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Über dieses Buch

From 5 to 15 August 1984, a group of 79 physicists from 61 laboratories in 26 countries met in Erice for the 22nd Course of the International School of Subnuclear Physics. The countries represented were Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, People's Republic of China, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States of America. The School was sponsored by the Italian Ministry of Public Education (MPI), the Italian Ministry of Scientific and Technologi­ cal Research (MRST), the Regional Sicilian Government (ERS), and the Weizmann Institute of Science. The programme of the School was devoted to a review of the most significant results in theoretical and experimental research work on the interactions between what we believe today are the point like constituents of the world: quarks and leptons. It should however not be forgotten that many problems are still to be understood: especially in the forefront of the correla­ tion between quarks and leptons. This game started in 1966 with the proposal for "leptonic quarks" and went on with "preons" and "rishons" just to quote the most famous attempts to unify these two worlds.



Opening Lecture

The End of A Myth: High-pT Physics

So far, the main picture of hadronic physics has been based on a distinction between high-pT and low-pT phenomena.
M. Basile, J. Berbiers, G. Cara Romeo, L. Cifarelli, A. Contin, G. D’Ali, C. Del Papa, P. Giusti, T. Massam, R. Nania, F. Palmonari, G. Sartorelli, M. Spinetti, G. Susinno, L. Votano, A. Zichichi

Theoretical Lectures

N = 1 Supergravity Models with Vanishing Cosmological Constant

We consider N = 1 matter-coupled supergravity theories which exhibit positive semidefinite scalar potentials, yielding to a naturally vanishing cosmological constant. Different examples of supergravity models having this property are discussed and their main features pointed out.
Sergio Ferrara

The Kaluza-Klein Program in Supergravity

First a nontechnical introduction is given to supersymmetry, supergravity and Kaluza-Klein ideas. Details of d = 11 and d = 10 supergravity are discussed and relations to superstring theories are mentioned. Then, as a technical part, we present a general method to compute, for any compact reductive coset manifold, the spectrum of scalars, vectors, spinors etc. We work through an example which is neither too trivial nor too complicated. This method may be useful whenever one considers Kaluza-Klein-like compactifications of spacetime manifolds.
A. Eastaugh, P. van Nieuwenhuizen

What is Inside Quarks and Leptons?

Motivations for introducing a substructure of leptons, quarks and possibly the weak bosons are discussed. The various constraints for a substructure are examined. The dynamical problems with respect to the nearly massless fermions are discussed. Both fermion-boson and three-fermion-models for the leptons and quarks are presented. Finally the internal structure of the weak bosons is investigated.
Harald Fritzsch

Quark Masses and Chiral Symmetry

The low energy properties of the standard model are governed by the Lagrangian of SU(3)colourx U(1)e.m.. If the masses of the three light quarks as well as the electromagnetic interaction are neglected, this Lagrangian is invariant under a group of chiral transformations. Since the ground state is not symmetric under this group, the spectrum contains massless Goldstone bosons which dominate the low energy structure of the theory. As the quark masses are turned on, the Goldstone bosons pick up mass, but the poles generated by them still dominate the behvior of the Green’s functions at small momenta. I show how to systematically determine the low energy structure of the theory by considering a simultaneous expansion in powers of the momenta and in powers of mu, md, ms. As applications of the method, I discuss some low energy predictions for form factors, for ππ-scattering and for η-decay and review the information on the quark mass ratios mu: md: ms which follows from the mass spectrum of the pseudoscalar mesons.
H. Leutwyler

Monte Carlo Renormalization Group Methods and Results in QCD

The way quantum field theory is defined and working beyond perturbation theory — this is the main topic of these lectures. The first part is a general introduction to renormalization group ideas, while the specific methods and results are discussed in the second part.
Renormalization group
“Good” and “bad” regularizations, gauge theory on the lattice
The Gaussian fixed point in a Yang-Mills theory
The β-function and Δβ(β)
Monte Carlo renormalization group methods; optimization
Peter Hasenfratz

Seminars on Specialized Topics

Radiative J/ψ Decays

Heavy “quarkonia” (c̄, b̄) have developed into prime territory for the investigation of quark-quark potentials; the study of their spectroscopy has given much credence to QCD-inspired ideas for inter-quark forces.
Clemens A. Heusch

