity for the BRICS

This book stems from the CyberBRICS project, which is the first initiative to develop a comparative analysis of the digital policies developed by BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) countries. BRICS have been chosen as a focus not only because their digital policies are affecting more than 40% of the global population – i.e. roughly 3.2 billion individuals living in such countries – but also all the individuals and businesses willing to use technologies developed in the BRICS or trading digital goods and services with these countries.

Luca Belli

Chapter 9. Institutional Change in European Chambers of Commerce: Conclusion

The conclusion compares the case studies. It, firstly, enumerates the different institutional changes that were identified, i.e. displacement, conversion, and stability. It turns, secondly, to the explanatory factors of change: the characteristics and veto positions of the political context, the effects of a general socio-economic change on the constituents, the developments in the organisation and membership as well as external and the internal actors challenging or defending the institutions. In addition, three different chamber-specific strategies are presented. The comparison, thirdly, allows the identification of both the erosion of institutional legitimacy as a precondition for change and the four different paths of change. These paths combine internal and external actors and their distinctive chamber-specific strategies. The conclusion ends with an outlook on future research in this area.

Detlef Sack

Sustainable Management of IT Enterprises

Digital technologies and sustainability could be understood from a superficial point of view as mutually exclusive. One is driven by the Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and robotics, focusing on a constant increasing efficiency, while the other is driven by the public opinion’s expectations for a fair development in respect to environmental, social and economic factors. Apparently, two paradigms collide at present: the one of the digital transformation meant to innovate business models in order to satisfy a continuously growing demand of products and services, and the one of addressing social and environmental challenges. In reality, the two concepts are mutually reinforcing, as digital tools can and should be used in the framework of sustainable business approaches and the catalyzer of the digital transformation, the IT industry, could become the promoter of sustainable management using new technologies. We explore in this paper the perception of sustainability by Romanian IT managers and their orientation towards sustainable management approaches, considering the economic, social, environmental and technological dimensions. The results present a heterogeneous landscape dominated by economic and political conditionality, with a strong orientation towards education in the sector as a source of sufficient workforce, leaving room to further discussions on how the industry considered to be the source of all current disruptions could become the engine of future sustainable business models.

Florina Pînzaru, Wioletta Wereda, Ion Moldoveanu, Victor-Emanuel Ciuciuc

The Effect of Proper Complaint Handling on Customers’ Satisfaction and Loyalty in Online Shopping

Online shopping still imposes some challenges despite many benefits. That’s due to the lack of physical stores and the face-to-face physical interaction between the buyers and the sellers. Customers find difficulty to complain through email or phone when receiving an online order that falls below expectations. This research tests whether rapid complaint handling, resilience and service recovery management, may lead to customer loyalty and satisfaction. Also, whether a positive word of mouth increases customer base and retention, taking the Lebanese online shopping as our research area. The internet capacity with its scope and interactivity, provides retailers with a rich and flexible new channel. Despite the growing popularity of online shopping in Lebanon, lack of quality internet, security concerns, and lack of trust in the complaint handling platforms used prevents Lebanese from fully utilizing internet’s full potential. Self-constructed structured questionnaire was presented to 100 respondents who experienced online shopping in Lebanon. Results showed that, loyalty customer base relies on rapid and flexible customers’ complaint handling, encouraging positive word of mouth. In addition to fair, customized and creative compensation

Bassam Tarhini, Dana Hayek

Chapter 3. “Trias Politica”: Choice III

This chapter (Chapter 3) entitled “‘Trias Politica’: Choice III” focuses on the third choice the Framers, how power should be dispersed at the federal level. The Father of the US Constitution, James Madison, was heavily influenced in this regard by Montesquieu’s greatest and final work, The Spirit of the Laws, in which he coined the phrase “Trias Politica [tp]” or, separation of powers and argued that political authority should be divided into three part (legislative, the executive, and the judicial) each of which must possess different powers and responsibilities. Montesquieu’s work had a profound impact on Madison who, adopted this structure and brought it with him to the constitutional convention. Like Madison, most Framers agreed with Montesquieu that the goal of government should be first and foremost to protect liberty. Moreover, they agreed that this type of structure, coupled with Madison’s additional safeguard of checks and balances, was the best way to do that. The chapter also considers the implications of this structure in the modern era, including the fact that not everyone today agrees that the goal of government should be solely to protect liberty. In addition, the chapter makes the case that as a result of this decision, the Framers helped ensure that the US government is not as responsive, accountable, or efficient as it should be, something that has had profound implications on the governments’ ability to address key challenges in the twenty-first century.

Jeanne Sheehan

Chapter 8. A Failure to Act or What’s Most Remarkable: Paradox IV

The final chapter in Part II (“A Failure to Act or What’s Most Remarkable: Paradox IV”) begins by addressing what many scholars see as the key paradox of the US government: given how little citizens know about government and politics, how is it that the United States has continued, unabated, for more than two centuries? Following the realist school, instead of criticizing citizens for a lack of knowledge, this chapter moves in another direction and focuses on a related, more pressing dilemma and paradox: how remarkable it is that the United States has continued unabated for more than two-hundred years given how unresponsive and impotent the system is. Using case studies such as immigration reform and gun control, this chapter makes the case that it is not only a lack of knowledge that drives people to fall prey to demagogues and charlatans, it is also frustration with a system that is unable to address or take meaningful action on critical issues. While the academy has spent a good deal of time discussing where the people fall short—and fall short we do—it is incumbent on us to spend at least as much time discussing where the system falls short, how it has contributed toward their frustrations, and how it can be remedied.

Jeanne Sheehan

3. Wirtschaftswissenschaft, Handlungsrechte und ökonomische Analyse des Rechts

Wir haben uns im letzten Kapitel mit normativen Problemen, mit Werturteilen befasst. Nunmehr gehen wir zu den prognostischen Aspekten der Wirtschaftswissenschaft über. Wie analysiert die Wirtschaftswissenschaft Entscheidungsfolgen, wie erstellt sie Prognosen? Mit welchen Gesetzeshypothesen arbeitet sie?

Hans-Bernd Schäfer, Claus Ott

Chapter 9. Dealing with Dualities: The Daily Life of a Dutch King’s Commissioner

In this chapter we set out to describe the work and craft of a King’s Commissioner (KC) in The Netherlands. Using a single case study design, based on diary analysis, interviews and document analysis, we argue that the office is highly personal and contextual in nature. KCs have considerable leeway in shaping their role, structured by the legal, political, economic, inter-personal and media realities of the situation. In our view, the incumbent KC needs to come to terms with at least three simultaneous dualities that require intentional role-taking: acting in-between national and provincial duties; in-between the province and various sub-regions within the province; and finally in-between the ‘positional’ and ‘personal’ interpretation of the office.

