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A research network has examined how quality management is implemented in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in Europe and what the consequences are for the qualification needs of employees. The research has taken place within the framework of the Leonardo da Vinci programme, which is an action programme of the European Commission DG XXII - Education Training and Youth. This book presents conclusions including three parts: "Results" deriving from the sector studies - specialised "Scientific contributions" of network partners - "Action-oriented dialogue" documenting comments of key actors in vocational training from the participating countries. Special objectives are: Support of quality-oriented development of SMEs and their staff; Support of quality-oriented development of vocational education and training; Support of implementation requirements including regional aspects.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Intoduction

Introduction

Abstract
Skill needs analyses are action-oriented research. Particularly in the field of vocational training, planers and decision-makers in politics and economy search for guidelines for training strategies that qualify people to participate in the shaping of the quick economic and technological change. A European skill needs analysis contributes to the development of such guidelines but it cannot do it all on its own. It needs the dialogue with the practical educational actors in politics and economy. In a European dimension, too, the concrete training needs are defined distinctly in terms of the actual state and the desired state: in regions, at the level of sectors of the economy, at the level of companies. The same applies all the more to the practical translation of identified trends of needs into new training strategies and contents in the differentiated educational landscape Europe’s through a multitude of actors and providers of training.
Johannes Köper, Hans Jürgen Zaremba

Results

Frontmatter

Central results of the sector studies on the metalworking and food industries

Abstract
This contribution describes the central results of two sector studies on quality management and qualification needs in metalworking and food-processing SMEs in seven partner countries of the European Union between December 1995 and November 1997. These studies are based on expert interviews in the companies which have been evaluated in case studies on individual companies and with quantitative and qualitative methods at a sectoral level. The surveys and analyses were conducted by a research network with the aim of working out recommendations for the innovation of vocational training in Europe.
Johannes Köper, Hans-Jürgen Zaremba

Guidelines for quality-oriented personnel development in small and medium-sized enterprises

Abstract
This contribution is based on a European survey on quality management and qualification needs in small and medium-sized enterprises of the metalworking and food industries. It does not merely give an account of the current needs and training efforts in the companies. It draws conclusions from the identified weak points and takes up examples of good practice. In a critical analysis of the current situation it seeks proactive solutions.
Johannes Köper, Hans-Jürgen Zaremba

Recommendations for the vocational training in Europe

Abstract
This paper is based on a European survey on quality management and qualification needs in small and medium-sized enterprises of the metalworking and food industries. The survey is focused on the concrete implementation practice of quality management and its impact on the work organisation and personnel policy in small and medium-sized enterprises. The methodology chosen was conducting expert interviews with managerial staff and evaluating them in case studies on individual companies.
Johannes Köper, Hans-Jürgen Zaremba

Scientific contributions

Frontmatter

Quality systems and training. The case of Portugal

Abstract
Quality is considered more and more to be of primary importance for competitiveness, becoming the main dynamic factor within the present global market, in which the internal European market plays an essential role.
Alberto Peres Alves

Quality management, management and training. A contingency approach

Abstract
Over the past decade many commentators have highlighted quality and the management thereof as being of fundamental importance towards the attainment of a competitive advantage. The combination of mature, highly competitive markets and the pressure on companies to become low cost suppliers whilst at the same time maintaining consistently high levels of quality has resulted in the emergence of quality as a “strategic imperative” for many organisations.
Sean de Burca, Brian Fynes

The use of information technology as a tool for vocational training in quality implementation

Abstract
Within the framework of the Leonardo da Vinci project “Quality Management and qualification needs analysis”, several areas for competence development in connection with the implementation of quality systems have been identified. Correctly handled, the new information technology constitutes a powerful and effective support of this development work. The development of this new technology is very rapid, and it is therefore necessary to focus upon and address a number of issues.
Matts Carlsson

Network installation of regional and European qualification needs analyses - requirements and tasks

