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Über dieses Buch

The two-volume set LNCS 12110 and 12111 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 23rd IACR International Conference on the Practice and Theory of Public-Key Cryptography, PKC 2020, held in Edinburgh, UK, in May 2020.

The 44 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 180 submissions. They are organized in topical sections such as: functional encryption; identity-based encryption; obfuscation and applications; encryption schemes; secure channels; basic primitives with special properties; proofs and arguments; lattice-based cryptography; isogeny-based cryptography; multiparty protocols; secure computation and related primitives; post-quantum primitives; and privacy-preserving schemes.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Lattice-Based Cryptography

Frontmatter

The Randomized Slicer for CVPP: Sharper, Faster, Smaller, Batchier

Abstract
Following the recent line of work on solving the closest vector problem with preprocessing (CVPP) using approximate Voronoi cells, we improve upon previous results in the following ways:
  • We derive sharp asymptotic bounds on the success probability of the randomized slicer, by modelling the behaviour of the algorithm as a random walk on the coset of the lattice of the target vector. We thereby solve the open question left by Doulgerakis–Laarhoven–De Weger [PQCrypto 2019] and Laarhoven [MathCrypt 2019].
  • We obtain better trade-offs for CVPP and its generalisations (strictly, in certain regimes), both with and without nearest neighbour searching, as a direct result of the above sharp bounds on the success probabilities.
  • We show how to reduce the memory requirement of the slicer, and in particular the corresponding nearest neighbour data structures, using ideas similar to those proposed by Becker–Gama–Joux [Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2015]. Using \(2^{0.185d + o(d)}\) memory, we can solve a single CVPP instance in \(2^{0.264d + o(d)}\) time.
  • We further improve on the per-instance time complexities in certain memory regimes, when we are given a sufficiently large batch of CVPP problem instances for the same lattice. Using \(2^{0.208d + o(d)}\) memory, we can heuristically solve CVPP instances in \(2^{0.234d + o(d)}\) amortized time, for batches of size at least \(2^{0.058d + o(d)}\).
Our random walk model for analysing arbitrary-step transition probabilities in complex step-wise algorithms may be of independent interest, both for deriving analytic bounds through convexity arguments, and for computing optimal paths numerically with a shortest path algorithm. As a side result we apply the same random walk model to graph-based nearest neighbour searching, where we improve upon results of Laarhoven [SOCG 2018] by deriving sharp bounds on the success probability of the corresponding greedy search procedure.
Léo Ducas, Thijs Laarhoven, Wessel P. J. van Woerden

Tweaking the Asymmetry of Asymmetric-Key Cryptography on Lattices: KEMs and Signatures of Smaller Sizes

Abstract
Currently, lattice-based cryptosystems are less efficient than their number-theoretic counterparts (based on RSA, discrete logarithm, etc.) in terms of key and ciphertext (signature) sizes. For adequate security the former typically needs thousands of bytes while in contrast the latter only requires at most hundreds of bytes. This significant difference has become one of the main concerns in replacing currently deployed public-key cryptosystems with lattice-based ones. Observing the inherent asymmetries in existing lattice-based cryptosystems, we propose asymmetric variants of the (module-)LWE and (module-)SIS assumptions, which yield further size-optimized KEM and signature schemes than those from standard counterparts.
Following the framework of Lindner and Peikert (CT-RSA 2011) and the Crystals-Kyber proposal (EuroS&P 2018), we propose an IND-CCA secure KEM scheme from the hardness of the asymmetric module-LWE (AMLWE), whose asymmetry is fully exploited to obtain shorter public keys and ciphertexts. To target at a 128-bit quantum security, the public key (resp., ciphertext) of our KEM only has 896 bytes (resp., 992 bytes).
Our signature scheme bears most resemblance to and improves upon the Crystals-Dilithium scheme (ToCHES 2018). By making full use of the underlying asymmetric module-LWE and module-SIS assumptions and carefully selecting the parameters, we construct an SUF-CMA secure signature scheme with shorter public keys and signatures. For a 128-bit quantum security, the public key (resp., signature) of our signature scheme only has 1312 bytes (resp., 2445 bytes).
We adapt the best known attacks and their variants to our AMLWE and AMSIS problems and conduct a comprehensive and thorough analysis of several parameter choices (aiming at different security strengths) and their impacts on the sizes, security and error probability of lattice-based cryptosystems. Our analysis demonstrates that AMLWE and AMSIS problems admit more flexible and size-efficient choices of parameters than the respective standard versions.
Jiang Zhang, Yu Yu, Shuqin Fan, Zhenfeng Zhang, Kang Yang

MPSign: A Signature from Small-Secret Middle-Product Learning with Errors

Abstract
We describe a digital signature scheme \(\mathsf {MPSign}\), whose security relies on the conjectured hardness of the Polynomial Learning With Errors problem (\(\mathsf {PLWE}\)) for at least one defining polynomial within an exponential-size family (as a function of the security parameter). The proposed signature scheme follows the Fiat-Shamir framework and can be viewed as the Learning With Errors counterpart of the signature scheme described by Lyubashevsky at Asiacrypt 2016, whose security relies on the conjectured hardness of the Polynomial Short Integer Solution (\(\mathsf {PSIS}\)) problem for at least one defining polynomial within an exponential-size family. As opposed to the latter, \(\mathsf {MPSign}\) enjoys a security proof from \(\mathsf {PLWE}\) that is tight in the quantum-access random oracle model.
The main ingredient is a reduction from \(\mathsf {PLWE}\) for an arbitrary defining polynomial among exponentially many, to a variant of the Middle-Product Learning with Errors problem (\(\mathsf {MPLWE}\)) that allows for secrets that are small compared to the working modulus. We present concrete parameters for \(\mathsf {MPSign}\) using such small secrets, and show that they lead to significant savings in signature length over Lyubashevsky’s Asiacrypt 2016 scheme (which uses larger secrets) at typical security levels. As an additional small contribution, and in contrast to \(\mathsf {MPSign}\) (or \(\mathsf {MPLWE}\)), we present an efficient key-recovery attack against Lyubashevsky’s scheme (or the inhomogeneous \(\mathsf {PSIS}\) problem), when it is used with sufficiently small secrets, showing the necessity of a lower bound on secret size for the security of that scheme.
Shi Bai, Dipayan Das, Ryo Hiromasa, Miruna Rosca, Amin Sakzad, Damien Stehlé, Ron Steinfeld, Zhenfei Zhang

Proofs and Arguments II

Frontmatter

Witness Indistinguishability for Any Single-Round Argument with Applications to Access Control

Abstract
Consider an access policy for some resource which only allows access to users of the system who own a certain set of attributes. Specifically, we consider the case where such an access structure is defined by some monotone function \(f:\{0,1\}^N\rightarrow \{0,1\}\), belonging to some class of function \(F\) (e.g. conjunctions, space bounded computation), where N is the number of possible attributes.
In this work we show that any succinct single-round delegation scheme for the function class \(F\) can be converted into a succinct single-round private access control protocol. That is, a verifier can be convinced that an approved user (i.e. one which holds an approved set of attributes) is accessing the system, without learning any additional information about the user or the set of attributes.
As a main tool of independent interest, we show that assuming a quasi-polynomially secure two-message oblivious transfer scheme with statistical sender privacy (which can be based on quasi-polynomial hardness of the DDH, QR, DCR or LWE assumptions), we can convert any single-round protocol into a witness indistinguishable one, with similar communication complexity.
Zvika Brakerski, Yael Kalai

Boosting Verifiable Computation on Encrypted Data

Abstract
We consider the setting in which an untrusted server stores a collection of data and is asked to compute a function over it. In this scenario, we aim for solutions where the untrusted server does not learn information about the data and is prevented from cheating. This problem is addressed by verifiable and private delegation of computation, proposed by Gennaro, Gentry and Parno (CRYPTO’10), a notion that is close to both the active areas of homomorphic encryption and verifiable computation (VC). However, in spite of the efficiency advances in the respective areas, VC protocols that guarantee privacy of the inputs are still expensive. The only exception is a protocol by Fiore, Gennaro and Pastro (CCS’14) that supports arithmetic circuits of degree at most 2. In this paper we propose new efficient protocols for VC on encrypted data that improve over the state of the art solution of Fiore et al. in multiple aspects. First, we can support computations of degree higher than 2. Second, we achieve public delegatability and public verifiability whereas Fiore et al. need the same secret key to encode inputs and verify outputs. Third, we achieve a new property that guarantees that verifiers can be convinced about the correctness of the outputs without learning information on the inputs. The key tool to obtain our new protocols is a new SNARK that can efficiently handle computations over a quotient polynomial ring, such as the one used by Ring-LWE somewhat homomorphic encryption schemes. This SNARK in turn relies on a new commit-and-prove SNARK for proving evaluations on the same point of several committed polynomials. We propose a construction of this scheme under an extractability assumption over bilinear groups in the random oracle model.
Dario Fiore, Anca Nitulescu, David Pointcheval