Erik-Jan van Dorp, Wim van de Donk

Chapter 10. CRM Becomes Seriously Ill

This is a less technical chapter devoted to a CRM management problem of poor performance of an organization such a call center or a technical support department. We explore a technology that can detect this performance and a root cause for it, in terms of We explore the phenomenon of Distributed Incompetence (DI), which is an opposite to Distributed Knowledge and occurs in various organizations such as customer support. In a DI organization, a team of employees is managed in a way that, being rational, impresses a customer or an external observer with total irrationality and incompetence, an inability to get things done. In most cases, the whole organization or individual team members gain from DI by means of refusing customer compensation while avoiding other obligations. We investigate DI in a variety of organizations to analyze its commonality as well as specific DI features for organizations and communities. A discourse-level analysis to detect DI in textual descriptions of customers and observers is outlined. We report a detected DI rate in financial organizations and propose a solution to handle it, such as a chatbot.

Boris Galitsky

Chapter 9. Conclusion

This final chapter draws together the book’s arguments about the nature of recognition and its capacity to make democracy work better by providing for substantive Indigenous political voice and agency. These arguments show that while recognition does not reverse colonialism and, therefore, cannot meet some Indigenous actors’ view of what justice requires, it does demand a different, inclusive and respectful kind of politics. The book’s arguments have shown both the limits and possibilities of a constitutionally entrenched Voice to Parliament, as it was expressed in the Uluru Statement from the Heart in Australia. These arguments have drawn on New Zealand and Canadian experiences to show treaties’ limits and possibilities as social contracts and thus as instruments of recognition. This chapter therefore summarises recognition’s scope as a theory requiring Indigenous peoples and the state to admit the moral legitimacy of the other’s presence. While it is acknowledged that such recognition by Indigenous nations of the state is difficult and contentious and perhaps impossible, it could only occur after the state had recognised Indigenous nations as independent polities with extant rights of the kind and extent that they, themselves, think just. Recognition theory ultimately provides ways of thinking about the requirements for on-going and just terms of association.

Dominic O’Sullivan

Chapter 8. Power and Presence: Indigenising Public Decision-Making

Public sovereignty is dispersed. It is found in neither the parliamentary, executive or judicial branches of government alone. Nor is it solely in the public bureaucracy, or the school or hospital as sites of policy implementation. Sharing the sovereign thus requires distinctive Indigenous presence and influence wherever public decisions are made or implemented. Public institutions are sites of power and sites of contest. This chapter shows how Cindy Blackstock’s moral courage may be a determinant of Indigenous influence. It draws from New Zealand, an example of contest over the nature of Maori presence and influence in schooling. It shows the Treaty of Waitangi’s influence on policy debate and capacity to contest the school as a site of misrecognition. A contrast is drawn between the opportunities that the Treaty creates as an instrument of agency and the Australian tendency to position Indigenous peoples as policy subjects on decision making’s periphery. This chapter compares the policy system as a site of colonial misrecognition in some circumstances, and in others and with recourse to treaties, as a site of transformative agency.

Dominic O’Sullivan

Chapter 7. Beyond Consultation: Participation as Influence

This chapter explains recent shifts, in Australia, towards consultation and policy-making partnerships between Indigenous people and the state. These constitute incremental steps towards recognition, but in the absence of a Voice and other measures to ensure substantive Indigenous presence in the policy process, and in the absence of treaties to codify and protect Indigenous rights, these developments have limited effect. The chapter draws on a New Zealand health policy example to show how the Treaty of Waitangi allows Maori to contest state policy in favour of substantive recognition of Maori rights to influence policy outcomes. This example, together with a Canadian case show that there is, in fact, significant scope within liberal societies such as these, and Australia, for policy-making arrangements to presume meaningful Indigenous participation and leadership rather than consultation or partnership. The chapter also considers the ways in which Indigenous policy makers and policy-making arrangements may be made accountable to Indigenous citizens, and shows how the Treaty of Waitangi provides a framework for Maori leadership and expectations to be institutionalised within public organisations.

Dominic O’Sullivan

Chapter 3. Recognising Sovereignty and Citizenship

Recognition is reciprocal and through treatiesit secures an extant Indigenous political authority. From this perspective, the colonial presumption of sovereignty as an hegemonic authority that the state exercises over Indigenous peoples is illegitimised. A reconsideration of the nature of Indigenous citizenship must logically follow. The idea that citizenship carries meaningful political capacities for Indigenous people, just as it is a worthwhile political status for others, raises questions about the workings of public institutions and whose interests they should be structured to serve. Neither citizenship nor sovereignty are static expressions of political authority or political possibility. They reflect who belongs and who does not. This chapter shows that in New Zealand, the Waitangi Tribunal’s finding that the Treaty of Waitangi was not a cession of Maori sovereignty to the British Crown, requires more expansive thinking on the meaning of political authority and what unceded authority means for the nature of contemporary sovereignty and citizenship.

Dominic O’Sullivan

Chapter 2. Recognition

In Australia, the idea that Indigenous peoples should be formally recognised in the Constitution has been long argued. However, agreement on whether this recognition ought to be a symbolic acknowledgement of prior occupancy, or the acceptance of a distinctive, politically meaningful and enduring Indigenous presence in public life is contested. The recognition theory that this chapter may contribute to the second possibility. Recognition involves state and Indigenous parties formally acknowledging the other’s political standing. It is preliminary to respectful engagement. On the one hand, it admits that independent Indigenous nationhood is legitimate and not extinguished by the fact of British colonisation. On the other, it accepts that everybody has the right to participate in the public life of the state, with the same capacities to influence the values and processes through which it operates. However, for some Indigenous scholars these aspirations are unrealistic and recognition is not, therefore, consistent with the Indigenous right to self-determination. This chapter considers these arguments but, ultimately, concludes that while recognition cannot guarantee justice, it does require states to think differently about sovereignty and citizenship. It is thus a useful and potentially transformative site of political inquiry.

Dominic O’Sullivan

Chapter 1. Introduction

The British Crown made no attempt to negotiate its settlement of Australia, beginning in 1788. According to contemporary interpretations of Locke’s theory of labour the Indigenous inhabitants, who had occupied the land for at least the preceding 50,000 years, did not satisfy the conditions of land ownership. The British Crown could simply claim it as its sovereign possession and begin the violent dispossession of some 250 Indigenous nations. Over time, governments and the Australian people, have admitted the injustice of these circumstances. But appropriate responses remain contested and this chapter introduces the Indigenous inspired Uluru Statement from the Heart (2017) and its recommendations for the formal recognition of a distinctive Indigenous place in public life. Those recommendations were a constitutionally entrenched Indigenous Voice to parliament and makarrata, a truth telling and reconciliation process, that could culminate in treaties between Indigenous nations and the state.

Dominic O’Sullivan

Chapter 2. Pride and Prejudice: Jane Austen and the (In)ability to Speak International Law

Approaching international law through Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice, this chapter investigates forms of exclusion from international law. Moving beyond a romantic understanding of international law, we build on the intricate power relations in Jane Austen’s work, which show how deeply linked the question of agency is to assumptions about the subjectivities of speakers and the wider plot. This illustrates why it matters how the story of international law is told, who appears as the main characters and how their agency is cast. Pride and Prejudice thus serves as a lens for us to reflect on exclusions in international law and to recover the story of international law beyond a romanticised drawing room imagery.

Elisabeth Schweiger, Aoife O’Leary McNeice

Chapter 4. Beneficence and Welfare: Notes for the Comparative Study of “Doing Good” Practices (‘amal Khayr) in the Islamic World

Since the 1990s, in the context of states’ reconfiguration, beneficence has become a powerful ethic and repertoire of action that spans all social spaces. A growing number of actors resort to this notion while claiming to act for “the good” of “the poor”, “the weak” or “the dependent”. In this chapter, we argue that the study of beneficence, understood as a socio-historically constructed realm of encounters and conflicts, offers a stimulating point of entry into understanding contemporary social policies in the Islamic world. We first highlight the complex and ever changing relations between the “doing good” actors and practices and the State and then explore the multiple logics that their everyday interactions may generate.

Sahar Aurore Saeidnia, Laura Ruiz de Elvira

Chapter 6. The Views of the Negotiators

This chapter presents the findings of interviews conducted with some of the main actors involved in the digital interception debate in the 1990s and early 2000s in the United Kingdom and the United States. Material collected from other primary and secondary sources is also exhibited in an attempt to outline vital elements in the digital communications interception debate that unfolded in the United Kingdom and the United States as digitization was emerging.

Joseph Fitsanakis

Chapter 4. Farmers, Market, and Institutional Innovation: Deep Reform Faced by Rural Areas After Household Responsibility System

It has been eight years since the re-launch of the household responsibility system (HRS) in 1978 in Anhui, Sichuan, and some other places. With simple motive and approach, this reform has reversed the rural economic and political situation that was deeply mired in the “socialist impoverishment” and contributed to the remarkable great liberation of China’s rural productivity.

Qiren Zhou

Chapter 21. Project Management Competences and the Sustainability of Non-profit Organisations

The proposed paper addresses the need project managementProject management competencesCompetence of non-for profit organisations in order to be sustainable in the longer run. The contribution of non-profit organisationsNon-profit organization (NPO) (NPOs) to the economy is widely acknowledged among researchers. To manage projectsProject in order to pursue their missions, NPOsNon-profit organization (NPO) need to remain sustainable. In this contextContext, the paper addresses the importance of project managementProject management competencesCompetence and their importance for the sustainabilitySustainability of NPOs, i.e. to exist and develop in the longer run. The empirical investigation undertaken in form of qualitative research offers an adequate approach to transition from literature review to some findings based on two case studiesCase study discussed in this paper. The first caseCase concerns a medium-sized international fundamental research NPONon-profit organization (NPO) based in Grenoble (France) that produces neutrons for science. The second caseCase concerns a small national NPONon-profit organization (NPO) which advocates the interests of large companies from the logistics sector based in Bonn (Germany). The discussion of the findings will conclude with suggestions for further research directions linked to the topic.

Amin Saidoun

Chapter 8. Women Claim Equality in Education

Female education has been one of the most contentious aspects of the Saudi education system with serious opposition and backlash from the society from the beginning. Therefore, spread of school education and the accessibility to higher education remained restricted to only a few fields for a long time. This started to change with the beginning of the reform period in the 1990s and intensified subsequently leading to an opening of all fields of education to women and a proliferation of female education. The chapter maps the struggles of Saudi women to gain higher education in the fields of their choice despite a non-supportive society and a restricting system, and the impact it has had on the status of women.

Md. Muddassir Quamar

Chapter 19. Assessing Barriers to Electric Assist Cargo Trike Delivery Technology: Implications in Last Mile Logistics in the United States

The last mile is a special challenge for home deliveries in high population density areas. For individual companies it is not economically and technically viable currently to combine long-distance and last mile transport in one offering. To overcome this challenge an manufacturing company has entered a partnership with an based electric cargo trike company. Their goal of the partnership is to launch a high capacity electric-assist cargo trike (EACT) as the preferred last mile delivery solution for high population density areas. The product is an electrically assisted human-powered tricycle capable of hauling up to 400 pounds of cargo nearly 30 miles per battery charge. This is the manufacturing company’s second-generation pilot with units currently in beta testing by highly regarded logistic service providers (LSP’s), in the United States and Canada. The technology has shown to be versatile in solving last mile delivery (LMD) in controlled environments such as college campuses, large venues, as well as in less controlled and highly volatile urban environments in Europe.

Jesse Fritz, Tugrul U. Daim

Chapter 12. Thoughts on a Weilian Republicanism

This chapter looks at Weil’s ideas on obedience and at how they might be indicative of her affinities with the republican tradition. The first part of the chapter briefly considers reasons why such a comparison might at first seem counter-intuitive. The chapter then examines three characteristics Weil shares with republican thought: an understanding of liberty as non-domination, a defense of civic virtue and of a certain patriotism, and the recognition of conflict as an inevitable and valuable aspect of political life. Nevertheless, the chapter also shows that Weil’s writings alert us to the machistic undercurrents of the republican tradition, proposing instead a type of compassionate republicanism that values tenderness and gentleness above conquest and force.

Julie Daigle

Chapter 11. Labor, Collectivity, and the Nurturance of Attentive Belonging

This chapter explores Simone Weil’s political thought on labor and political community by comparing it with that of liberal and republican thinkers. Her consideration of the human need for private property and of the way laboring produces a feeling of belonging resonates with the liberal political thought of John Locke. Weil, however, emphasizes labor’s capacity to transform individuals by increasing their sensitivity to the world and capacity to attend to the needs of others. If as C.B. Macpherson argues, liberal political thought is based on possessive individualism, then Weil’s is based on an attentive individualism. While Weil affirms the vital necessity of collectivity for human flourishing, she maintains a critical concern with the overvaluation of the collective in relation to the individual. In significant respects, Weil’s political thought is neither liberal nor republican and as such enables us opportunities for critical and creative reimagining of inherited political ideologies.

Suzanne McCullagh

Open Access

Chapter 16. Run Runet Runaway: The Transformation of the Russian Internet as a Cultural-Historical Object

The history of Runet is not just a chronological account of the major events in the Russian Internet space. We take a historical approach in order to identify the boundaries of Runet as an object of investigation. This chapter offers a framework for the examination of Runet as a constantly changing socio-technical object. Due to the participatory nature of its continuous construction, Runet has been addressed as a “runaway object” (Engeström, 2008). In order to follow the development of this “runaway Runet,” we identify and follow five interrelated vectors: the technological vector, the cultural vector, the media vector, the user vector and the political vector. This allows us not only to describe the history of Runet but also to contribute to an understanding of what it is and whether there is an “end to Runet.”