Abstract
Regional qualification needs analyses (QNAs) cannot be replaced by European ones, and European ones cannot be replaced by regional ones, for Europe is still a Europe of regions. Each location is both a European and a regional location, its enterprises are European competitors, and they live increasingly in European cooperation. Qualification is a location factor for each region and, at the same time, for Europe. Regional QNAs used to substantiate regional qualification strategies must include the regional suitability for Europe as a dimension and they require analyses of European needs and their trends for it. Results, findings and conclusions of European QNAs will continue to be put into practice by regional qualification strategies and will require the analysis of regional inventories, specific trends and needs. This establishes the requirement of linking regional and European qualification needs analyses.
Gerlinde Hammer, Erich Wachtveitl

Quality management and environmental management and safety management— what they have in common, future demands on SMEs, possibilities of integrated training

Abstract
In this paper, integrated management systems and the possibilities of integrated training are looked at through the learning organisation framework. On the basis of the idea of learning organisation we argue that particularly in SMEs it is essential to integrate workplace learning and work together. It gives an opportunity to change organisational culture, courses of action, values and perceptions while working. In SMEs it is important to get all personnel to accept the change. It should be easier than in big companies, because everybody knows the functions and processes of the company. The approach is action oriented, based on the bottom-up principle. Learning happens mostly by doing everyday work.
Seija Hämäläinen, Daphne Lipovatz, Jussi Moisio

QM knowledge as a requirement in basic education in Greece

Abstract
The possession of a quality system (QS) in accordance with ISO 9000, which was until recently considered to be a decisive competitiveness factor, has become a survival prerequisite within the internal European market. The existence of a QS is an essential first step towards the adoption of TQM, which aims at the continuous improvement of business performance with a principal focus on customer satisfaction and gaining a competitive advantage [1,2]
Daphne Lipovatz

Quality, qualifications and the attribution of value in work based learning

Abstract
This paper will use the general aims of the QM&QN project under the Leonardo Programme as its starting point. The project specification identified the question of whether or not new forms of working and associated qualification needs have arisen from the development of integrated quality management systems in two manufacturing sectors. The two sectors used for the international comparison were the metal working industry and the food-processing industries.
Joan Machell, Murray Saunders

Development tendencies of modern plant organisation - tasks of the middle management and conceptual approaches for vocational further education

Abstract
Characterisations of the modern world as a “knowledge and information society” marked by the effects of the globalisation of the mass media presuppose that on the one hand it is true that “all information occur within a certain context” but that it “on the other hand provides a perspective on other options. Nothing is definite in itself any more. Everything seems to be exposed to comparison with other options” 2. This tendency means for the individual that each and everyone increasingly needs to become aware in a self-responsible way “how to find ways under these conditions to become self-oriented” (ibid) Empirically this sociological tendency can be pinpointed to e.g. the analysis of “curricula vitae” which other than in times of rigid class distinctions can take a rather unpredictable and discontinuous course. So the assumption already is that the students and trainees of today will have to change careers several times in their future lives.
Werner Markert, Dieter Scholz

Action-oriented dialogue with key actors

Frontmatter

Questions to key actors in European vocational training (Documentation)

Abstract
A research network has examined how quality management is implemented in small and medium sized enterprises [SMEs] in seven European partner countries. The research has taken place within the framework of the EU Leonardo Da Vinci programme. SMEs in the metalworking and food processing industries were asked what the consequences of the implementation of quality management were for the skill needs of employees. The overall aim of the research is to identify quality related vocational training requirements for the EU.
Johannes Köper, Hans Jürgen Zaremba

Federal Republic of Germany: 5 Statements of key actors

Abstract
The basic supposition of the investigation that “quality management is a lasting demand of customers, markets and societies on small and medium-sized enterprises in Europe” does not seem to me to be suitable for a research hypothesis. This SMEs-related hypothesis is generalised and has no specific character. On the contrary, customers, markets and societies are interested in high-quality products which are in keeping with general requirements. Quality management is an instrument to meet these requirements. This requirements are independent of the size and kind of company. They apply generally to the free market economy. Seen from that point of view, there are not any “most important tasks” of small and medium-sized enterprises in terms of quality, this is a commitment for every company.
Frank Bünting, Barbara Mohr, Volker Pusch, H. Schnauber, J. Zülch, Günther Wolf