An Introduction to Stochastic Cooling

The principles of stochastic cooling will be discussed with the emphasis on a qualitative explanation of the most interesting points, such as
  • how to circumvent Liouville’s theorem,
  • time domain and frequency domain viewpoint and their correspondence (mixing, beam feedback),
  • betatron cooling and momentum cooling; how filters are used to improve momentum cooling,
  • stochastic stacking,
  • how to make wide-band pick-ups and kickers,
  • future developments,
  • electron cooling vs stochastic cooling.
The main features of the CERN p̄ accumulator (AA) and its future addition (ACOL) will also be described.
S. van der Meer

Review Lecture

Proton Decay

Perhaps one should begin with the historical survey of the subject. However, there recently appeared two, one theoretical1 and one experimental2, excellent reviews. Hence, I shall restrict myself to the motivations why we are seriously working on proton decay experiment.
M. Koshiba

The Glueballs of QCD and Beyond

It has been generally believed that the characteristics of hadronic interactions obey local gauge invariance of the nonabelian group SU(3)color and are subject to color confinement. This leads to QCD1 without quarks, in which the gluons — the eight gauge bosons of SU(3)C are massless, carry color charge and have spin = 1.
S. J. Lindenbaum

Toponium Physics

Since the discovery of the J/ψ in 1974, quarkonium physics has had a considerable development, both theoretically and experimentally. Various theoretical approaches have been used to describe the c̄, b̄ and even the s̄ systems. In 1984, I would not hesitate to say that the most predictive one has been the potential model approach, even if one does not yet fully understand why it is so successful (in particular why the potential is so perfectly flavour-independent). Various potentials have been used, starting with −4/3 αs/r + br1), then incorporating a smooth log r part at intermediate distance2), then asymptotic freedom3) and the more QCD-motivated potentials of Richardson4), Moxhay and Rosner5) and Buchmüller6). Purely phenomenological potentials have also been proposed such as V = A+Brα, α = 0.17). All these potentials essentially agree for distances 0.1 < r < 1 Fermi and this is why they all give a very good fit of all the levels of the J/ψ and T system. Buchmüller6) even reproduces nicely the P wave splittings. The last successful check of the models was the observation of the first radial excitation of the P states of the T system with mean energies 9.90 and 10.25 GeV8), while Buchmüller6) predicts 9.89 and 10.25 and Martin7) 9.86 and 10.24 GeV.
André Martin

Electroweak Physics at the Cern p̄ Collider

The conversion of the CERN SPS into a p̄ Collider was motivated by a very specific goal,1 namely the discovery of the Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs), W± and Z, which were postulated to mediate the electroweak interaction.2 The p̄ project was approved in June 1978, and the first p̄ collisions at a total centre-of-mass energy of \( sqrt s = 540\,GeV \) were observed in July 1981.3 In less than two years since that date, the main goal has been fulfilled. Evidence for the production of the charged IVB, the W±, and its subsequent decay into an electron and a neutrino, was presented soon after the end of the physics run which took place in autumn 1982;4,5 and the Z was discovered in the subsequent run of spring 1983.6,7 The total integrated luminosity collected during these runs by each of the two major experiments amounted to ~ 130 nb−1.
L. Di Leila

New Flavours: How They can be Looked for at the (p̄) Collider with the Lepton Asymmetry Analyser

Our knowledge on the basic structure of matter appears at present to be in terms of quarks and leptons. They can be classified as “uplike” and “downlike” states according to their electric charge, which is fractional for quarks and integer for leptons.
M. Basile, J. Berbiers, G. Cara Romeo, L. Cifarelli, A. Contin, G. D’Ali, C. Del Papa, P. Giusti, T. Massam, R. Nania, F. Palmonari, P. Rotelli, G. Sartorelli, M. Spinetti, G. Susinno, L. Votano, A. Zichichi

The Glorious Days of Physics

Physics and Physicists in the Thirties

According to the preliminary program issued some time ago Professors Dirac and Wigner were expected to be honored guests at this meeting. We are all sad because of the painful personal circumstances which prevented them from coming.
Gian Carlo Wick


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