Gregory Asmolov, Polina Kolozaridi

Kapitel 13: Die Bedeutung von Staatsangehörigkeit und Aufenthaltsort

Wenn das Recht, nach dem die Mitglieder einer Gemeinschaft ausgesucht werden, Ausdruck der derzeitigen und künftigen Werte dieser Gemeinschaft ist, offenbaren die U.S.-amerikanischen Einwanderungsvorschriften den Schutz der nationalen Sicherheit als höchsten Wert. Spätestens seit den Anschlägen vom 11. September 2001 steht das Einwanderungsrecht ganz im Lichte der Terrorbekämpfung. Damit wurden auch die „Travel Bans“ begründet, obwohl die Feindseligkeit gegenüber und die Diskriminierung von muslimischen Einreisenden nicht übersehen werden kann. Mit einem „Muslim Ban“ warb der jetzige Präsident Donald Trump bereits im Wahlkampf 2016. Eine Parallele kann zum Wahlkampf zur Bundestagswahl 2017 – der von der sogenannten „Flüchtlingskrise“ geprägt war – gezogen werden, in dem vor allem die „Alternative für Deutschland“ mit restriktivster Immigrationspolitik und offener Ausländerfeindlichkeit warb. Die neuen Gesetze der jetzigen Großen Koalition, ausgearbeitet und beworben durch Bundesinnenminister Horst Seehofer, sprechen eine ähnliche Sprache: Abschottung, nationale Sicherheit, Begrenzung des Nachzugs und „Schutz“ vor einem gesellschaftlichen oder kulturellen Wandel. Diese Entwicklungen auf beiden Seiten des Atlantiks werfen die Frage auf, ob und wie Einwanderungsrecht gerecht ausgestaltet werden kann, mithin die Interessen der Einwanderungswilligen und etwaiger Stammberechtigter, der Ziel-Gesellschaft und des Ziel-Staates in einen angemessenen Ausgleich gebracht werden können.

Desirée C. Schmitt

On Fact Cognition and Legal Reasoning in Song Dynasty Justice from the Perspective of Intellectual Rationality

Focusing on the Narration of “Distinguishing Shi from Fei” in Qing Ming Ji

It is difficult to make a breakthrough on the issue of whether the traditional Chinese judicial trial was conducted in accordance with the law in the absence of a consensus on the definition of “law” in Chinese language. Under this background, it is helpful to explain the reasoning methods of traditional Chinese justice and to clarify the connotation of traditional “legal” order by changing the research paradigm from whether the traditional Chinese judicial trial was conducted in accordance with the law to whether intellectual rationality was followed and whether there were logical reasoning and reasonable persuasion factors. Based on 27 verdicts involving the narrative of “distinguishing shi from fei” in The Analects of Court Verdicts of the Song Dynasty (Ming Gong Shu Pan Qing Ming Ji, i.e. Qing Ming Ji), it can be found that great importance was attached to “distinguishing shi from fei” in judicial judgments in the Song Dynasty to pursue truth and virtue. The judicial officials in the Song Dynasty had a clear consciousness about the division between issues of fact and issues of law, showing the epoch-making progress of China’s indigenous legal methods. Judicial officials used both internal justification and external justification to connect facts with law. When the judgment standard was relatively clear, judicial officials completed the subsumption of the legal standard into the facts through the circular interaction between the facts and the standard, drew conclusions consistent with the facts, and made the final judgment on the basis of deductive reasoning methods. When there was a dilemma of finding and verifying the judgement norms, they sought after reasonable legal interpretation and continued legal development in the binary interaction between “law” and “li” to balance the relationship among law, social ethics and the principle of the national order, thus showing consciousness of “legal principles”. Judging from the above achievements of legal methods, there were indeed profound intellectual and rational factors in the activities of fact cognition and legal reasoning in the Song Dynasty.

Jingliang Chen, Xiaokang Wang

Chapter 5. Second Mode—Oligarchic Alliance and Party Politics

The principal markers of the long transition to the second mode of oligarchic rule were a huge accumulation of concentrated corporate power and a corresponding increase in federal State intervention. The higher profile of the federal State was confirmed by the New Deal, but the haphazard expansion of a poorly coordinated State administration tended to replicate and reinforce the pattern of oligarchic incursion into the public sphere at the federal level, while federal policy was diluted by oligarchic control of the localities, especially in the South. Democratic Party control of the South prepared the ground for a national oligarchic alliance that was secured by party cooperation and deal-making in the Congress, so extending party-State patrimonialism. This mode of rule began to disintegrate in the 1960s when the late democratization of the United States broke the oligarchic alliance that underpinned it.

Joe Foweraker

Chapter 1. Oligarchic Rule in the Americas, South to North

This introductory chapter states the principal premises of the argument to follow, namely that oligarchic rule remains present and important even as democracy advances; and that oligarchic rule in Latin America and the United States can be addressed and compared in the same terms. It also claims that the political development of the Americas, North and South, are far more similar than commonly supposed, once the inquiry is focussed on the political conditions that render oligarchic rule compatible with democracy. The terms of the comparison between the two are set in Latin America, so driving the argument South to North and creating a novel perspective on the politics of the United States. These terms also serve to outline the parameters of a comparative politics of the Americas. The chapter also provides a brief synopsis of argument of the book, chapter by chapter.

Joe Foweraker

Chapter 4. First Mode—The Federal Patrimonial State

This chapter describes the first mode of oligarchic rule in the United States as it emerged from the narrowly oligarchic and strongly federal nature of the Constitution, with a focus on the extensive scope accorded to states’ rights and powers in the initial absence of a federal administrative State. What was not foreseen in the Constitution was the growth of political parties and party patronage as the means of oligarchic manipulation of politics and policymaking in the localities. Together these tendencies led to a sui generis pattern of patrimonial party-State formation that promoted a combination of a constricted but competitive representative politics with the ruthless exclusion of poor whites, women and racial minorities. The chapter further explains how the core features of this mode of rule, namely its private influence over public affairs and its exclusionary capacities, survived the Civil War and Reconstruction.

Joe Foweraker

Chapter 1. Refugees and the Internally Displaced Persons in Africa

Unlike refugees who cross international borders and, in the process, prick the conscience of the international community, the plight and tribulations of the internally displaced person (IDP) have only just begun to receive the deserved attention. For instance, until the 1990s, there was no classification for the IDP; therefore, victims rarely attracted the attention of scholars and policymakers even though the phenomenon was and continues to be one of the most significant humanitarian crises in Africa continent and elsewhere. These phenomena – refugeeism and IDP – are due primarily to the policies of illiberal democracies and authoritarian leaders, natural disasters, terrorism, protracted ethnic conflicts, and wars.

Sabella O. Abidde

Chapter 1. Ideologies and Political Economy in the Nineteenth Century

According to Schumpeter, the roots of economics are to be found in social philosophy and in the concrete business experience of daily life, particularly in eighteenth-century’s Britain. The discussion of economic activity takes different turns in Britain and Germany: in the former, intermingling those two roots, it is based on an individualistic point of view; in the latter, on the State as the centre of social and economic life. Adam Smith, philosophically motivated by Moderate Enlightenment, is seen as the founder of the Classical School of political economy, and the embodiment of a “cosmopolitan” economic liberalism, valid at any time and place. Later in the nineteenth century, political economy is heavily influenced by positivism, and economic phenomena are studied similarly to natural sciences. The attention of the neo–classical economist is focused on individual’s marginal utility, and the whole equilibrium of the economic system is explained in mathematical terms, as with Walras and Pareto, implicitly supporting a conservative view of society. In Germany, the central role of the State finds a Hegelian basis and political economy is characterized by an accentuated historicism, through the works of the protectionist List, and of the exponents of the Historical School of Economics, in a sort of economic “nation-building”. The centrality and development of the nation, and an insistence on social reform in a non-Marxian approach, are emphasized within a framework of path-dependence. The same Hegelian root can be found in Marx and his historical materialism. Social classes, already present in the analysis of the Classical School and then disregarded by neo-classics, are seen in a totally different, confrontational perspective, resulting from society’s capitalistic structure: a structure to be deterministically overcome by the proletarian revolution or by the fall of the capitalist’s rate of profit.

Alessandro Roselli

Chapter 3. Enemies of Liberalism

Far from the wide wings liberalism, statist nationalism and Marx’s socialism occupy a strong position in twentieth century’s political economy, with a heavy influence on Europe’s great dictatorships. Italian corporativism represents an original strand of thought, partly built on the German Historical School of the previous century, partly functional to Italy’s protectionist interests, partly based on the concept of the ethical State, where the conflicting interests of all social classes are to be represented in the “corporations” and reconciled in the superior interest of the nation. This implies a dirigiste policy and the creation of a set of quasi-governmental institutions: features that—in a different political context—we find again in post-WW2 Italy. Marxism remains a static ideology—compared to the dynamism of liberalism. This is due to the fact that historical materialism is an interpretation of economic reality that does not admit deviations and, possibly, to the relatively better economic performance of the Soviet Union during the long period of Depression that afflicts capitalistic countries in the 1930s. The doctrinarian inflexibility made Marxist economists unable to deduct the appropriate inferences from changes occurring in the structure of the economy, in the modes of production. In particular, competition—which Marx had seen as capitalism’s prevalent form of market—had been superseded by monopolistic structures where capitalism’s creative destruction was a continuing source of strength (Schumpeter). The survival of “economic laws” in a socialist economy, denied by pure Marxists, was itself an object of controversy. In the end, socialist economists saw their discipline as a neutral science of economic management, reduced to a sort of social engineer and search for efficiency. “Socialism by default” is a formula that brings together two quite diverse and non-Marxist thinkers, but with a strong historical sense, which leads both to a basically wrong forecast: the fall of capitalism and the advent of socialism. Schumpeter, criticising Weber who had said that we will live with capitalism “until the last ton of fossilized coal is burnt”, believes that capitalism will die from a sort of exhaustion, not because of a revolution but as a consequence of the boredom of the bourgeoise class and the bureaucratization of giant industries, where administrators will replace the vanishing entrepreneur (as distinct from the enterprise’s owner). Polanyi’s Christian vision is critical of economic liberalism. Society as a whole, as distinct from any social class, risks self-destruction by the forces of free-market economy, where a pivotal role is played by haute finance. In a new socialist society, labour, land and money will be liberated from the constraints of the free market. This society will rely on Christian traditions, as testified by the Old Testament, the teachings of Jesus, the utopian socialism of Robert Owen.

Alessandro Roselli

Introduction

This chapter is the editors’ introduction to Emergence, Entanglement, and Political Economy and includes some overarching themes connecting the chapters of this volume.

David J. Hebert, Diana W. Thomas

Rethinking Social Change and Development Communication in Africa

Communication that speeds up development and social change in Africa has been the preoccupation of many groups in Africa, especially communication scholars, media practitioners, policy makers, and concerned citizens, who are perplexed by the apparent slow rate of agricultural, economic, and industrial development. The earliest interest started with the pioneer communication researchers in American universities, who laid the foundation, which the African Council for Communication (ACCE) built upon with its various programs of training, research, and publications. Although ACCE suffered a devastating blow in the withdrawal of support from its international partners, as a result of the end of the Cold War, development and social change communication has continued to be one of the most attractive subjects of study in African universities. The relationship among development, innovation, and social change is not linear but complicated, as they can result from, and also reinforce each other. Ostensibly successful in its various programs of research, training, and publishing the Africa Media Review and multiple books on communication, however, ACCE failed in galvanizing broad interests in promoting an African perspective on communication, development communication, and social change communication. The current generation of communication scholars in Africa shall learn to be more strategic in envisioning the future and be more determined to project an authentically African framework or paradigm for communication generally, and for development and social change communication, in particular. Africa, with its current population of 1.33 billion people, must address its development challenges with progressive, innovative, and modernization ideas and practices.

Charles Okigbo

Open Access

Chapter 27. Triangular Cooperation: Enabling Policy Spaces

In the past decade, a number of studies, reports, and data have been produced on triangular cooperation (TrC). The focus of these publications is mainly on (i) the project level and/or (ii) political relations between stakeholders. I argue that, beyond being an effective modality for the implementation of development projects, TrC is an enabler of policy negotiation spaces. Through TrC, the clashes of traditional principles and practices with a new narrative of Southern providers are loosened, enabling spaces that do not directly confront contested political positions jeopardising the dialogue. The chapter identifies that TrC serves as a bridge for coordination between stakeholders. Findings suggest that it has been used for sharing costs and solutions as well as for the development of joint guidelines and processes.

Geovana Zoccal

Wissenschaftliche Politikberatung – von strategischen Visionen zur Analyse der Innovationsblockaden

Politikberatung hat in den letzten Jahrzehnten eine erfolgreiche Karriere gemacht. Schaut man sich in Onlinesuchmaschinen die Häufigkeit der Verwendung dieses Begriffs in Datenbanken an, wird eine markante Steigerung seit Ende der 1990er-Jahre deutlich. In manchen sozialwissenschaftlichen Diskursen wird schon von einer Beratungsgesellschaft gesprochen, um den Boom insbesondere in der Organisationsberatung in den letzten Jahrzehnten nachzuvollziehen (Schützeichel & Brüsemeister 2004).

Rolf G. Heinze

Chapter 14. Self-Love and the Transformation of Obligation to Self-Control in Early Modern British Society

Despite recent work on emerging concepts of the self in early modernity, little attends to how such thinking affected social interactions—neighbourliness, dispute resolution, economic obligation—and local institutions for mediating social friction: civil, manorial and church courts. This chapter argues that one of the most pressing causes of new ideas about the self was self-control. Intended to forestall disputes, self-control was popularised through the idea of positive self-love, a theological concept which developed a relationship between love of self and of God. Previous conceptions of self-love focused on selfishness. Now, reasonable self-love emerged as a source of virtuous behaviour to create personal happiness. Self-love became a commonplace of latitudinarian preaching, and its adoption markedly reduced the intense legalism of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century English society.

Craig Muldrew

Chapter 3. Stabilization and Reconstruction End States

As the Army tends to plan strategically for long-term success in complex engagements, troops on the ground are tasked with series of shorter-term, outcome-focused missions. The objective is to complete the mission successfully and return for the next tactical order to complete operational requirements that will lead to overall strategic victory. As effective as this approach may be for effective combat success, it is critical to recognize the incompatibility of this approach for stabilization.

Diane E. Chido

Chapter 9. The Rise of Family Business in China Before 1949

This chapter discusses the rise of family business/enterprise in China before 1949. The case of Rong Brothers is also discussed as an example of new era business family.

Ling Chen, Jian An Zhu, Hanqing Fang

Open Access

12. Anders denken und handeln – Bewusstsein für das Klima

Jede und jeder Einzelne kann einen Beitrag zu einer zukunftsfähigen und nachhaltigen Entwicklung unseres Planeten leisten und den eigenen CO2-Fußabdruck durch klimafreundliche Verhaltensweisen reduzieren. Warum nur fällt das so schwer? Mangelt es am Bewusstsein?

Sabine Fritsch, Dr. Carolin Thiem, Oliver Sartori

The Last 150 Years of Urban Mutations in Hanoi: An Investigation About Form and Morphology of the Vietnam’s Capital City

The essay investigates urban evolution and architectural mutations in the territories of Hanoi city. The narrative is a continuous process, generated by a paradoxical event such as the colonial expo of 1931 that combines some key concepts to read the territories of the city. The various historical phases are recalled through the analogy of architectural, urban and economic design shapes. This type of narration allows to put on the same level, from the point of view of images and text, three apparently and very far away events, such as the French colonial, Soviet and Capitalist phases. In order to highlight a certain linearity in the mechanisms of the city’s design. Times change, ideologies die, techniques evolve, materials allow new frontiers, but some basic principles remain unchanged and are recycled into different forms according to the age in which they lie.

Matteo Aimini, Ngyuen Dang Giang, Do Binh Minh

Consumer Protection in the Case of Public Service Provision: Innovations in Brazil

The present article intends to open the discussion brought by Law 13.460/17 that was regulated only 30 years after the Constitution of the Federative Republic of 1988 and 20 years after and Constitutional Amendment n° 19/98. Fortunately the Public Power has supplied the legislative gap promised by the non-self-executing norms of the Constitution.

Carlos Eduardo Dieder Reverbel

Taiwan

In the rapidly changing information age, the gap between urban and rural development, the gap in information transmission, and the difficulty in obtaining resources have made Taiwan move towards an M-type society, making single-parent families, low-income households, elderly people living alone, and marginal households in this society more vulnerable. Making ends meet is getting harder and harder for more and more people. This chapter explores how these issues are being address through seven case studies. The different approaches to applying the sharing economy model in each case provide transferrable lessons on how similar issues can be resolved in other countries.

Iris Wang, Carol Yeh-Yun Lin

Digital Methods and the Evolution of the Epistemology of Social Sciences

After ten years that the debate on big data, computation and digital methods has been a contested epistemological terrain between some who were generally optimistic, and others who were generally critical, a large group of scholars, nowadays, supports an active commitment by social scientists to face the digital dimension of social inquiry. The progressive use of digital methods needs to be sustained by an abductive, intersubjective and plural epistemological framework that allows to profitably include big data and computation within the different paradigmatic traditions that coexist in our disciplines. In order to affirm this digital epistemology it is critical to adopt a methodological posture able to elaborate research designs with and against the digital, trying to exploit what digital techniques can give as added value, but going to test their reliability, alongside others techniques, including qualitative ones.

Enrica Amaturo, Biagio Aragona

Chapter 3. Contesting Narratives: How Stories Fill Holes

This chapter is based on interviews with voters, probing their feelings about the election. Through a series of personal encounters, the chapter builds a picture of something rather different from public opinion: public feeling. It explores metaphors and clichés, biographical sensitivities and headline issues. The chapter explores the ways in which political stories frame and reflect moods. At a theoretical level, the chapter examines the interpretive conditions through which personal meaning is produced.

Stephen Coleman, Jim Brogden

Chapter 6. Co-production from a Public Service Logic Perspective

This chapter discusses the evolution of co-production within four narratives of reform: New Public Management, Public Value, New Public Service and New Public Governance. It explores how co-production has been understood within each and the factors enabling and constraining its transformative potential. The discussion suggests that the operationalisation of co-production has been impeded by enduring power asymmetries and the normative positioning of the concept. The final sections of the chapter introduce Public Service Logic (PSL) as offering a more holistic understanding of the role of service users during value creation. PSL emphasises the importance of intrinsic modes of participation during delivery (co-experience) and the contextualisation of services (co-construction), but recognises that value can also be created/destroyed for service users through extrinsic processes (co-production and co-design).

Kirsty Strokosch, Stephen P. Osborne

Chapter 19. It’s All in the Practice: Towards Quality Co-design

This chapter contributes to the growing body of evidence on effective coproduction by assessing the quality and impacts of representation and non-representation related variables in co-design theory and practice. Six principles of engagement are identified that interact to influence outcomes. These include: (1) inclusive representation of affected people and professionals; (2) autonomy and equality of all participants; (3) plurality of viewpoints and engagement methods; (4) quality of process design and facilitation; (5) transmission of citizen engagement outcomes to formal decision makers and (6) citizen participation as a democratic value. All six principles combine to form an evidence-based model for assessing the quality and impact of coproduction processes, supporting the development of public sector capability and enhancing the legitimacy of public sector decisions.

Nicole Moore, Mark Evans

Pufendorf and His Importance for the Development of Economics as a Science

Pufendorf’s natural law comprises ethics, jurisprudence, society and political economy. His political economy embraces theories of human behaviour, private property and the four stages, value and money, foundation of states and council decisions and finally division of state powers and principles of taxation. His political economy was dispersed across Europe and North America.John Locke was the first to extensively use Pufendorf’s political economy when he developed his own economic theories. The French philosophers of the Enlightenment were all in debt to Pufendorf. The magistrate Pierre De Boisguilbert, the legal and political theorist Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui, the editor Denis Diderot, the translator Jean Barbeyrac, the great philosopher Charles-Louis Montesquieu, the foremost political thinker Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the Physiocratic model builders used Pufendorf’s works lengthily when they wrote and advanced their own ideas about political economy.Gershom Carmichael introduced natural law to Scotland when he taught at the University of Glasgow in the early eighteenth century. His successor Francis Hutcheson continued his practice and used Pufendorf’s works when he wrote on political economy.As Hutcheson’s student Adam Smith became familiar with Pufendorf’s ideas of political economy, he used these ideas extensively when he held his lectures on jurisprudence at University of Glasgow and when he wrote The Theory of Moral Sentiment and The Wealth of Nations. Pufendorf’s position in the history of economic thought should therefore be well established.