Isogeny-Based Cryptography

Frontmatter

Lossy CSI-FiSh: Efficient Signature Scheme with Tight Reduction to Decisional CSIDH-512

Abstract
Recently, Beullens, Kleinjung, and Vercauteren (Asiacrypt’19) provided the first practical isogeny-based digital signature, obtained from the Fiat-Shamir (FS) paradigm. They worked with the CSIDH-512 parameters and passed through a new record class group computation. However, as with all standard FS signatures, the security proof is highly non-tight and the concrete parameters are set under the heuristic that the only way to attack the scheme is by finding collisions for a hash function.
In this paper, we propose an FS-style signature scheme, called Lossy CSI-FiSh, constructed using the CSIDH-512 parameters and with a security proof based on the “Lossy Keys” technique introduced by Kiltz, Lyubashevsky and Schaffner (Eurocrypt’18). Lossy CSI-FiSh is provably secure under the same assumption which underlies the security of the key exchange protocol CSIDH (Castryck et al. (Asiacrypt’18)) and is almost as efficient as CSI-FiSh. For instance, aiming for small signature size, our scheme is expected to take around \(\approx 800\) ms to sign/verify while producing signatures of size \(\approx 280\) bytes. This is only twice slower than CSI-FiSh while having similar signature size for the same parameter set. As an additional benefit, our scheme is by construction secure both in the classical and quantum random oracle model.
Ali El Kaafarani, Shuichi Katsumata, Federico Pintore

Threshold Schemes from Isogeny Assumptions

Abstract
We initiate the study of threshold schemes based on the Hard Homogeneous Spaces (HHS) framework of Couveignes. Quantum-resistant HHS based on supersingular isogeny graphs have recently become usable thanks to the record class group precomputation performed for the signature scheme CSI-FiSh.
Using the HHS equivalent of the technique of Shamir’s secret sharing in the exponents, we adapt isogeny based schemes to the threshold setting. In particular we present threshold versions of the CSIDH public key encryption, and the CSI-FiSh signature schemes.
The main highlight is a threshold version of CSI-FiSh which runs almost as fast as the original scheme, for message sizes as low as 1880 B, public key sizes as low as 128 B, and thresholds up to 56; other speed-size-threshold compromises are possible.
Luca De Feo, Michael Meyer

Multiparty Protocols

Frontmatter

Topology-Hiding Computation for Networks with Unknown Delays

Abstract
Topology-Hiding Computation (THC) allows a set of parties to securely compute a function over an incomplete network without revealing information on the network topology. Since its introduction in TCC’15 by Moran et al., the research on THC has focused on reducing the communication complexity, allowing larger graph classes, and tolerating stronger corruption types.
All of these results consider a fully synchronous model with a known upper bound on the maximal delay of all communication channels. Unfortunately, in any realistic setting this bound has to be extremely large, which makes all fully synchronous protocols inefficient. In the literature on multi-party computation, this is solved by considering the fully asynchronous model. However, THC is unachievable in this model (and even hard to define), leaving even the definition of a meaningful model as an open problem.
The contributions of this paper are threefold. First, we introduce a meaningful model of unknown and random communication delays for which THC is both definable and achievable. The probability distributions of the delays can be arbitrary for each channel, but one needs to make the (necessary) assumption that the delays are independent. The existing fully-synchronous THC protocols do not work in this setting and would, in particular, leak information about the topology. Second, in the model with trusted stateless hardware boxes introduced at Eurocrypt’18 by Ball et al., we present a THC protocol that works for any graph class. Third, we explore what is achievable in the standard model without trusted hardware and present a THC protocol for specific graph types (cycles and trees) secure under the DDH assumption. The speed of all protocols scales with the actual (unknown) delay times, in contrast to all previously known THC protocols whose speed is determined by the assumed upper bound on the network delay.
Rio LaVigne, Chen-Da Liu-Zhang, Ueli Maurer, Tal Moran, Marta Mularczyk, Daniel Tschudi

Sublinear-Round Byzantine Agreement Under Corrupt Majority

Abstract
Although Byzantine Agreement (BA) has been studied for three decades, perhaps somewhat surprisingly, there still exist significant gaps in our understanding regarding its round complexity. A long-standing open question is the following: can we achieve BA with sublinear round complexity under corrupt majority? Due to the beautiful works by Garay et al. (FOCS’07) and Fitzi and Nielsen (DISC’09), we have partial and affirmative answers to this question albeit for the narrow regime \(f = n/2 + o(n)\) where f is the number of corrupt nodes and n is the total number of nodes. So far, no positive result is known about the setting \(f > 0.51n\) even for static corruption!
In this paper, we make progress along this somewhat stagnant front. We show that there exists a corrupt-majority BA protocol that terminates in \(O(\frac{1}{\epsilon } \log \frac{1}{\delta })\) rounds in the worst case, satisfies consistency with probability at least \(1 - \delta \), and tolerates \((1-\epsilon )\) fraction of corrupt nodes. Our protocol secures against an adversary that can corrupt nodes adaptively during the protocol execution but cannot perform “after-the-fact” removal of honest messages that have already been sent prior to corruption. Our upper bound is optimal up to a logarithmic factor in light of the elegant \(\varOmega (1/\epsilon )\) lower bound by Garay et al. (FOCS’07).
T.-H. Hubert Chan, Rafael Pass, Elaine Shi

Bandwidth-Efficient Threshold EC-DSA

Abstract
Threshold Signatures allow n parties to share the power of issuing digital signatures so that any coalition of size at least \(t+1\) can sign, whereas groups of t or less players cannot. Over the last few years many schemes addressed the question of realizing efficient threshold variants for the specific case of EC-DSA signatures. In this paper we present new solutions to the problem that aim at reducing the overall bandwidth consumption. Our main contribution is a new variant of the Gennaro and Goldfeder protocol from ACM CCS 2018 that avoids all the required range proofs, while retaining provable security against malicious adversaries in the dishonest majority setting. Our experiments show that – for all levels of security – our signing protocol reduces the bandwidth consumption of best previously known secure protocols for factors varying between 4.4 and 9, while key generation is consistently two times less expensive. Furthermore compared to these same protocols, our signature generation is faster for 192-bits of security and beyond.
Guilhem Castagnos, Dario Catalano, Fabien Laguillaumie, Federico Savasta, Ida Tucker

Secure Computation and Related Primitives

Frontmatter

Blazing Fast OT for Three-Round UC OT Extension

Abstract
Oblivious Transfer (OT) is an important building block for multi-party computation (MPC). Since OT requires expensive public-key operations, efficiency-conscious MPC protocols use an OT extension (OTE) mechanism [Beaver 96, Ishai et al. 03] to provide the functionality of many independent OT instances with the same sender and receiver, using only symmetric-key operations plus few instances of some base OT protocol. Consequently there is significant interest in constructing OTE friendly protocols, namely protocols that, when used as base-OT for OTE, result in extended OT that are both round-efficient and cost-efficient. We present the most efficient OTE-friendly protocol to date. Specifically:
  • Our base protocol incurs only 3 exponentiations per instance.
  • Our base protocol results in a 3 round extended OT protocol.
  • The extended protocol is UC secure in the Observable Random Oracle Model (ROM) under the CDH assumption.
For comparison, the state of the art for base OTs that result in 3-round OTE are proven only in the programmable ROM, and require 4 exponentiations under Interactive DDH or 6 exponentiations under DDH [Masney-Rindal 19]. We also implement our protocol and benchmark it against the Simplest OT protocol [Chou and Orlandi, Latincrypt 2015], which is the most efficient and widely used OT protocol but not known to suffice for OTE. The computation cost is roughly the same in both cases. Interestingly, our base OT is also 3 rounds. However, we slightly modify the extension mechanism (which normally adds a round) so as to preserve the number of rounds in our case.
Ran Canetti, Pratik Sarkar, Xiao Wang

Going Beyond Dual Execution: MPC for Functions with Efficient Verification

Abstract
The dual execution paradigm of Mohassel and Franklin (PKC’06) and Huang, Katz and Evans (IEEE ’12) shows how to achieve the notion of 1-bit leakage security at roughly twice the cost of semi-honest security for the special case of two-party secure computation. To date, there are no multi-party computation (MPC) protocols that offer such a strong trade-off between security and semi-honest performance.
Our main result is to address this shortcoming by designing 1-bit leakage protocols for the multi-party setting, albeit for a special class of functions. We say that function f(xy) is efficiently verifiable by g if the running time of g is always smaller than f and \(g(x,y,z)=1\) if and only if \(f(x,y)=z\).
In the two-party setting, we first improve dual execution by observing that the “second execution” can be an evaluation of g instead of f, and that by definition, the evaluation of g is asymptotically more efficient.
Our main MPC result is to construct a 1-bit leakage protocol for such functions from any passive protocol for f that is secure up to additive errors and any active protocol for g. An important result by Genkin et al. (STOC ’14) shows how the classic protocols by Goldreich et al. (STOC ’87) and Ben-Or et al. (STOC ’88) naturally support this property, which allows to instantiate our compiler with two-party and multi-party protocols.
A key technical result we prove is that the passive protocol for distributed garbling due to Beaver et al. (STOC ’90) is in fact secure up to additive errors against malicious adversaries, thereby, yielding another powerful instantiation of our paradigm in the constant-round multi-party setting.
As another concrete example of instantiating our approach, we present a novel protocol for computing perfect matching that is secure in the 1-bit leakage model and whose communication complexity is less than the honest-but-curious implementations of textbook algorithms for perfect matching.
Carmit Hazay, Abhi Shelat, Muthuramakrishnan Venkitasubramaniam

Mona: Fast Maliciously Secure Two Party Computation on

Abstract
In this paper we present a new 2-party protocol for secure computation over rings of the form \(\mathbb {Z}_{2^k}\). As many recent efficient MPC protocols supporting dishonest majority, our protocol consists of a heavier (input-independent) pre-processing phase and a very efficient online stage. Our offline phase is similar to BeDOZa (Bendlin et al. Eurocrypt 2011) but employs Joye-Libert (JL, Eurocrypt 2013) as underlying homomorphic cryptosystem and, notably, it can be proven secure without resorting to the expensive sacrifice step. JL turns out to be particularly well suited for the ring setting as it naturally supports \(\mathbb {Z}_{2^k}\) as underlying message space. Moreover, it enjoys several additional properties (such as valid ciphertext-verifiability and efficiency) that make it a very good fit for MPC in general. As a main technical contribution we show how to take advantage of all these properties (and of more properties that we introduce in this work, such as a ZK proof of correct multiplication) in order to design a two-party protocol that is efficient, fast and easy to implement in practice.
Our solution is particularly well suited for relatively large choices of k (e.g. \(k=128\)), but compares favorably with the state of the art solution of SPD\(\mathbb {Z}_{2^k}\) (Cramer et al. Crypto 2018) already for the practically very relevant case of \(\mathbb {Z}_{2^{64}}\).
Dario Catalano, Mario Di Raimondo, Dario Fiore, Irene Giacomelli

Post-Quantum Primitives

Frontmatter

Generic Authenticated Key Exchange in the Quantum Random Oracle Model

Abstract
We propose \(\mathsf {FO_\mathsf {AKE}}\), a generic construction of two-message authenticated key exchange (AKE) from any passively secure public key encryption (PKE) in the quantum random oracle model (QROM). Whereas previous AKE constructions relied on a Diffie-Hellman key exchange or required the underlying PKE scheme to be perfectly correct, our transformation allows arbitrary PKE schemes with non-perfect correctness. Dealing with imperfect schemes is one of the major difficulties in a setting involving active attacks. Our direct construction, when applied to schemes such as the submissions to the recent NIST post-quantum competition, is more natural than previous AKE transformations. Furthermore, we avoid the use of (quantum-secure) digital signature schemes which are considerably less efficient than their PKE counterparts. As a consequence, we can instantiate our AKE transformation with any of the submissions to the recent NIST competition, e.g., ones based on codes and lattices.
\(\mathsf {FO_\mathsf {AKE}}\) can be seen as a generalisation of the well known Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation (for building actively secure PKE from passively secure PKE) to the AKE setting. As a helper result, we also provide a security proof for the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation in the QROM for PKE with non-perfect correctness which is tighter and tolerates a larger correctness error than previous proofs.
Kathrin Hövelmanns, Eike Kiltz, Sven Schäge, Dominique Unruh

Threshold Ring Signatures: New Definitions and Post-quantum Security

Abstract
A t-out-of-N threshold ring signature allows t parties to jointly and anonymously compute a signature on behalf on N public keys, selected in an arbitrary manner among the set of all public keys registered in the system.
Existing definitions for t-out-of-N threshold ring signatures guarantee security only when the public keys are honestly generated, and many even restrict the ability of the adversary to actively participate in the computation of the signatures. Such definitions do not capture the open settings envisioned for threshold ring signatures, where parties can independently add themselves to the system, and join other parties for the computation of the signature.
Furthermore, known constructions of threshold ring signatures are not provably secure in the post-quantum setting, either because they are based on non-post quantum secure problems (e.g. Discrete Log, RSA), or because they rely on transformations such as Fiat-Shamir, that are not always secure in the quantum random oracle model (QROM).
In this paper, we provide the first definition of t-out-of-N threshold ring signatures against active adversaries who can participate in the system and arbitrarily deviate from the prescribed procedures. Second, we present a post-quantum secure realization based on any (post-quantum secure) trapdoor commitment, which we prove secure in the QROM. Our construction is black-box and it can be instantiated with any trapdoor commitment, thus allowing the use of a variety of hardness assumptions.
Abida Haque, Alessandra Scafuro

Tight and Optimal Reductions for Signatures Based on Average Trapdoor Preimage Sampleable Functions and Applications to Code-Based Signatures

Abstract
The GPV construction [GPV08] presents a generic construction of signature schemes in the Hash and Sign paradigm and is used in some lattice based signatures. This construction requires a family \(\mathcal {F}\) of trapdoor preimage sampleable functions (TPSF). In this work we extend this notion to the weaker Average TPSF (ATPSF) and show that the GPV construction also holds for ATPSF in the Random Oracle Model (ROM). We also introduce the problem of finding a Claw with a random function (Claw(RF)) and present a tight security reduction to the Claw(RF) problem. Our reduction is also optimal meaning that an algorithm that solves the Claw(RF) problem breaks the scheme. We extend these results to the quantum setting and prove this same tight and optimal reduction in the QROM. Finally, we apply these results to code-based signatures, notably the Wave signature scheme and prove security for it in the ROM and the QROM, improving and extending the original analysis of [DST19a].
André Chailloux, Thomas Debris-Alazard

Cryptanalysis and Concrete Security

Frontmatter

Faster Cofactorization with ECM Using Mixed Representations

Abstract
This paper introduces a novel implementation of the elliptic curve factoring method specifically designed for medium-size integers such as those arising by billions in the cofactorization step of the Number Field Sieve. In this context, our algorithm requires fewer modular multiplications than any other publicly available implementation. The main ingredients are: the use of batches of primes, fast point tripling, optimal double-base decompositions and Lucas chains, and a good mix of Edwards and Montgomery representations.
Cyril Bouvier, Laurent Imbert

Improved Classical Cryptanalysis of SIKE in Practice

Abstract
The main contribution of this work is an optimized implementation of the van Oorschot-Wiener (vOW) parallel collision finding algorithm. As is typical for cryptanalysis against conjectured hard problems (e. g. factoring or discrete logarithms), challenges can arise in the implementation that are not captured in the theory, making the performance of the algorithm in practice a crucial element of estimating security. We present a number of novel improvements, both to generic instantiations of the vOW algorithm finding collisions in arbitrary functions, and to its instantiation in the context of the supersingular isogeny key encapsulation (SIKE) protocol, that culminate in an improved classical cryptanalysis of the computational supersingular isogeny (CSSI) problem. In particular, we present a scalable implementation that can be applied to the Round-2 parameter sets of SIKE that can be used to give confidence in their security levels.
Craig Costello, Patrick Longa, Michael Naehrig, Joost Renes, Fernando Virdia

A Short-List of Pairing-Friendly Curves Resistant to Special TNFS at the 128-Bit Security Level

Abstract
There have been notable improvements in discrete logarithm computations in finite fields since 2015 and the introduction of the Tower Number Field Sieve algorithm (TNFS) for extension fields. The Special TNFS is very efficient in finite fields that are target groups of pairings on elliptic curves, where the characteristic is special (e.g. sparse). The key sizes for pairings should be increased, and alternative pairing-friendly curves can be considered. We revisit the Special variant of TNFS for pairing-friendly curves. In this case the characteristic is given by a polynomial of moderate degree (between 4 and 38) and tiny coefficients, evaluated at an integer (a seed). We present a polynomial selection with a new practical trade-off between degree and coefficient size. As a consequence, the security of curves computed by Barbulescu, El Mrabet and Ghammam in 2019 should be revised: we obtain a smaller estimated cost of STNFS for all curves except BLS12 and BN. To obtain TNFS-secure curves, we reconsider the Brezing–Weng generic construction of families of pairing-friendly curves and estimate the cost of our new Special TNFS algorithm for these curves. This improves on the work of Fotiadis and Konstantinou, Fotiadis and Martindale, and Barbulescu, El Mrabet and Ghammam. We obtain a short-list of interesting families of curves that are resistant to the Special TNFS algorithm, of embedding degrees 10 to 16 for the 128-bit security level. We conclude that at the 128-bit security level, BLS-12 and Fotiadis–Konstantinou–Martindale curves with \(k=12\) over a 440 to 448-bit prime field seem to be the best choice for pairing efficiency. We also give hints at the 192-bit security level.
Aurore Guillevic

Privacy-Preserving Schemes

Frontmatter

Privacy-Preserving Authenticated Key Exchange and the Case of IKEv2

Abstract
In this paper, we present a strong, formal, and general-purpose cryptographic model for privacy-preserving authenticated key exchange (PPAKE) protocols. PPAKE protocols are secure in the traditional AKE sense but additionally guarantee the confidentiality of the identities used in communication sessions. Our model has several useful and novel features, among others: it is a proper extension of classical AKE models, guarantees in a strong sense that the confidentiality of session keys is independent from the secrecy of the used identities, and it is the first to support what we call dynamic modes, where the responsibility of selecting the identities of the communication partners may vary over several protocol runs. We show the validity of our model by applying it to the cryptographic core of IPsec IKEv2 with signature-based authentication where the need for dynamic modes is practically well-motivated. In our analysis, we not only show that this protocol provides strong classical AKE security guarantees but also that the identities that are used by the parties remain hidden in successful protocol runs. Historically, the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol was the first real-world AKE to incorporate privacy-preserving techniques. However, lately privacy-preserving techniques have gained renewed interest in the design process of important protocols like TLS 1.3 (with encrypted SNI) and NOISE. We believe that our new model can be a solid foundation to analyze these and other practical protocols with respect to their privacy guarantees, in particular, in the now so wide-spread scenario where multiple virtual servers are hosted on a single machine.
Sven Schäge, Jörg Schwenk, Sebastian Lauer

Linearly-Homomorphic Signatures and Scalable Mix-Nets

Abstract
Anonymity is a primary ingredient for our digital life. Several tools have been designed to address it such as, for authentication, blind signatures, group signatures or anonymous credentials and, for confidentiality, randomizable encryption or mix-nets. When it comes to complex electronic voting schemes, random shuffling of authenticated ciphertexts with mix-nets is the only known tool. However, it requires huge and complex zero-knowledge proofs to guarantee the actual permutation of the initial ciphertexts in a privacy-preserving way.
In this paper, we propose a new approach for proving correct shuffling of signed ElGamal ciphertexts: the mix-servers can simply randomize individual ballots, which means the ciphertexts, the signatures, and the verification keys, with an additional global proof of constant size, and the output will be publicly verifiable. The security proof is in the generic bilinear group model. The computational complexity for the each mix-server is linear in the number of ballots. Verification is also linear in the number of ballots, but independent of the number of rounds of mixing. This leads to a new highly scalable technique. Our construction makes use of linearly-homomorphic signatures, with new features, that are of independent interest.
Chloé Hébant, Duong Hieu Phan, David Pointcheval

Efficient Redactable Signature and Application to Anonymous Credentials

Abstract
Let us assume that Alice has received a constant-size signature on a set of messages \(\{m_i\}_{i=1}^n\) from some organization. Depending on the situation, Alice might need to disclose, prove relations about or hide some of these messages. Ideally, the complexity of the corresponding protocols should not depend on the hidden messages. In particular, if Alice wants to disclose only k messages, then the authenticity of the latter should be verifiable in at most O(k) operations.
Many solutions were proposed over the past decades, but they only provide a partial answer to this problem. In particular, we note that they suffer either from the need to prove knowledge of the hidden elements or from the inability to prove that the latter satisfy some relations.
In this paper, we propose a very efficient constant-size redactable signature scheme that addresses all the problems above. Signatures can indeed be redacted to remain valid only on a subset of k messages included in \(\{m_i\}_{i=1}^n\). The resulting redacted signature consists of 4 elements and can be verified with essentially k exponentiations. Different shows of the same signature can moreover be made unlinkable leading to a very efficient anonymous credentials system.
Olivier Sanders

Backmatter

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