Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
The scarcity of the available radio spectrum coupled with the growing popularity of bandwidth intensive mobile video applications poses a huge challenge to network operators. The solution of over-provisioning the network is not economical; hence, an appropriate strategy for scheduling and resource allocation among the users in the system is of crucial importance. This work focuses on scheduling multiple video flows on the downlink of a wireless system based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), such as Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and LTE-A (LTE-Advanced) standards. We propose a joint multi-user scheduling and multi-user rate adaptation strategy providing an appropriate trade-off between efficiency and fairness, while ensuring high quality of experience (QoE) for the end users. We consider Scalable Video Coding (SVC) which facilitates the truncation of bit streams, thus allowing graceful degradation of video quality in the event of wireless channel variations or network congestion. The proposed scheduler utilizes QoE-aware priority marking, where video layers are mapped to priority classes and targets at minimizing delay bound violations for the most important priority classes under congestion. In order to reduce congestion, we propose multi-user rate adaptation at the MAC layer via a novel dynamic filtering policy for QoE-based priority classes.
Simulation results show that the proposed approach delivers to the end users a similar QoE as delivered by the state-of-the-art cross-layer approaches, where extensive cross-layer signaling, additional video rate adaptation modules at the core network, and frequent link probing from the wireless access network to the rate adaptation modules are required. The latter approaches are not implemented in real systems due to the aforementioned drawbacks, while our approach can be implemented without major modifications in the standard behavior of existing networks and equipment. The proposed framework can deliver delay-sensitive traffic as well as delay-tolerant best-effort traffic.
Cisco Systems, Cisco Visual Networking Index: global mobile data traffic forecast update, 2014-2019. White Paper (2015).
H Schwarz, D Marpe, T Wiegand, Overview of the scalable video coding extension of the H.264/AVC standard. IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Technol. 17(9), 1103–1120 (2007). CrossRef
GJ Sullivan, JM Boyce, Y Chen, JR Ohm, A Segall, A Vetro, Standardized extensions of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). IEEE J. Sel. Top. Sign. Process. 7(6), 1001–1016 (2013). CrossRef
ETSI TR 102 643 V101, Human factors (HF); quality of experience (QoE) requirements for real-time communication services. Tech. rep., European Telecommunications Standards Institute (2009).
ITU-R BT 500-11, Recommendation, methodology for the subjective assessment of the quality of television pictures. Tech. rep., International Telecommunication Union (2002).
ZN Li, MS Drew, J Liu, Fundamentals of multimedia (Springer, 2014).
Z Wang, AC Bovik, HR Sheikh, EP Simoncelli, Image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004). CrossRef
M Razaak, M Martini, K Savino, A study on quality assessment for medical ultrasound video compressed via HEVC. IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 18(5), 1552–1559 (2014). CrossRef
F Li, D Zhang, M Wang, Multiuser multimedia communication over orthogonal frequency-division multiple access downlink systems. Concurr. Comput. Pract. Experience. 25(9), 1081–1090 (2013). CrossRef
F Li, G Liu, L He, A low complexity algorithm of packet scheduling and resource allocation for wireless VoD systems. IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 56(2), 1057–1062 (2010). CrossRef
P Li, Y Chang, N Feng, F Yang, A cross-layer algorithm of packet scheduling and resource allocation for multi-user wireless video transmission. IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 57(3), 1128–1134 (2011). CrossRef
F Li, P Ren, Q Du, Joint packet scheduling and subcarrier assignment for video communications over downlink OFDMA systems. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 61(6), 2753–2767 (2012). CrossRef
Y Zhang, G Liu, Fine granularity resource allocation algorithm for video transmission in orthogonal frequency division multiple access system. IET Commun. 7(13), 1383–1393 (2013). CrossRef
S Thakolsri, W Kellerer, S Khan, E Steinbach, QoE-driven cross-layer optimization for high speed downlink packet access. J. Commun. 4(9), 669–680 (2009). CrossRef
S Thakolsri, W Kellerer, E Steinbach, in International Conference on Communications and Networking in China (ChinaCOM). Application-driven cross layer optimization for wireless networks using MOS-based utility functions (Xi An, 2009).
S Cicalò, V Tralli, Distortion-fair cross-layer resource allocation for scalable video transmission in OFDMA wireless networks. IEEE Trans. Multimed. 16(3), 848–863 (2014). CrossRef
A Ahmedin, K Pandit, D Ghosal, A Ghosh, in International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking (ICDCN). Exploiting scalable video coding for content-aware downlink video delivery over LTE (SpringerCoimbatore, 2014), pp. 423–437. CrossRef
B Fu, D Staehle, G Kunzmann, E Steinbach, W Keller, QoE-based SVC layer dropping in LTE networks using content-aware layer priorities. ACM Trans. Multimed. Comput. Commun. Appl. 18(5), 1–23 (2014).
N Khan, M Martini, in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) - Workshop on Smart Communication Protocols and Algorithms. Hysteresis based rate adaptation for scalable video traffic over an LTE downlink (London, 2015).
N Khan, MM Nasralla, M Martini, in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) - Workshop on Quality of Experience-based Management for Future Internet Applications and Services (QoE-FI). Network and user centric performance analysis of scheduling strategies for video streaming over LTE (London, 2015).
G Liebl, T Stockhammer, C Buchner, A Klein, in Packet Video Workshop. Radio link buffer management and scheduling for video streaming over wireless shared channels (Irvine, 2004).
G Liebl, H Jenkac, T Stockhammer, C Buchner, Radio link buffer management and scheduling for wireless video streaming. Telecommun. Syst. Springer Sci. Bus. Media B.V. 30/1–3:, 255–277 (2005).