Arild Sæther

Chapter 3. Analysis of Journalism and Communication Ideas in China and the West

Being a kind of ideology, an idea is a product of thinking over the reflection of objective existence in people’s consciousness. The idea refers to the position or attitude held by the thinker when observing things, the accumulation or reorganization of a series of thoughts and the general image of objective things left in people’s mind.

Bing Tong

Chapter 5. Regulation and Supervision on Journalism and Communication in China and the West

Regulation means to adjust and control, i.e. to adjust a thing to adapt to the requirements and to control a thing to restrict its activities and ensure it within its scope of activities.Journalism and communication regulation is a kind of social regulation in terms of its social functions and implementation channels. As the main content of social regulation on journalism and communication, the state, government, political party, social group or industrial organization conducts compulsory management and control over the editing and operation activities of news media and the flow direction and rate by means of materials, laws, policies and regulations, etc., for the sake of their own interests and purposes.

Bing Tong

M

Florian Langenscheidt, Peter May

Chapter 3. Untouchable, or Merely Untouched? Satirical News Websites and Freedom of Expression Limitations in Southeast Asia in the Age of Online “Fake News”

The Philippines had, among others, So, What's News? Thailand had, until recently, Not the Nation. Singapore has New Nation. Malaysia has The Tapir Times, previously known as Fake Malaysia News. Indonesia has Pos Ronda (Guard Post). All of these were created when virtually anyone with access to the Internet can publicly share content online. These satirical news websites—all, save for Pos Ronda, in English—may appear to be little more than derivative reproductions of American satirical news outfits such as The Onion. They seem to be worthy of about as much scholarly scrutiny as their American counterparts—hardly any, being mere “infotainment,” as some scholars say. However, their peculiar contexts make it difficult to trivialize them. Philippine satirists have long seemed vulnerable to prosecution under the country's defamation laws, including a recently-enacted cybercrime law. Thailand has a strict lèse majesté law and has been under martial rule twice in the past two decades. Singapore is one of the world's “authoritarian democracies.” Malaysia, sharing the colonial British legal heritage of Singapore, also has various legal restrictions on online expression. Indonesia’s Internet law makes online defamation and blasphemy a punishable offense. Yet the writers behind these websites seem to have been able to flout undemocratic laws and/or bypass the restrictions of repressive regimes without punishment. Is their largely unimpeded functionality under their respective regimes evidence that online satirical news is capable of pushing the boundaries of freedom of expression even in “illiberal” democratic states? Or are they tolerated annoyances by often anonymous authors? This chapter attempts to derive preliminary answers to these questions by determining how aware the writers are of the subversive potential of their work, first by focusing on whether the challenges to state policies in selected articles from these websites can be considered legally fair, then by examining the textual and non-textual responses of these websites to events affecting free speech within their particular contexts. The articles in these websites are considered a distinct genre, not simply a digitized form of preexisting printed satirical news—especially in an age of online “fake news”—distinguished by not being intentionally deceptive, but still similarly parodic of the news (following Pierre Macherey’s definition of parody)—a genre that, given its easily “shareable” nature and the ability of readers to participate in its world-building, is peculiar to the Web 2.0 era.

Miguel Paolo P. Reyes

Chapter 17. Watching the Watchdogs: The News Media’s Role in Canadian Politics

This chapter explores the gendered, sexualised, and racialised dimensions of political journalism in Canada. The first section outlines the news media’s expected role in a democracy. The second section highlights key professional norms and how they prioritise white, heterosexual men’s perspectives. The third section discusses the challenges facing the Canadian news media in general and women, LGBTQ, and racialised journalists in particular. The fourth section explores the gendered, sexualised, and racialised dimensions of news products, including the depiction of different types of politicians. The concluding section discusses the implications for the quality of political journalism in Canada.

Angelia Wagner

Chapter 22. Inflicting the White Man’s Burden: Colonial Intrusion into First Nation Women’s Lives

Since European contact, First Nations women have been placed in a precarious and subordinate position by foreign and domestic governments. First Nations women share many of the concerns of settler women but must also contend with the racist and sexist Indian Act. I argue that to fully understand the current social, political, and economic position of First Nations women one must understand the historical foundations of Canadian legislation and public policy.

Cora Voyageur

Chapter 2. Canadian Liberalism and Gender Equality: Between Oppression and Emancipation

This chapter examines liberalism as the most salient ideology in Canadian politics through the lens of gender and sexualities. We consider the articulation by various waves of Canadian liberal feminists of the private/public distinction, which is constitutive of liberalism, to see how liberal resources both supported the domination and emancipation of women and LGBTQ+ communities. The conclusion brings into view the potential and limits of liberal theory and practice to achieve gender and sexual equality by studying the contemporary critiques of Black, Franco-Québécois, Indigenous, and lesbian feminists of the liberal understanding of relationship between the private and the public.

Éléna Choquette

Exploring Belgian and Dutch “Traditions” in International Law

Can two small European countries surrounded by nations who shaped international law have an international law tradition of their own? Studying the example of Belgium and the Netherlands in this regard is an interesting way to look at the European tradition from a different perspective. By looking at the lives and work of Belgian and Dutch scholars and practitioners, it becomes clear that these countries have a rich international law tradition of their own, which exerted and continues to exert a significant influence on this area of law. This tradition, linked to their history, and also to their geography and their culture, is mostly shaped by the determination and passion of these scholars and practitioners.

Jan Wouters, Nina Pineau

Chapter 4. Social Governance of Beijing in 2018: Overview, Problems and Suggestions

Beijing made remarkable achievements in social governance in 2018. The year saw great improvements in the city’s social and public services and management of urban services. Marked progress was made in promoting social mobilization and public participation. The city now has a more pleasant cultural environment, higher moral integrity, better fulfillment of social responsibility and more harmonious social relations. However, there are still some inadequacies in the work of the government including offering diversified and customized public services, involving a variety of players in social governance and managing floating population. Therefore, Beijing should intensify efforts to increase its capacity to offer public services at community level, boost coordination in social governance, upgrade the city through function transfer and remediation, and manage floating population.

Nan Fang

Chapter 10. African Migration to Brazil in the Twenty-First Century: New Trajectories and Old Paradigms

In the last two decades, Brazil has seen deep changes in its political, economic, social, and cultural structures. Related to these changes, the country’s immigration profile also perceived structural and conjunctural changes. If in the early 2000s Brazil envisioned a progressive government and a timid immigration flow, where Africans were in the last positions of Brazilian migration statistics, in 2019/2020 the scenario would be different: a far-right and anti-immigration government and a considerable African immigrant population is one of the largest groups in the country.

Roberto Rodolfo Georg Uebel

6. Role of Civil Society in Democratic Consolidation Process in Bangladesh

It is the most frequently raised question in academic texts, studies, seminars, and politics or in every field of the country, whether civil society organizations (CSOs) can play a role in creating a consolidated democracy. Many studies suggest that CSOs can play a role in the democratic consolidation process. This study also finds that the CSOs are essential players in democratic contribution in the context of Bangladesh, because they deal with many of the underlying drivers of consolidation by promoting economic development, alleviating poverty, fighting against corruption, advocating policy change, nurturing democratic values, bringing unity among social discontinuity, contributing to governance, and achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by delivering their services. Thus, the CSOs of Bangladesh, on the one hand, are known as the key actors in ensuring democratic consolidation, but on the other, they are also unable to play a role in democratic contribution in the real sense due to some major challenges. Since in Bangladesh the political parties penetrate and control the CSOs and most of the CSOs are Western-based and politicized and so they can hardly act independently. And as a result, the common desire of the people in general for democratic consolidation remains unfulfilled. This chapter revealed that the democracy could be fully consolidated in Bangladesh only when the CSOs could do work freely with all the segments of the government overcoming all the challenges in their path towards democracy.

Mostafijur Rahman

27. Civil Society, Political Stability and Peace-Building in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka: A Comparative Study

This chapter provides a comparative analysis of the role of civil society organizations (CSOs) in political stability and peace-building in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. It also highlights the difficulties they face while performing their functions. CSOs strive to contribute to political stability and peace-building processes, among other things, through its advocacy work, informal diplomacy and addressing politics with popular mobilization. Evidence shows that the CSOs in Bangladesh give more emphasis on conflict resolution through negotiation, popularizing awareness-raising programmes and encouraging public participation. In contrast, Sri Lankan CSOs are mostly concerned with addressing ethnic divides and public opinion with education and awareness-raising programmes, as well as economic issues through reconstruction and development and cross-ethnic dialogue. However, deep divisions can be found among CSOs in both countries. While CSOs in Bangladesh divide more along party/political lines, those in Sri Lanka are largely ethnically divided. In both countries, CSOs have been weakened due to their willingness to accept political patronization, their lack of ability to challenge state power, when needed, and, in some cases, (harsh) conditions set by donor agencies and international organizations.

Z. R. M. Abdullah Kaiser

25. Scaling Up NGO Impact on Development in South Asia

Over the past two decades, the idea of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has achieved prominence in political and developmental discourse. NGOs occupy the space between state and the market. With the fall of the USSR, a paradigm shift took place that altered the conditions for the emergence of civil society on global level. This has changed the political map of entire world and under such an environment, the South Asian region witnessed a tremendous growth of NGOs. During the past two decades, these civil society groups are struggling to withstand the fragile democratic environment. Many of these civil society groups are continuously fighting with the establishment in order to create suitable democratic governance, participative environment and facilitate developmental programmes at grass root level. NGOs are part of generic concept of civil society that constitutes plethora of institutions outside the state. They play an important role in articulating the views of downtrodden, bringing to limelight the violation of human rights and governance-related issues, among various others. It is in this background that the present chapter is a humble attempt to highlight the role of NGOs in the socio-economic development of South Asia.

Firdous Ahmad Dar

Chapter 4. The Nexus Between Responsibility to Protect (R2P) and Human Rights Journalism (HRJ)

In this chapter, the operation of Human Rights Journalism (HRJ) and Responsibility to Protect (R2P) are positioned within the theoretical frameworks of Kant’s Global Justice (On History. Library of Liberal Arts, Prentice Hall, 1963); Galtung’s ABC Conflict Triangle (Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilization. Sage, London, 1996); Parlevliet’s Iceberg Metaphor (Track Two 11:8–43, 2002), Dugan’s Nested Paradigm (A Leadership Journal: Women in Leadership 1:9–19, 1996) and Schirch’s Just Peace (2002). These theoretical foundations, on one hand, reinforce each other’s aims and expectations, and on the other, provide a common functional interface for both HRJ and R2P to find their footings, which then identifies five key elements that define the nexus between HRJ and R2P. The five key elements are (1) Just Cause and global justice advocacy (2) Human Rights-based approach (3) Just peace, peacebuilding and conflict prevention (4) Monitoring and accountability (5) Empowering, mobilising and intervening. These five key elements are characterised as Responsibility to Report (R2R) of the media, as coined by Thomson (2007).

Senthan Selvarajah

Chapter 8. Institutions for Development

The chapter deals with the challenging issues of developing institutions for development in Bangladesh. The analysis maintains that future development path of Bangladesh significantly depends upon the quality of its economic institutions. Since performance of economic institutions primarily reflects the nature of collective choices made by political institutions and distribution of political power, choice of Bangladesh’s future development would require an understanding of why political institutions create bad economic institutions and what instruments are available to create good political, and consequently good economic, institutions. Promoting democracy and accountability, and checks and balances, no doubt leads to better economic policies and institutions. For ensuring credible reforms in Bangladesh, institutional diagnostic tools may be used to identify weak institutional areas that restrict development, and indicate appropriate directions for reform.

Mustafa K. Mujeri, Neaz Mujeri

Modelling Policy Shift Advocacy

In this paper, we propose to enrich standard agent-based social simulation for policy-making with affordances inspired by second-order emergent social phenomena. Namely, we explore the inclusion of agents who have means to perceive, aggregate and respond to emergent collective outcomes, for example by promoting some reaction in other agents. These enhancements are intended for a subclass of socio-cognitive technical systems that we call value-driven policy-making systems. We motivate and illustrate our proposal with a model of policy shift advocacy in urban water management.

Antoni Perello-Moragues, Pablo Noriega, Lucia Alexandra Popartan, Manel Poch

Chapter 4. Bipolar Fuzzy Competition Graphs

In this chapter, we discuss the concept of bipolar fuzzy competition graphs and present several notions concerning bipolar fuzzy out neighborhoods, bipolar fuzzy in neighborhoods, bipolar fuzzy open neighborhood graphs, bipolar fuzzy closed neighborhood graphs, bipolar fuzzy $$\textit{\textbf{k}}-$$ competition graphs, and underlying bipolar fuzzy graphs. We describe various methods for the construction of bipolar fuzzy competition graphs of certain products of bipolar fuzzy digraphs. Using various constraints, we study the relations of bipolar fuzzy $$[\textit{\textbf{k}}]-$$ competition graphs, bipolar fuzzy $$(\textit{\textbf{k}})-$$ competition graphs, and underlying bipolar fuzzy graphs. We elaborate certain algorithms to compute the strength of competition with a number of real-world applications in different fields including food webs, business marketing, politics, wireless communication networks, and social networking.

Muhammad Akram, Musavarah Sarwar, Wieslaw A. Dudek

Chapter 9. Evaluation of Decentralization Programs

This chapter outlines an approach to evaluating decentralization initiatives. The basic methodology for evaluating individual decentralization projects is outlined with an elaboration of the components of decentralization and steps to be taken in the evaluation. The method for extending the evaluation across many projects follows. The problem of selecting or sampling the projects to be evaluated is discussed. Special treatment is given to projects on community-driven development. The chapter also presents thoughts on bringing the various analyses of a rather diverse set of projects together and putting the results into perspective.

Melville McMillan
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