Finland: 5 Statements of key actors

Abstract
“My quality concept is based on an all-inclusive idea of quality. Above all, I emphasise quality in all activities and operations. If we think about companies or organisations, first you have to determine a general quality concept and what it means within that organisation. Then everyone has a common language for understanding the discussion of quality. And only then, when the company’s quality concept has been fully grasped in the organisation, do you start thinking about what’s to be done. First the present situation is charted, where we are, then you start thinking about which way to develop. If a quality system is adopted, do we start applying quality award criteria or whatever it is? Sometimes companies just think that they’d better get a quality system. At that point, they are already off course — they haven’t thought through the reasons. In other words, the most important things are all-inclusiveness and understanding the notion of quality, everything that is tied up with this. In my opinion, quality is linked to every job. It means everything being well-planned and considering ahead of time how we will do high-quality work. That to me is essential. On the other hand, even when doing the work other people, or internal customers, are taken into consideration, their needs determine the course of action. An important aspect is knowing what the others want and developing it together. Work does not necessarily mean toiling away by yourself. I would also like to add an innovative aspect to this idea of quality. In my opinion, everything should have an outlook toward creating something new. To take an example from my own immediate environment, the development of training and education should also involve innovation, new thoughts. This is not usually associated with the quality concept, but I have endeavoured to bring innovation into it. It’s also important to strive to analyse what creates and develops quality-related thought and action. It really is continuous improvement. The process concept goes together with the quality concept. That is one very important angle. It would be desirable that people put their heart into everything; that’s how the commitment is achieved. People should never be negligent and sloppy with what they do. By setting an example, you can have a marked effect if you really want to improve something. Your actions show that you’re committed. Then the others will likely increase their level of commitment.
Helena Immonen, Stina Immonen, Jussi Moisio, Martti Pallari, Heikki Väänänen

Greece: 5 Statements of key actors

Abstract
Unavoidable competitive pressures imply a need for diversification and innovating spirit in order to gain competitive advantage. Market law, as imposed by the survival of the fittest, finds its best example within the framework of European SMEs. The most important strategic task at the administrative level concerns the way they formulate, review and turn Policy and Strategy into plans and actions.
Z. Evangelou, K. Kotouzas, N. Logothetis, Nickolas Mouzopoulos, Georges Haloftis

Ireland: 5 Statements of key actors and 1 summary

Abstract
SMEs have a variable track record in implementing quality systems. Many of them have poor quality systems in place. The implementation of ISO 9000 is sometimes driven by customers or a need to get accreditation. It can sometimes be a paper work system. The most important task is to implement a consistent and reliable quality system. Everything else is based on that, i.e further development is based on the reliability and integrity of the basic quality system that is in place.
Gerry Ryan, Tony Hall, Ann Connolly, John B. Keene, Claire McKenna

Portugal: 4 Statements of key actors

Abstract
The most important strategic tasks for SMEs in terms of Quality coincide with the ones for the global management of companies.
A. Almeida Júnior, Jorge Canossa, Artur Pereira, João Proença

Sweden: Summary of statements of key actors

Abstract
SMEs are facing several big strategic challenges in terms of quality work with a view to increasing their competitiveness. The issues can be separated into external and internal challenges. The external challenges are concerned with understanding, in a systematic and structured way, the conditions of the market; the customers’ implicit and explicit demands and wishes as well as other actors’ offerings. The internal challenges lie in the building up of an organisation able to meet the market-related challenges in the most efficient way.
Johannes Köper, Hans Jürgen Zaremba

United Kingdom: 3 Statements of key actors and 1 overview

Abstract
“I found the report of interest as I had no prior knowledge of either the metal working or food industries.
Mike Chambers, Keith Drake, Sue Otter

Backmatter

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