PV Pahalawatta, R Berry, TN Pappas, AK Katsaggelos, Content-aware resource allocation and packet scheduling for video transmission over wireless networks. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (JSAC). 25(4), 749–759 (2007). CrossRef
L Choi, W Kellerer, E Steinbach, On cross-layer design for streaming video delivery in multiuser wireless environments. Eurasip J. Wirel. Commun. Netw. 2006:, 060349 (2006). CrossRef
N Khan, MG Martini, Z Bharucha, in IEEE International Workshop on Signal Processing and Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC). Quality-aware fair downlink scheduling for scalable video transmission over LTE systems (Cesme, 2012).
N Khan, MG Martini, D Staehle, in IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC). Opportunistic proportional fair downlink scheduling for scalable video transmission over LTE systems (Las Vegas, 2013).
Y Ju, Z Lu, D Ling, X Wen, W Zheng, W Ma, QoE-based cross-layer design for video applications over LTE. Multimed. Tools Appl. 72(2), 1093–1113 (2014). CrossRef
M Rugelj, U Sedlar, M Volk, J Sterle, M Hajdinjak, A Kos, Novel cross-layer QoE-aware radio resource allocation algorithms in multiuser OFDMA systems. IEEE Trans. Commun. 62(9), 3196–3208 (2014). CrossRef
ITU-R BT 500-13, Recommendation, methodology for the subjective assessment of the quality of television pictures. Tech. rep., International Telecommunication Union (2012).
ITU-T P910, Recommendation, Subjective video quality assessment methods for multimedia applications. Tech. rep., International Telecommunication Union (2008).
MH Pinson, S Wolf, A new standardized method for objectively measuring video quality. IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 50(3), 312–322 (2004). CrossRef
P Amon, T Rathgen, D Singer, File format for scalable video coding. IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Technol. 17(9), 1174–1185 (2007). CrossRef
S Wenger, Y Wang, T Schierl, Transport and signaling of SVC in IP networks. IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Technol. 17(9), 1164–1173 (2007). CrossRef
B Fu, D Staehle, G Kunzmann, E Steinbach, W Kellerer, in 8th ACM workshop on performance monitoring and measurement of heterogeneous wireless and wired networks. QoE-aware priority marking and traffic management for H.264/SVC-based mobile video delivery (Barcelona, 2013).
GJ Sullivan, JR Ohm, WJ Han, T Wiegand, Overview of the high efficiency video coding standard. IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Technol. 22(12), 1648–1667 (2012). CrossRef
S Tsai, A Soong, Effective-SNR mapping for modeling frame error rates in multiple-state channels. 3GPP2, Tech. Rep. 3GPP2-C30-20030429-010 (2003).
C Mehlfuhrer, M Wrulich, JC Ikuno, D Bosanska, M Rupp, in European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO). Simulating the long term evolution physical layer (Glasgow, 2009).
C Mehlfuhrer, JC Ikuno, M Simko, S Schwarz, M Wrulich, M Rupp, The Vienna LTE simulators—enabling reproducibility in wireless communications research. EURASIP J. Adv. Sig. Process. 2011:, 29 (2011). CrossRef
F Capozzi, G Piro, L Grieco, G Boggia, P Camarda, Downlink packet scheduling in LTE cellular networks: key design issues and a survey. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 15(2), 1–23 (2012).
CY Wong, RS Cheng, KB Letaief, RD Murch, Multicarrier OFDM with adaptive subcarrier, bit, and power allocation. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17(10), 1747–1758 (1999). CrossRef
I Kim, HL Lee, B Kim, YH Lee, in IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM). On the use of linear programming for dynamic subchannel and bit allocation in multiuser OFDM (San Antonio, 2001).
M Andrews, K Kumaran, K Ramanan, A Stolyar, P Whiting, R Vijayakumar, Providing quality of service (QoS) over a shared wireless link. IEEE Commun. Mag. 39(2), 150–154 (2001). CrossRef
JH Rhee, JM Holtzman, DK Kim, Performance analysis of the adaptive EXP/PF channel scheduler in an AMC/TDM system. IEEE Commun. Lett. 8(8), 497–499 (2004). CrossRef
B Sadiq, R Madan, A Sampath, Downlink scheduling for multiclass traffic in LTE. EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw. 2009:, 510617 (2009). CrossRef
N Khan, MG Martini, D Staehle, QoS-aware composite scheduling using fuzzy proactive and reactive controllers. EURASIP J. Wirel. Commun. Netw. 2014:, 138 (2014). CrossRef
N Khan, MG Martini, D Staehle, in IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC). QoS-aware fair downlink scheduling for delay sensitive applications using fuzzy reactive and proactive controllers (Las Vegas, 2013).
N Khan, MG Martini, Z Bharucha, G Auer, in IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). Opportunistic packet loss fair scheduling for delay-sensitive applications over LTE systems (Paris, 2012).
3GPP TS 23203, Release 9, Group services and system aspects—policy and charging control architecture. Tech. rep., 3GPP (2009).
C Horch, J Habigt, C Keimel, K Diepold, in IEEE International Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX). Evaluation of video quality fluctuations using pattern categorization (Singapore, 2014).
H Hu, X Zhu, Y Wang, R Pan, J Zhu, F Bonomi, in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). QoE-based multi-stream scalable video adaptation over wireless networks with proxy (Ottawa, 2012).
HAM Ramli, R Basukala, K Sandrasegaran, R Patachaianand, in IEEE Malaysia International Conference on Communications (MICC). Performance of well known packet scheduling algorithms in downlink 3GPP LTE system (Kuala Lumpur, 2009).
- QoE-driven multi-user scheduling and rate adaptation with reduced cross-layer signaling for scalable video streaming over LTE wireless systems
Maria G. Martini
- Springer International Publishing
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking
Elektronische ISSN: 1687-1499
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA