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## weitere Buchkapitel

### Chapter 12. Into Historical Limbo: The Legacy of the October Revolution in Russia

In Russia, the commemoration of the October Revolution is highly ambivalent. On the one hand, symbols of the revolutionary past are visible everywhere. On the other hand, the authorities have only half-heartedly engaged in the commemoration of the event. The main focus of the current commemoration is to reconcile the heterogeneous narratives of Russian history and to emphasize the need for a strong state. In this article, I look at the forms of commemoration or non-commemoration in different social fields (public spaces, museums, academia, and educational internet platforms). Based on media reports, official communications, and my own observations, I analyze how the complex interaction between silencing and performance evokes this kind of blurring. In this way, the memory of Red October is pushed into historical limbo, into a no-man’s-land, from where it cannot endanger current politics.

Stephan Rindlisbacher

### Chapter 13. The Concepts of Revolution

The experience of politics, for most of us, is increasingly an experience of powerlessness. Not so long ago, the spontaneous relationship to politics was structured by a feeling of revolutionary hope. But today, our relationship to politics is more often structured by a feeling of disempowerment. I argue that this crisis, in terms of the effectiveness of radical transformative practices, is linked to the manner in which the revolutionary ideal functions today, and the way in which it regulates our political practices. We hold on to a certain image of the revolution that guides our political practice. However, this image or idea of the revolution we adhere to (and the diagnosis of the present and future upon which it is based) actually prevents us from acting radically. It prevents us from perceiving and participating in the struggles that are unfolding as we speak. In short, the manner in which we conceptualize the revolution does not allow us to act, but actually makes us feel powerless. How are we to think about politics, action, and radicality today?

Geoffroy de Lagasnerie

### Chapter 5. Revolution and Salvation

The suspicion that a theological framework informs the leftist revolutionary projects was used to denounce them as crypto religious movements with otherworldly objectives. Evidence from the protocols recorded by Swetlana Alexijewitsch suggests that the post-soviet experience is indeed characterized by a feeling of lost faith in some transcendent goal. I argue that the Russian revolution inherited theological conceptions from the Hegelian concept of history. Contrary to widespread diagnosis, however, such a heritage draws more on the political expertise present in the theological tradition than establishing a transcendent knowledge about the course of history. Hegel and the Marxists knew rather well that an historical project such as a revolution presupposes a goal that is present in the actual world but aims at the profound transformation of this very actuality. Ideas as freedom and equality evoke the vision of a world that is delivered from domination and exploitation. As the religious movements before them, the revolutionaries had to create a community that was devoted to their historical aim in order to reach deliverance from the actual ills. The communist party was the failed attempt to create a militant organization with such universal pretensions.

Christian Schmidt

### An Early Warning System for Debris Flows and Snow Avalanches

To protect a mountain road against debris flows and snow avalanches that occur periodically along a gully, an innovative monitoring and early warning system (EWS) was designed, installed and tested. The system is based on a detection section equipped with 3 inclinometers suspended above the gully located at approximately 120 m upstream from the road, by two traffic lights, a weather station and two cameras. A wireless sensor network is used to manage the system so that all sensors and equipment can communicate through radio signal, without the need of cables. This solution was also chosen to reduce the overall environmental impact of the installation which took place in the Gran Paradiso National Park, in the North Western Italian Alps. In the case of an event, the detection section is triggered directly by the passage of the debris or the avalanche. An alarm data package is generated and transmitted to turn to red two traffic lights on the road thus stopping traffic. The paper will describe the monitoring and early warning system. Moreover, it will show how data collected by the weather station are used to manage in real time the attention and alarm thresholds allowing for limiting human intervention on the system and anticipating the increased probability of occurrence of events. Finally, a snow avalanche event occurred on the 8th January 2018 and detected by the early warning system will be illustrated.

F. Antolini, S. Aiassa, M. Barla

### 3. Value Propositions and Business Models for Circular Entrepreneurship

The circular economy represents a very promising creative endeavor for entrepreneurs to discover and create novel opportunities, to experiment with new models of doing business and new relationships with partners, customers and employees. This chapter focuses on the role of the business model and business model innovation in the practice of the circular economy. Innovating business models is an expression of entrepreneurship, design and implementation that embraces the circular economy and makes profit compatible with the environment.The growth of the circular economy requires an increasing number of entrepreneurs, who can start new businesses or renovate existing ones, building on these premises. Which steps concretely should they follow in this process? This chapter suggests that first they should develop a circular value proposition, and then they should conceive and develop all the remaining building blocks of the business model, always in the light of circular economy principles. Finally, they have to give attention to all the factors that can enable or constrain effective implementation and development of the circular business model.

Antonella Zucchella

### Marketing and Controlling as Business Partners in the FMCG Industry

This contribution analyzes the changing role of marketing in the FMCG industry and the corresponding implications for controllers to be real business partners. The author outlines the key marketing success factors to build and manage strong brands and deduces from these factors the required data information and controlling tools.

Franziska Schmiedebach-Ullner

### Holistic Management Accounting of Brand Performance in the Consumer Goods Industry

This contribution deals with the question how prospective marketing budgets can be allocated over the different communication channels as efficiently as possible. Differences between the various channels are analyzed. Measuring methods are presented, both for the effectiveness and efficiency of advertising campaigns. Besides that the author explains how to bring all of these factors into one holistic marketing steering system.

Oliver Hupp, Franziska Rumpel

### Virtual Representation of Archaeological Stratigraphy. 3D Modeling and Interactive Presentation of the Late Roman Towers (Archaeological Museum, Milan Italy)

The e work is an analysis of the recording, processing and presentation of the 3D data of late roman towers inside the area of the Archaeological Museum of Milan. The aim of this research is to examine the possibilities offered by digital technologies to record and enhancing the archaeological heritage and to increase the divulgence and presentation with interactive products.

Simona Morandi, Marco Tremari

### Chapter 13. Remedies in the Telecommunications Sector

This chapter looks at merger control in the innovation-led telecommunications sector. The discussion merits special attention considering that merger review and the design of remedies in the telecom sectors has lately been very innovative and it sets a good guiding framework for merger control in the ICT sector in general. Second, the more recent telecom mergers when compared with the earlier conditional clearance decisions in the sector—highlight the novelty with which some of the more recent mergers have diligently-crafted remedies that seek to create a competitor over a period of time, as opposed to a clear-cut divestiture that seeks to influence the structure of the markets in the short to medium term.

Kalpana Tyagi

### Chapter 4. Theory of Harm: Unilateral Effects in ICT Mergers

This part of the book is divided into three chapters. This chapter discusses in detail the law and economics of unilateral effects with a brief overview of co-ordinated effects. This is followed by a discussion on the vertical effects in Chap. 5 and the conglomerate effects in Chap. 6 . Chapter 6 also briefly discusses the standards of proof—the relative weightage offered to qualitative and quantitative evidence—the latter being particularly useful in analysing complex unilateral and conglomerate effects cases.

Kalpana Tyagi

### Chapter 3. Salient Features of the ICT Sector

This chapter discusses at length special industry-specific economic factors—such as network effects, customer lock-in, path-dependency, multi-sided platforms, convergence, market envelopment and consumerisation—issues that merit special consideration while reviewing mergers and evaluating merger remedies in the high technology sector.

Kalpana Tyagi

### Chapter 7. Merger Control in the EU and the UK

This chapter presents an overview of merger control procedure in the European Union. The UK merger control to the extent relevant for the current work is also discussed. Section 7.1 presents an overview of the evolution of the merger control in the Union from the ECSC Treaty to the current merger control regime. Considering the relationship between competition and regulation in the ICT sector, the chapter also offers instances of cooperation between the European Commission, the National Regulatory and Competition Authorities. The co-operation is particularly relevant for the telecommunications and the media, considering that these sectors were historically subject to sector-specific regulation and the relevant geographic markets to this day remain divided on a national basis.

Kalpana Tyagi

### Internet Infrastructure and the Persistent Myth of U.S. Hegemony

According to many observers, economic globalisation and the liberalisation of telecoms/internet policy have remade the world in the image of the United States. The dominant role of Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google has also led to charges of U.S. internet imperialism. This chapter, however, will argue that while these internet giants dominate some of the most popular internet services, the ownership and control of core elements of the internet infrastructure—submarine cables, IXPs, ASN, data centres, and so on—is tilting increasingly towards the EU and BRICS countries and the “rest-of-the-world,” complicating views of hegemonic U.S. control of the internet and of what Susan Strange calls the knowledge structure.

Dwayne Winseck

### Disinformation and Resistance in the Surveillance of Indigenous Protesters

The U.S. and Canadian governments have long engaged in the surveillance of Indigenous peoples. Such practices have garnered public attention in light of recent events. This chapter reflects on two examples: protests against the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline that crossed over the lands of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe in the United States and the release of details regarding Project SITKA—a Canadian Royal Mounted Police “dataveillance” operation identifying and tracking Indigenous activists. It examines them to illuminate the strategic use of information, particularly disinformation and misinformation, by government actors, media, private security personnel, and protesters. In particular, the analysis highlights how settler colonialism informs the asymmetrical power dynamics at work, illustrating connections between Project SITKA and the Standing Rock protests.

Jenna Harb, Kathryn Henne

### Precarious Ownership of the Internet of Things in the Age of Data

The growth of the Internet of Things (IoT)—internet-connected software embedded within physical products—has the potential to shift fundamentally traditional conceptions of ownership and the ways people can access, use, and control information. Drawing upon a knowledge regulation framework influenced by Susan Strange, this chapter argues that the IoT industry exemplifies the central role that knowledge governance now plays in the global political economy. The chapter examines how companies that own the knowledge integral to the IoT’s functionality (the software) control that knowledge through intellectual property laws, especially copyright, and the ubiquitous surveillance of their customers. These companies retain control over the software even after its purchase, meaning they have a newly expanded regulatory capacity to monitor and control how their products are used. The private post-purchase control that IoT companies exert over smart goods represents a significant change in private actors’ regulatory capacity to set rules governing knowledge.

Natasha Tusikov

### Kapitel 16. Semidefinite Programme

Eine Problemklasse, die sich mit dem Ansatz aus Kap. 15 lösen lässt, sind sogenannte semidefinite Programme. Für diese Problemklasse haben sich auch vielfältige Anwendungen ergeben, auf die in diesem Kapitel eingegangen werden soll, nachdem zunächst ein primal-dualer Lösungsansatz vorgestellt wird, der sich in Implementierungen als sehr effizient erwiesen hat.

Florian Jarre, Josef Stoer

### A Two-Phase Context-Aware Approach to Emergency Evacuation in Smart Buildings

Evacuation in buildings during emergency situations is crucial to the safety of people, therefore a pragmatic response plan is desirable. Due to the lack of awareness in buildings, either occupants have to wait for instructions from the administration or to start following each other to find the best evacuation route for them on the basis of hit and trial method. In this regard, we present a context-aware smart architecture for evacuation that provides real-time evacuation routes to occupants with respect to their characteristics. We also put forward a two-phase group evacuation technique in which people evacuate in the form of groups under the supervision of experts so-called group leaders. The first phase handles the assembly of evacuees at their allotted collection points and in the second phase evacuees follow their group leaders to safe points. Group leaders are equipped with hand-held devices having live information of building, routes and their group members. A use case is also discussed in the paper as an application of the proposed technique.

Qasim Khalid, Alberto Fernández, Marin Lujak, Arnaud Doniec

### A Survey on Software-Defined Networks and Edge Computing over IoT

The Internet of Things (IoT) ceased to be a novel technology to become part of daily life through the millions of sensors, devices and tools that measure, collect, process and transfer data. The need to exchange, process, filter and store this huge volume of data has led to the emergence of Edge Computing (EC). The purpose of this new paradigm is to solve the challenges of IoT such as localized computing, reducing latency in information exchange, balancing data traffic on the network and providing responses in real-time. In order to reduce the complexity in the implementation of EC architectures, Software Defined Networks (SDNs) and the related concept Network Function Virtualization (NFV) are proposed by different approaches. This paper addresses the characteristics and capabilities of SDNs and NFV and why can be successful an innovative integration between SDNs and EC for IoT scenarios.

Ricardo S. Alonso, Inés Sittón-Candanedo, Sara Rodríguez-González, Óscar García, Javier Prieto

### Chapter 14. Connective Politics, Videos, and Algorithms: YouTube’s Mediation of Audiovisual Political Communication

Brazil held its presidential elections in 2018. In this context, the Socialism and Liberty Party (Partido Socialismo e Liberdade [PSOL]) chose two candidates who were members of social movements to run as candidates for president and vice-president: Guilherme Boulos from the Homeless Workers’ Movement (Movimento dos Trabalhadores Sem Teto [MTST]) and Sonia Guajajara from the Articulation of the Brazilian Indigenous Peoples’ Movement (Articulação dos Povos Indígenas do Brasil [APIB]). This chapter argues that this represents a strategy of “connective politics” in which the party borrows some of the movements’ causes and turns them into relatable personalized messages. In order to illustrate this, the authors chose one video from each of the social actors (PSOL, MTST, and APIB) and used YouTube’s Data Tools to map out each video’s network of related videos. By doing so, they hope to shed light on how political strategies and algorithms interact, delving into the ways in which YouTube mediates political audiovisual content through its recommendation system.

### Chapter 3. The Power of Visual Political Communication: Pictorial Politics Through the Lens of Communication Psychology

This chapter offers an overview of the communication psychology literature to demonstrate why visuals have the power to support attitudinal formation. Positing the average citizen as having low interest, visuals offer cognitive shortcuts to support decision making while also aiding the simplistic or lazy thinking which can lead to erroneous conclusions. However, visuals can also cause emotional resonance and make people engage and elaborate on the messages. In a world of fragmented and ubiquitous media, visuals play key functions in political communication and so in democratic processes. Visuals cut through communication clutter, but they are also used to manipulate their audience obscuring the source and purpose. The chapter shows how the role of visuals can be positive and negative.

Darren G. Lilleker

### Chapter 2. The Digital Transformation of Visual Politics

The assessment in this chapter of the role of visual media in politics focuses on three specific features of the digital-media landscape: (1) the proliferation of cameras, (2) the increasing accessibility of technologies for the editing and manipulation of images, and (3) viewers’ growing control over the circumstances of their consumption of mass media. The ubiquity of cameras has blurred the boundaries between on-stage and behind-the-scenes behavior. The emergence of digital photo-manipulation technology has given both amateurs and professionals a potent instrument not only of photo-fakery but also of explicit editorial commentary, and it has led to significant cultural changes in attitudes toward photographic truth. The audience’s increasing ability to shut out overt sales pitches has forced political campaigns to adjust their tactics to a world with limited tolerance for the persuasive techniques of the television age. The result has been a deliberate blurring of the boundaries between persuasion and entertainment, with substantial changes in the nature of the political process.

Paul Messaris

### Chapter 6. From Analogue to Digital Negativity: Attacks and Counterattacks, Satire, and Absurdism on Election Posters Offline and Online

Negative campaigning, with its focus on the shortcomings of the policies/ideologies or the character of political opponent(s), has always been a part of political campaigning. Technological developments and digitalization have also taken negativity online. This chapter analyzes the development of campaigning using election posters in Germany and Sweden as empirical illustrations of how digitalization changes the prerequisites and use of negative campaigning. The results show how old campaign tools like election posters do not disappear, but rather adapt to digitalization, both in terms of production and dissemination. The conclusion highlights that there are good reasons to expect an increase of negativity in (online) electoral campaigning. Negative appeals can strategically be used to mobilize target groups in social media, without the risk of putting off other voters. The web and social network sites have also increased the possibility of counterattacks when being attacked by opponents. Negativity might also increase when voters have the possibility to change, replace, or comment on the messages.

Bengt Johansson, Christina Holtz-Bacha

### Chapter 1. Introduction: Visual Political Communication

This chapter sets the scene for the volume and provides the rationale and relevant background information on the use and power of imagery. Put simply, human culture is essentially a visual culture. Visuals have long been a central feature of dynamics of power, the dynamics of politics. Visuals have always been manipulated; however, we are now at a stage in the evolution of communication technologies where anyone can produce a fake image and enjoy political influence by doing so. The rest of the book examines the under-researched area of visual political communication and aims to offer a theoretically driven, empirically grounded survey of the central role visual communication plays in political culture. Such a project is crucial at this time; the advent of new media technologies and the growth of social media have created novel ways of producing, disseminating and consuming visual products that demand further investigation as well as consideration of the theoretical and methodological approaches required to understand this communication environment.

Darren G. Lilleker, Anastasia Veneti, Daniel Jackson

### Chapter 25. HCDSR: A Hierarchical Clustered Fault Tolerant Routing Technique for IoT-Based Smart Societies

Internet of Things (IoT) is revolutionizing all spheres of our lives leading the way for us to evolve into smarter societies. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are an integral part of the IoT ecosystems. Reliability, resilience, and energy conservation are the three most critical WSN requirements. Fault tolerance ensures the reliability and the resilience of WSNs in case of failures. This paper proposes a hierarchical clustered dynamic source routing (HCDSR) technique to improve fault tolerance and energy-efficient routing for WSNs. A survey of fault tolerant and energy-efficient routing techniques for WSNs is given. A taxonomy of fault tolerant techniques is introduced. The proposed HCDSR is simulated and compared with LEACH (low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy) and DFTR (dynamic fault tolerant routing) protocols to evaluate its performance. The results show that HCDSR outperforms LEACH and DFTR in terms of the total network energy, the number of nodes alive after a given time, and the network throughput. Directions for future work are given.

Thaha Muhammed, Rashid Mehmood, Aiiad Albeshri, Ahmed Alzahrani

### Chapter 8. Parallel Shortest Path Big Data Graph Computations of US Road Network Using Apache Spark: Survey, Architecture, and Evaluation

This chapter reports our continuing work on single source shortest path computations of big data road network graphs using Apache Spark. Smart applications and infrastructures are increasingly relying on graph computations to model real-life problems. Big data is being generated from various sources such as Internet of Things (IoT) and social media. Big data cannot be processed by traditional tools and technologies due to their properties, volume, velocity, veracity, and variety. The problems and relevant data are typically large and, hence, give rise to large graphs, which could be analyzed and solved using big data technologies. We use the US road network data, modelled as graphs, and calculate shortest paths between a set of large numbers of vertices in parallel. The experiments are performed on the Aziz supercomputer. We analyze Spark’s parallelization behavior by solving problems of varying graph sizes, i.e., various states of the USA (with over 58 million edges), and varying number of shortest path queries up to one million. We achieve good performance, and as expected, the speedup is dependent on both the size of the data and the number of parallel nodes. The system architecture for graph computing in Spark is explained. A detailed review of the relevant work is provided. We call our system, the Big Data Shortest Path Graph Computing (BDSPG) system.

Yasir Arfat, Sugimiyanto Suma, Rashid Mehmood, Aiiad Albeshri

### Road Safety Against Sybil Attacks Based on RSU Collaboration in VANET Environment

Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is a special case of an Ad hoc mobile network formed by vehicles communicating directly with each other or via a wireless infrastructure called the Road Side Unit (RSU). Like all similar networks, VANET is more concerned with Sybil attacks where a malicious attacking node sends messages with multiple identities to other nodes in the network. Thus, causing a general malfunction of the network, which gives the illusion of a problem of traffic like traffic jam or a virtual accident. So, honest vehicles change their path or leave the road for the benefit of ‘attacker’. In this paper, we present an effective solution against this severe threat by using a distributed and collaborative technique between RSUs allowing the detection of Sybil vehicles based on their real positions.

Said Benkirane

### A Data-Filtering Approach for Large-Scale Integrated RFID and Sensor Networks

Radio-Frequency identification, referred as RFID, is a technology for storing and retrieving data remotely using radio-labeled tags. Tags are small objects, and can be pasted or incorporated into objects and products or even implanted in living organisms. In the last years, several researches have focused on how to take benefit from this technology to build performing rechargeable sensor networks. The fusion of both technologies can extend widely the network’s lifetime and improve it performances since radio communications are only performed between readers and not between sensor tags. However, the RFID sensor networks present some drawbacks due to the random deployment especially for large scale systems, which can disturb the system’s performances and cause issues such as data duplication, and medium access control (MAC) collisions. In this paper, we deal especially with the redundancy problem by proposing an algorithm that avoids a priori the transmission of duplicated data before sending it into the network. Our approach can be considered as proactive since it predicts duplication by planning a first network discovery phase. Our scheme showed good performances in terms of latency, packet delivery, and computational cost.

### Deep Neural Networks for Indoor Localization Using WiFi Fingerprints

In this paper, we propose a novel Wi-Fi positioning method based on Deep Learning. More specifically, we investigate a Stacked AutoEncoder-based model for global location recognition from WiFi fingerprinting data. Stacked AutoEncoder works very well in learning useful high-level features for better representation of input raw data. For our proposed model, two trained unsupervised autoencoders were stacked, then the whole network was trained globally by adding a Softmax output layer for classification. The experimental results show that our Deep Learning based model performs better than SVM and KNN machine learning approaches in a large multi-floor building composed of 162 rooms. Our model achieves an accuracy of $$85.58\%$$ 85.58 % and a test time that does not exceed 0.26 s.

### Kapitel 3. Angewandte Neuropsychologie für Führungskräfte

Im Mittelpunkt des menschlichen Daseins stehen die Emotionen. Emotionen geben uns in vielerlei Hinsicht wichtige Hinweise, was unser Organismus oder unsere Psyche braucht. Sie geben auch unserer Umwelt wertvolle Signale im Umgang mit uns. Hilfreiche Hinweise im Umgang mit Emotionen geben uns die somatischen Marker, also positive oder negative Körpersignale. Ein sinnvoller Umgang mit den eigenen Emotionen (Emotionsregulation) ist für unsere physische und psychische Gesundheit, für die Leistungsfähigkeit und Beziehungsgestaltung essenziell. Den bewussten Umgang mit Emotionen kann man trainieren.

Christoph Hoffmann

### Information, Communication Technologies and Regulations

Regulations constitute the “corpus” of rules defining the protocols emerging from the interactions between people, organizations, environment in all their aspects and implications. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are modifying these rules and call for the improvement and the update of interaction codes in order to manage and organize the emergence of a new reality that was unknown until now. There will be always a delay between the manifestation of a new interaction, encouraged and powered by communication and information technologies, and the setting of appropriate regulations. As a consequence, a situation of constant mismatching between “living technology” and “regulations development” seems a problem of difficult solution. A possibility to face this situation may come out from a choice of civilization.

Mario R. Abram, Eliano Pessa

### Music: Creativity and New Technologies. A Systemic Approach Towards Multimedia Project and Sound Design

Representations of musical phenomena in contemporary production include extremely various and apparently non-homogeneous expressive fields: forms, contents and styles increase and blend together; they stop having their connotative function and situate themselves at a level of description which, from a systemic point of view, could be defined as meta-structural. In fact, the creative production moves towards syncretism: sound, image, environment and language are equal and interactive parts of a synaesthetic process of which it is possible to trace creation and enjoyment in the same role of observer. Modern technologies provide sophisticated and powerful instruments which enable a highly refined manipulation of the sound and multimedia material. Today, a creative person has almost unlimited resources but, mainly due to a tension aiming at mass communication, there is the risk of becoming a mere repetition of established patterns with formulas that are not always captivating. A systemic approach towards multimedia project and sound design, restores the identity to the creative process, allows to identify interactions and network connections among elements and systems of elements according to a non-linear, open, non-deterministic and non-finalist model; yet, it is incredibly effective since the representation of coherences, defining the artistic product, is also the representation of shared thinking and beauty.

Emanuela Pietrocini, Maurizio Lopa

### Chapter 1. Introduction

The introduction contains historical information which is most close to subjects of the book: almost periodicity, replication of chaos, generalized piecewise-constant argument, and asymptotical equivalence. It consists of four parts. In the first one, the origins of the almost periodic functions and almost periodic solutions of differential equations are shortly presented. Next, the process of development of the theory of discontinuous almost periodic functions as solutions for impulsive differential equations is described such that the reader will see the benefits of the reading of the book. It is important that influence of the notion on other types of differential equations and hybrid systems is mentioned. Dynamics on time scales and differential equations with generalized piecewise-constant argument are among them. That, the universal role of the concept considered in our research for development of many discontinuous dynamics is emphasized. The second part provides short and sufficiently complete description of main results on deterministic chaos. Then, the mechanism of replication of chaos is introduced with stressing that our proposals are a powerful instrument for shaping new irregular motions, while discovering a chaos is mainly under research in the theory. Applications of the method for neural networks, mechanics analysis as well as for Li-Yorke homoclinic chaos appearance are characterized. Preliminaries for generalized piecewise-constant argument are provided in the third section. Theoretical and application advantages of our suggestions for differential equations are pointed. Moreover, new results are described, which have not been considered in monographs before. The last section of this chapter gives historical description of the method of asymptotical equivalence. Cornerstone results are mentioned. An example that demonstrates that the results of the book are more widely applicable than other theorems in the field is provided. Extensions of the method for impulsive systems are described to give an argument for next theoretical applications.

Marat Akhmet

### OWLS: Opportunistic Wireless Link Scheduling with SINR Constraints

We study a classical opportunistic wireless link scheduling problem in cognitive radio networks with Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) constraints. Consider a collection of communication links, assume that each link has a channel state. The state transitions follow a transition rule. The exact state information of each link is not available due to the uncertainty of primary users’ activities. The expected channel state is predicted probabilistically by investigating its history and feedbacks when the channels are used. The objective is to pick communication links sequentially over a long time horizon to maximize the average reward. To the best of our knowledge, no prior work can satisfyingly provide solutions for the opportunistic wireless link scheduling problem when considering SINR constraints. In this work, we adopt the robust paradigm of restless multi-armed bandit for the problem and design an efficient algorithm. We analyze the performance via Lyapunov potential function and demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve an approximation bound.

Xiaohua Xu, Yuanfang Chen, Shuibing He, Patrick Otoo Bobbie

### Massive MIMO Cognitive Cooperative Relaying

This paper proposes a novel cognitive cooperative transmission scheme by exploiting massive multiple-input multiple-output (MMIMO) and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) radio technologies, which enables a macrocell network and multiple cognitive small cells to cooperate in dynamic spectrum sharing. The macrocell network is assumed to own the spectrum band and be the primary network (PN), and the small cells act as the secondary networks (SNs). The secondary access points (SAPs) of the small cells can cooperatively relay the traffic for the primary users (PUs) in the macrocell network, while concurrently accessing the PUs’ spectrum to transmit their own data opportunistically through MMIMO and NOMA. Such cooperation creates a “win-win” situation: the throughput of PUs will be significantly increased with the help of SAP relays, and the SAPs are able to use the PU’s spectrum to serve their secondary users (SUs). The interplay of these advanced radio techniques is analyzed in a systematic manner, and a framework is proposed for the joint optimization of cooperative relay selection, NOMA and MMIMO transmit power allocation, and transmission scheduling. Further, to model network-wide cooperation and competition, a two-sided matching algorithm is designed to find the stable partnership between multiple SAPs and PUs. The evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme achieves significant performance gains for both primary and secondary users, compared to the baselines.

Son Dinh, Hang Liu, Feng Ouyang

### Performance Investigation of Polar Codes over Nakagami-M Fading and Real Wireless Channel Measurements

Due to their high performance as well as their low design complexity, polar codes are being considered as a candidate for next generation of mobile and wireless communications. Originally, polar codes were exactly designed over binary erasure channels (BECs) only. Later, polar codes over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel and fading channels were discussed. Some researches have investigated the performance of polar codes over multipath fading environment characterized by Rayleigh model which, however, fails to accurately predict wireless environments of high frequencies and long distance transmissions. The performance analysis of polar codes over a practical set is rarely addressed. To this end, this paper is devoted to investigate the performance of polar codes over a fading environment characterized by Nakagami-m fading model which demonstrates closer estimates to the measurements of real wireless channels. Then, we investigate the performance of polar codes over real channel measurements collected in an indoor as well as V2V communication environments. The remarkable error rate performance of polar code shows that it will be beneficial to future wireless systems where high data rates and low BERs are necessary.

### Decomposable Atomic Norm Minimization Channel Estimation for Millimeter Wave MIMO-OFDM Systems

This paper addresses the problem of downlink channel estimation in millimeter wave (mmWave) massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO)-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, where wideband frequency selective fading channels are considered. By exploiting the sparse scattering nature of mmWave channel, we consider channel estimation as three dimensional (3D) (including angles of departure/arrival and the time delay) line spectrum estimation. To achieve super-resolution channel estimation, we propose a decomposable 3D atomic norm minimization estimation method. This method decomposes the 3D estimation problem into two separate dimensions to reduce the computational complexity, where time delays are estimated only in the OFDM system. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve comparable mean square errors as the conventional vectorized ANM at much lower computational complexity.

Qianwen An, Tao Jing, Yingkun Wen, Zhuojun Duan, Yan Huo

### Fusing RFID and Computer Vision for Occlusion-Aware Object Identifying and Tracking

Real-time identifying and tracking monitored objects is an important application in a public safety scenario. Both Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and computer vision are potential solutions to monitor objects while faced with respective limitations. In this paper, we combine RFID and computer vision to propose a hybrid indoor tracking system, which can efficiently identify and track the monitored object in the scene with people gathering and occlusion. In order to get a high precision and robustness trajectory, we leverage Dempster-Shafer (DS) evidence theory to effectively fuse RFID and computer vision based on the prior probability error distribution. Furthermore, to overcome the drift problem under long-occlusion, we exploit the feedback from the high-confidence tracking results and the RFID signals to correct the false visual tracking. We implement a real-setting tracking prototype system to testify the performance of our proposed scheme with the off-the-shelf IP network camera, as well as the RFID devices. Experimental results show that our solution can achieve 98% identification accuracy and centimeter-level tracking precision, even in long-term occlusion scenarios, which can manipulate various practical object-monitoring scenarios in the public security applications.

Min Li, Yao Chen, Yanfang Zhang, Jian Yang, Hong Du

### Hybrid Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field and Solar Energy Harvesting Architecture for Self-Powered Wireless Sensor System

The development of micro-energy harvesting technology provides a new energy solution for wireless sensor nodes (WSNs). Due to the intermittent power supplied by single environmental energy source, this paper proposes a hybrid energy harvesting architecture that harvest magnetic field (50–60 Hz) and solar energy simultaneously, which aims to provide a sustainable power supply for WSNs. Firstly, the design of free-standing “I-shaped” magnetic field transducer is introduced, which can harvest 0.17–0.46 mW underneath 700 A power transmission line. A further design of a rectifier and matching circuit is conducted and the maximum power point (MPP) of the hybrid energy harvesting circuit is about 60% of the open circuit voltage and the conversion efficiency reaches 61.68%. The experimental results show that the hybrid solar and “I-shaped” transducer can accomplish “cold start” operation of the power management unit (PMU) under magnetic flux density of 4.5 μT and light intensity of 200 lx, which will also provide a promising supply of energy for WSNs.

Di Cao, Jing-run Jia, Min-jie Xie, Yanjing Lei, Wei Li

### Performance Optimization in IoT-Based Next-Generation Wireless Sensor Networks

In this paper, we propose a novel framework for performance optimization in Internet of Things (IoT)-based next-generation wireless sensor networks. In particular, a computationally-convenient system is presented to combat two major research problems in sensor networks. First is the conventionally-tackled resource optimization problem which triggers the drainage of battery at a faster rate within a network. Such drainage promotes inefficient resource usage thereby causing sudden death of the network. The second main bottleneck for such networks is the data degradation. This is because the nodes in such networks communicate via a wireless channel, where the inevitable presence of noise corrupts the data making it unsuitable for practical applications. Therefore, we present a layer-adaptive method via 3-tier communication mechanism to ensure the efficient use of resources. This is supported with a mathematical coverage model that deals with the formation of coverage holes. We also present a transform-domain based robust algorithm to effectively remove the unwanted components from the data. Our proposed framework offers a handy algorithm that enjoys desirable complexity for real-time applications as shown by the extensive simulation results.

Muzammil Behzad, Manal Abdullah, Muhammad Talal Hassan, Yao Ge, Mahmood Ashraf Khan

### Digital Media and Informal Learning: Alteration Mechanism and Captured Episodes

The main part of human learning happens en passant and outside of the formal education system - called informal learning. Even pupils and students spend more time in front of digital media screens than in formal settings inside schools. Consequently, their learning is strongly impacted by the use of digital media in everyday life. Nevertheless, current research, educational practice, and design of learning systems have their focus mostly on courseware and distance education for formal settings. The current study captures 373 informal learning episodes in everyday life of 77 learners in the domains of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning. Autovideography is used based on the day reconstruction method (DRM) and selected self-monitoring (SSM). Additional episodes are captured applying participatory action research (PAR) in extensive field studies in different cultures. The episodes are analyzed using qualitative content analysis and grounded theory based on selected learning theories to develop a category system of alteration mechanism for Learners’ perception sphere. The study shows that digital media do not alter informal learning in a simple cause-effect relationship but in a complex system of effects. Learners perception sphere obtain altered conditions for information assimilation on a learning topic. That can lead to informal learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domain. Related research with a focus on information assimilation and learning as media pedagogy, cognitive science, or learning psychology can use those identified mechanism for a differentiated view on digital media and consequently for more specific and sustainable results. One mechanism identified is the extension of linear learning content to a multi-dimensional perception sphere that is characterized by high interactivity, personalization, associativity, contingency, and often playfulness. Learners should become aware of the differences between the secondary experiences formed by that mechanism and primary experiences in the physical world to adjust their perception and media usage. Educators can respond by conveying key skills qualification as well as linking problems, processes, and contents between formal and informal settings. An important next research step is capturing and analyzing learning episodes in additional cultural areas to allow a fresh, quite different view on the widely discussed phenomena of digital divide.

Otto Petrovic

### Algorithms and Logic as Programming Primers

To adapt all-immersive digitalization, the Finnish National Curriculum 2014 (FNC-2014) ‘digi-jumps’ by integrating programming into elementary education. However, applying the change to mathematics teachers’ everyday praxis is hindered by a too high-level specification. To elaborate FNC-2014 into more concrete learning targets, we review the computer science syllabi of countries that are well ahead, as well as the education recommendations set by computer science organizations, such as ACM and IEEE. The whole mathematics syllabus should be critically viewed in the light of these recommendations and feedback collected from software professionals and educators. The feedback reveals an imbalance between supply and demand, i.e., what is over-taught versus under-taught, from the point of the requirements of current working life. The surveyed software engineers criticize the unnecessary surplus of calculus and differential equations, i.e., continuous mathematics. In contrast, the emphasis should shift more towards algorithms and data structures, flexibility in handling multiple data representations, and logic: in short – discrete mathematics. The ground for discrete mathematics should be prepared early enough, started already from primary level and continued consistently throughout the secondary till tertiary education. This paper aims to contribute to the further refinement of the mathematics syllabus by proposing such a discrete mathematics subset that especially supports the needs of computer science education, the focus being on algorithms and data structures, and logic in particular.

Pia Niemelä, Antti Valmari, Simo Ali-Löytty

### Chapter 5. Language and the (Im)possibility of Translation in Derrida’s Monolingualism of the Other and Khatibi’s Love in Two Languages

This chapter concentrates on the relation between language, translation, and the possibility of engaging difference as narrated by Abdelkebir Khatibi and Jacques Derrida in their respective texts. After contextualizing the centrality of language in their intellectual projects within the history of the diverse and discrepant experiences of French colonialism in the Maghreb, I discuss the attempt by some postcolonial writers to recast the contact zone opened up by the violence of colonialization and subvert imperial categories and absolute conceptions of difference. Although both Khatibi and Derrida link language and translation with subversion when narrating their particular experiences of marginality, I connect their discussion with Narrative IR and argue that the use of the “I” voice in their narratives failed to concretize the subversion they seemed to envision, reinstating the limits imposed by the categories of the “West” (e.g. French language) and the conception of difference as an unsurmountable limit.

Jessica da Silva C. de Oliveira

### A Lightweight Multi-level Encryption Model for IoT Applications

The Internet of Things (IoT) envisions connected, smart and pervasive nodes communicating while giving all kinds of assistance. Openness, comparatively colossal processing speed and wide distribution of IoT objects offered them an absolute destination for cyber-attacks. With the vast potential of IoT, there happen to all sorts of difficulties. In this article, an IoT environment has classified into three primary layers (i) Device layer, (ii) Communication Layer, (iii) Cloud Layer. Users, Devices, Gateway, Connection, Cloud, and Application are combined to create the various layers for IoT environment. The security issues in the cloud layer for IoT has addressed by a multilevel encryption scheme has proposed with flexible key management in the cloud environment.

M. Durairaj, K. Muthuramalingam

### Security and Privacy in Smart City Applications and Services: Opportunities and Challenges

A Smart City can be described as an urbanized town, wherein Information and Communication Technology are at the core of its infrastructure. Smart cities serve several innovative and advanced services for its citizens in order to improve the quality of their life. A Smart City must encompass all the forthcoming and highly advanced and integrated technology, the essence of which is the Internet of Things (IoT). Smart technologies like smart governance, smart communication, smart environment, smart transportation, smart energy, waste and water management applications promise the smart growth of the city, but at the same time, it needs to enforce pervasive security and privacy of the large volume of data associated with these smart applications. Special smart measures are required to cover urbanization trends in the innovative administration of urban transference and various smart services to the residents, visitors and local government to meet the ever expanding and manifold demands. When the city goes urban, its residents may suffer from various privacy and security issues due to smart city applications vulnerabilities. This chapter delivers a comprehensive overview of the security and privacy threats, vulnerabilities, and challenges of a smart city project; and suggests solutions in order to facilitate smart city development and governance.

Alka Verma, Abhirup Khanna, Amit Agrawal, Ashraf Darwish, Aboul Ella Hassanien

### Chapter 5. Characterization Techniques and Quality Assessment of Lignin and Lignin Carbon Materials

The aim of this chapter is to outline all the characterization methods used in lignin analysis. Characterization techniques from extraction to graphitization are presented in details. It is believed that understanding the theory behind characterization techniques will guide the design of experiments that will uncover the secret structure of lignin. Therefore, for each characterization technique the basic principles are first presented, then their application in lignin characterization. Detailed literatures of the various uses of these techniques are also reviewed. The weaknesses of each method and suggestions for improvement are the high points of the chapter.

Samson Oluropo Adeosun, Oluwashina Phillips Gbenebor

### Chapter 3. Capturing the Best Urban Diary Examples

Following the approach of the urban diary discussed in chapter 2, and expanded upon in Seeing the Better City, this chapter presents reflective vignettes of varying lengths, based on my collection of photographs and observations of local and international examples. These vignettes demonstrate how urbanism without effort is premised on common human affinities and varied in expression by cultural context, historical circumstance, and other unique factors, such as geography and climate. They demonstrate the challenges of creating livable cities that are universal and timeless, and how solutions require careful observation in the context of local circumstances.

Charles R. Wolfe

### Automated Vehicles and Vulnerable Road Users: Envisioning a Healthy, Safe and Equitable Future

This chapter provides an overview and recap of the AVS 2018 Breakout Session #8, AVs & Vulnerable Road Users: Envisioning a Healthy, Safe, and Equitable Future, including summaries of research presentations, perspectives on equity from leading experts in the field, and lessons learned through discussion among panelists and the session audience. The session identified a range of necessary actions and research needs such as engaging stakeholders at all levels from community to OEMs and governments to identify and solve problems before they become evident, recognizing the tradeoff between safety and access to transportation, and learning from the history of how transportation has affected (SES) communities.

Justin M. Owens, Laura Sandt, Azra Habibovic, Sarah Rebolloso McCullough, Ryan Snyder, Robert Wall Emerson, Pravin Varaiya, Tabitha Combs, Fred Feng, Mohammed Yousuf, Bernard Soriano

### Truck Platooning: Connectivity Enabled, Grounded in Safety, Properly Tested

Development of a truck platooning system that is effective and safe requires discipline along the entire process. This includes setting the right goals for performance, designing the right functionality, implementing that functionality, and thorough testing.

Joshua P. Switkes, Rod McLane, Shad Laws, Mark Luckevich

### Chapter 7. Power Consumption Minimization of Wireless Sensor Networks in the Internet of Things Era

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are key components of the Internet of Things (IoT) revolution. WSN nodes are in general battery-powered, thereby and efficient usage of their energy budget is of paramount importance to avoid performance degradation in IoT applications. To this end, this chapter proposes techniques to manage the WSN nodes’ power consumption. The aim of the first technique is to minimize the transmitted power for a given quality of service requirement at the receiver side. To this end, a power control is considered at each WSN node as well as the use of multiple distributed access points at the receiver side. The second technique to reduce the WSN energy consumption is energy harvesting (EH). Namely, the use of artificial light EH is considered to extend the WSN lifetime. Thus, an experimental setup based on a photovoltaic cell, a boost converter and a commercial WSN node is presented. It is shown that under certain settings it is possible to extend the WSN node’s lifetime without bound, when the transmission time period is above a certain threshold.

Jordi Serra, David Pubill, Christos Verikoukis

### Chapter 4. Multipath Ray-Tracing-Based Modelling of Time-of-Flight Cameras

Method and Application to Semi-Transparent and Scattering Media

This chapter presents a simulation approach for Time-of-Flight cameras, which is able to retain all light interactions with the objects of the scene within the geometric optics model. In particular, the method includes a physical description of direct and diffuse reflection, refraction, and Mie-scattering. The approach is based on ray-tracing, supports multiple and extended light sources, allows accounting for lens aberration effects, and enables the implementation and comparison of different ToF sensor technologies within the data-processing phase. A major asset is the possibility to retain multi-object reflection, refraction, and/or scattering ray paths, which allows accounting for multipath interference effects at the sensor starting from a physics-based model. The specific way in which rays are saved allows for advanced ray path analysis, which in turn allows analyzing the contributions of specific ray paths or specific light–object interaction types to the total measured signal. The potential of the approach is demonstrated by modelling scenes containing partially transparent objects (glass, raindrops), or scattering media (fog).

Marcus Baumgart, Norbert Druml, Cristina Consani

### Chapter 5. Computational Intelligence for Simulating a LiDAR Sensor

Cyber-Physical and Internet-of-Things Automotive Applications

In this chapter, an overview of some of the most commonly computational intelligence techniques used to provide new capabilities to sensor networks in Cyber-Physical and Internet-of-Things environments, and for verifying and evaluating the reliability issues of sensor networks is presented. Nowadays, on-chip Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) concept has driven a great technological challenge into sensor networks application for Cyber-Physical and Internet-of-Things systems. Therefore, the modelling and simulation of a LiDAR sensor networks is also included in this chapter that is structured as follows. First, a brief description of the theoretical modelling of the mathematical principle of operation is outlined. Subsequently, a review of the state-of-the-art of computational intelligence techniques in sensor system simulations is explained. Likewise, a use case of applying computational intelligence techniques to LiDAR sensor networks in a Cyber-Physical System environment is presented. In this use case, a model library with four specific artificial intelligence-based methods is also designed based on sensory information database provided by the LiDAR simulation. Some of them are multi-layer perceptron neural network, a self-organization map, a support vector machine, and a k-nearest neighbour. The results demonstrate the suitability of using computational intelligence methods to increase the reliability of sensor networks when addressing the key challenges of safety and security in automotive applications.

Fernando Castaño, Gerardo Beruvides, Alberto Villalonga, Rodolfo E. Haber

### Chapter 8. Model-Based Design of Secured Power Aware Smart Sensors

When designing new smart sensor platforms, the system should be well adapted to the intended use case. In most cases this means that the sensor will be implemented as a part of a larger system—be it as a part of a sensor network or a component of a machine. In both cases the sensor should have a long lifetime, use the available resources with care, handle the data securely, and prevent the system from getting damaged by misusing the sensor knowingly or unknowingly. To test all of these properties, models of the sensor (and its component parts) can be created and used in simulations that represent the environment and the possible uses of the sensor in it. This chapter describes the possibility of creating a new power aware and secured smart sensor using a model-based design approach.

Thomas Wolfgang Pieber, Thomas Ulz, Christian Steger

### Gamification als innovative Methode zur Datenerhebung in der Marktforschung

Der Autor zeigt das Potenzial digitaler Spiele als Datengenerator für die digitale Marktforschung auf. Er macht dabei deutlich, dass bei effizienter Konzeption als wesentlicher Erfolgsfaktor durch die Ansprache des Spieltriebes und der damit verbundenen Wirkungsfaktoren eine authentische und beiläufige Datenerhebung im Sinne der Marktforschung möglich ist. Dazu erläutert er zunächst die Wirkungsfaktoren digitaler Spiele im Allgemeinen, sowie bei Serious Games und der Gamification im Speziellen. Er zeigt auf, warum Spiele aufmerksamkeitsstarke und ergebnisorientierte Medien sind. Anhand ausgewählter Beispiele werden Integrationsmöglichkeiten von Datengeneratoren im spielerischen Kontext erläutert. Abgeschlossen wird der Beitrag mit einem Ausblick auf die jeweiligen Einsatzmöglichkeiten und einem Fazit.

Thorsten Unger

Thorsten Knoll

### Links of Distracted Driving with Demographic Indicators

During the research, distracted driving of drivers was selected. The aim of the research was to analyse the links of distracted driving with demographic indicators. To this effect, the behaviour of 1,896 drivers was observed while they were waiting for the green light at signal-controlled intersections in various cities of Lithuania. The analysis of the research results has revealed that the time of the day and such demographic variables as the gender and place of residence have an impact on the relation of drivers with distracted driving. The research results are ambiguous and claim that every second driver observed during the research is engaged in extraneous activity while driving a car. The most commonly encountered extraneous activities are talking on and manipulation of the phone, communication with passengers, and smoking. In addition, other kinds of extraneous activities have been observed, i.e. eating/drinking, checking one’s appearance in the mirror, searching for fallen objects, cleaning the cabin, dozing off, throwing of rubbish through the window, using a computer, and etc. In conclusion, statistically significant dependencies between the types of extraneous activities and the demographic indicators of drivers as well as the time of the day have been determined.

Oleg Bogačionok, Alfredas Rimkus

### 4. From Central Asia to the World: China’s Regional Diplomacy as a Precursor for Global Connectivity

During a landmark speech in September 2013 in Kazakhstan, Chinese President Xi Jinping announced the Silk Road Economic Belt; soon afterwards, Xi unveiled the Maritime Silk Road in Indonesia. Together, these came to be known as One Belt One Road (OBOR), or the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). BRI was an expansive vision of connectivity predicated on Chinese investments and technology flows, and bulwarked by over a trillion dollars. In this chapter, I argue that the BRI model of global connectivity rested on two regional efforts undertaken by Beijing in the 1990s: (1) China’s multilateral and multidimensional diplomacy with the post-Soviet Central Asian republics—as early as 1994, Beijing’s outreach in Central Asia had been described by Premier Li Peng as a new Silk Road—which resulted, initially, in the Shanghai Five forum in 1996. After 2001, this multilateral diplomacy was famously institutionalized in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). Although initially focused on security cooperation, in later years, the SCO became a venue for identifying new economic cooperation, many of which would reappear under BRI. (2) Sustained infrastructure building in the western regions of China. This effort, that began in 1991, and acquired momentum at the end of that decade, was in no small part a result of growing ties between China and Central Asia; now, China’s successful regional diplomacy engendered a more expansive, Eurasia-wide connectivity. Hence, inasmuch as BRI seeks to build a conducive investment climate in Afro-Eurasia along multiple corridors since Xi took power, it builds on China’s regional initiatives since the Cold War.

Hasan H. Karrar

### 10. China in Africa

China’s relationship with Africa has come under intense scrutiny in the last few years. Commentators have characterised the relationship in a variety of representations, from colonialism to enormously mutually beneficial partnership. China benefits from investment opportunities in growing African economies and the access to resources these countries offer. The African countries benefit from improved infrastructure with massive Chinese investments. However, many analysts feel that these countries lose much more than they gain with cheaper Chinese good flooding the markets and Chinese contractors promoting Chinese labour and equipment in these projects. This chapter examines China’s economic interventions in a few individual African countries in order to gauge the veracity of such claims. It appears that developing effective and stable policies to secure national interests is the key to mutually beneficial relationship.

Rabbiya Kamal, Omair Haroon

### Clearer than Mud: Extending Manufacturer Usage Description (MUD) for Securing IoT Systems

Internet of Things (IoT) devices, expected to increase exponentially over the next several years, are easy targets for attackers. To make these devices more secure, the IETF’s draft of Manufacturer Usage Description (MUD) provides a means for the manufacturer of an IoT device to specify its intended purpose and communication patterns in terms of access control lists (ACLs), thereby defining the device’s normal behaviour. However, MUD may not be sufficient to comprehensively capture the normal behaviour specification, as it cannot incorporate variable operational settings that depend on the environment. Further, MUD only supports limited features. Our approach overcomes these limitations by allowing the administrator to define the normal behaviour by choosing combinations from a wider set of features that includes physical layer parameters, values of packet headers, and flow statistics. We developed and implemented a learning-based system that captures and demodulates wireless packets from IoT devices over a period of time, extracts the features specified in the normal behaviour specification, and uses a learning algorithm to create a normal model of each device. Our implementation also enforces these normal models by detecting violations and taking appropriate actions, in terms of ACLs on an Internet Gateway, against the misbehaving devices. Hence, our framework makes the specification tighter and clearer than what is possible with MUD alone, thereby making IoT systems more secure.

Simran Singh, Ashlesha Atrey, Mihail L. Sichitiu, Yannis Viniotis

### IoT for Fault Detection in Thailand

Fault detection and notification in the distribution lines are very important for the operation of the power system. Due to the high cost of communication technology, largely rural area, and so many points of sensor installation, there are limited and difficult to monitoring and data sending. In this paper, we proposed concept using wireless sensor networks that could sense the faulty event in the distribution line, display to the web application as well as send an alarm notification to area distribution dispatching center and service crew, by LoRa network that a low cost, low power, and long-range communication via IoT.

Anurak Choeichum, Yutthana Krutgard, Wichan Inyoo

### Online Conditions Monitoring of End-Mill Based on Sensor Integrated Smart Holder

End-mill damage causes the losses of surface smooth and dimensional accuracy for the machined part. In addition, offline monitoring of the end-mill conditions causes downtime and consequently reduce productive efficiency. In order to sense and monitor the conditions of end-mill in real time, an intelligent Internet of Things (IoT) system dedicated to online conditions monitoring of end-mill has been developed in this research work. The designed smart holder highly integrated with triaxial acceleration sensor, Micro Controller Unit (MCU), wireless radio chip and battery is demonstrated. The system collects high resolution end-milling data during cutting without interfering with the machining process. In order to extract the data sequence containing the information highly related to the conditions of the end-mill, a simple but effective data extraction algorithm based on sinusoidal correlation is proposed. By real-time exploring the extracted data sequence via the developed data mining algorithm on the Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) edge server, the conditions of end-mill can be monitored online and consequently decision can be made in real time.

Zhaowu Zhan, Kai Xie, Letian Rong, Wei Luo

### The Research of Non-cooperative Power Control Method Based on Fairness and User Selection Strategy in Cognitive Radio Networks

When studying the power control problem of cognitive radio based on non-cooperative game theory, most scholars pay more attention to constraints such as interference, signal-to-noise ratio of secondary users, primary user interference threshold and so on. Optimization objectives focus on system throughput, system energy consumption, convergence rate, etc. The fairness problem caused by secondary users in order to increase system throughput is ignored, and the research on whether all the secondary users participate in the communication meets the communication conditions is in blank state. Based on the fairness problem, an automatic power control game algorithm based on cost function is proposed in this paper. When the cost function is designed, the influence of distance on channel gain is fully considered, and the penalty mechanism is introduced by adjusting the weight adaptively. The interference between users is reduced, and the near-far effect caused by different user location is effectively overcome. In order to solve the problem of whether the secondary users meet the communication conditions, a sub-user selection strategy is proposed to accurately control the secondary users who participate in the communication, thus avoiding the hidden danger to the stability of the system caused by the users who do not meet the communication conditions. The necessity and practical value of the user selection strategy are verified by simulation. At the same time, the performance of the proposed algorithm in convergence speed and energy saving is also highlighted.

Guanglong Yang, Xuezhi Tan, Xiao Wang

### Robust Power Control Algorithm Based on Probabilistic Constraints in Cognitive Radio Networks

When the channel fading is assumed to be fast fading and the transient variation of the channel gain is considered, the signal-to-interference noise ratio (SINR, Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio) of the secondary user changes with the channel gain. This will cause some secondary users to fail to get the SINR, required for normal communication if the secondary user transmit power is enhanced, although it meets the secondary user communication requirements, at the same time, the interference to the primary user exceeds the interference threshold. Affects the normal communication of the primary user. In order to solve this problem, a robust power control algorithm based on probabilistic constraints is proposed. In this paper, the average SINR model is transformed into the uncertain distribution model by introducing the uncertain parameters satisfying the exponential distribution. In this paper, the SINR probability density functions of primary and secondary users are given, and the probabilistic constraints are transformed into deterministic constraints. In order to solve the secondary user transmit power, the interference temperature of the primary user is taken as the constraint condition, and the complete iterative algorithm is used to realize the fast convergence of the secondary user transmit power. Since the protection of the primary user will lead to the damage of the interests of some secondary users, this chapter introduces the admission control, according to the highest degree of dissatisfaction first eliminate the mode of the sub-users who do not meet the requirements of communication to implement admission control. The number of secondary users meeting the communication condition in the system is increased. The simulation results show that the algorithm can quickly identify the secondary users who do not meet the communication conditions, and avoid the excessive elimination of the secondary users, increase the number of secondary users who can communicate normally, and increase the total throughput of the system.

Guanglong Yang, Xuezhi Tan, Xiao Wang

### Antenna Selection Based on Energy Efficiency of Uplink in Massive MIMO Systems

Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system installs a large number of antennas on the base station (BS), which requires one radio frequency (RF) chain for each antenna. When the number of antennas is small, the power consumption of the RF chains is negligible compared with the transmitting power. However, with the increase of antennas and RF chains, the ratio of the RF chains power consumption to the total transmitting power is gradually increasing. Therefore, the energy efficiency (EE) of the system tends to be saturated gradually and decreases with the further increase of antennas. To improve EE in massive MIMO systems, an antenna selection method by switching antenna dynamically with channel state information (CSI) is proposed in this paper, and trade-off between EE and spectral efficiency of the system is addressed.

Chaoyue Zhao, Zhuyun Fan, Meng Zhang, Guiyue Jin, Jiyu Jin

### Dual Optimal Robust Power Control Algorithm Based on Channel Uncertainty

In order to improve the fault-tolerant ability under parameter perturbation, the robust power control problem based on channel uncertainty is studied. In this paper, the robust optimization theory and stochastic optimization theory commonly used to deal with uncertain parameters are deeply analyzed, and the mathematical significance, application scenarios, advantages and disadvantages of the two optimization theories are summarized. A comprehensive solution for bounded uncertainty and probabilistic constraints is proposed. On the one hand, the scheme guarantees the rights and interests of the primary user under the worst error, on the other hand, the secondary user is satisfied with a certain interrupt probability under the condition of system robustness. In this paper, the main user interference temperature and the secondary user probability SINR are taken as the constraint conditions, the maximum throughput of the system is transformed into a convex optimization form, and the Lagrange dual (LD, Lagrange Duality) principle is used to solve the problem. The results show that the double optimization solution is a compromise between probabilistic constraint algorithm, Worst-case algorithm and non-robust algorithm, which not only fully protects the rights and interests of the primary user, but also takes into account the robustness. At the same time, the conservatism of the bounded uncertain design method is avoided.

Guanglong Yang, Xuezhi Tan, Xiao Wang

### Chapter 5. Deriving Semantics and Interlinkages of Facets

Haptic facets (categories of attributes that characterize collection items in different ways) are a way to describe, navigate and analyze the cognitive frameworks by which users make sense of qualitative and affective characteristics of haptic sensations. Embedded in tools, they will provide designers and end-users interested in customization with a road-mapped perceptual and cognitive design space. In the previous chapter, we compiled five haptic facets based on how people describe vibrations: physical, sensory, emotional, metaphoric, and usage examples. Here, we report a study in which we deployed these facets to identify underlying dimensions and cross-linkages in participants’ perception of a 120-item vibration library. We found that the facets are crosslinked in people’s minds, and discuss three scenarios where the facet-based organizational schemes, their linkages and consequent redundancies can support design, evaluation and personalization of expressive vibrotactile effects. Furthermore, we report between-subject variation (individual differences) and within-subject consistency (reliability) in participants’ rating and tagging patterns to inform future progress on haptic evaluation. This facet-based approach is also applicable to other kinds of haptic sensations. Finally, we detail our novel methodology for collecting user annotations for a large haptic collection in the lab.

Hasti Seifi

### Chapter 3. Sanitising the Sex Trade

In the past few decades, prostitution and the sex trade have been given a serious makeover. The title of this book, The Pimping of Prostitution, is meant to convey how sanitised commercial sexual exploitation has become. The Urban Dictionary definition of pimping is ‘to make something “cool”, “better” or “awesome”’.

Julie Bindel

### Chapter 11. Surviving the Sex Trade

Virginity was taken from me before I knew it was something someone could take. Before I knew it was something I’m supposed to care about.

Julie Bindel

### Chapter 6. Human Rights and Wrongs

Moran’s tweet, sent in August 2016, was in response to various comments made on social media during the fierce debate raging from January 2014–August 2016 about whether or not Amnesty International (AI) Amnesty International should adopt a policy of supporting blanket decriminalisation of the sex trade.When a woman is hungry, the humane thing to do is put food in her mouth, not your dick.

Julie Bindel

### Chapter 1. The Abolitionist Movement

Andrea DworkinDworkin, Andrea once mused, ‘Surely the freedom of women must mean more to us than the freedom of pimps’. To many, prostituted women do not matter at all.

Julie Bindel

### Chapter 4. Realities & Consequences of Legalisation

Under legalisation and decriminalisation regimes, pimps have been reclassified as managers and businessmen—with some, such as Douglas FoxFox, Douglas , calling themselves ‘sex workers’. Abuse suffered by the womenSex tourism, female is now called an ‘occupational hazard’, like a stone dropped on a builder’s toe. Sex tourism has grown faster in AmsterdamAmsterdam than the regular type of tourism: as the city became the brothel of Europe, women have been imported by traffickers from Africa, Eastern Europe, and Asia to meet the demand. In other words, the pimps remained but became legitimate. There has been little or no support for women to exit prostitution, and the innate murkiness of thesex trade has not been washed away by legal benediction.

Julie Bindel

### Chapter 5. The Invisible Man

The invisible man is invisible no more—we are holding him up to face the music.

Julie Bindel

### Kapitel 4. Technische ETCS-Komponenten

Um sicherzustellen, dass ETCS-Fahrzeuggeräte eines Herstellers ohne Probleme auf Streckenbereichen mit ETCS-Streckeneinrichtungen eines anderen Herstellers verkehren können, werden in den gültigen ETCS-Spezifikationen entsprechende Schnittstellen verbindlich festgelegt. Am Luftspalt zwischen Fahrzeug- und Streckeneinrichtungen sind diese Schnittstellen eindeutig herstellerübergreifend festgelegt und damit beliebig austauschbar. Innerhalb der ETCS-Streckeneinrichtung sowie der ETCS-Fahrzeugeinrichtung existieren verschiedene unterscheidbare technische Komponenten. Innerhalb der Fahrzeug- und Streckeneinrichtung sind die einzelnen Komponenten untereinander jedoch nicht beliebig austauschbar. Dieses Kapitel stellt die unterschiedlichen ETCS-Komponenten auf der Strecke und auf dem Fahrzeug dar.

Dr.-Ing. Lars Schnieder

### Chapter 5. The Organization of the Common

Communication as a redescriptive science of the common man. The Latin communicatio as a notion of reference to the structural dialog subjacent to the common. The differences between relation and binding. The community as emptiness and as a constitutive being-with. The common as immanence unperceived in antiquity (the philia) and in modernity. The media and information technologies as avatars of rhetoric and as reinterpretations of the common in contemporaneity.

Muniz Sodré

### Chapter 2. History, Homicide, Organised Crime, and Theory

This chapter offers insight into post-war Birmingham, new waves of working-class masculinity, organised crime and conceptual ambiguities. Furthermore, this chapter also considers homicide broadly as well as within the context of criminal networks. It does this by drawing upon the different forms of homicide, and argues how homicide conducted by members of illicit networks in not necessarily restricted to one form or type, but in some cases a fusion of two or more. The term ‘organised crime’ has been around for over a century, however, to date there is still no set universal definition of the concept. Thus, I offer a critical definition, which I believe justifies and strengthens some of ongoing scholarly debates about organised crime. The chapter concludes by considering the keystones theories that will help make sense of violent practice within criminal groups.

Dr. Mohammed Rahman

### Chapter 2. A Post-disciplinary Science

Discusses the possibilities of the establishment of a “post-disciplinary” science of communication, confronted by social and human sciences such as sociology, anthropology, and economics.

Muniz Sodré

### Chapter 3. A Financial Ideology

The epistemological problems of the communicational field and the insufficiency of the informational paradigm adopted for the American sociological school of communication research. The European field of communication studies in the sphere of structural semiology. Cognitive dispersion in Brazil. Mediatization as a concept for a new form of life.

Muniz Sodré

### Chapter 3. Alphabetical List of Key Notions

This chapter is the main part of this book. It gathers findings, tactics and strategies, complemented by additional explanations of the basic terms in alphabetical order.

Stefanie Jung, Peter Krebs

### Chapter 23. Image Analysis at Scale for Finding the Links Between Structure and Biology

Image data is growing at a rapid rate, whether from the continuous uploads on video portals, photo-sharing platforms, new satellites, or even medical data. The volumes have grown from tens of gigabytes to exabytes per year in less than a decade. Deeply embedded inside these datasets is detailed information on fashion trends, natural disasters, agricultural output, or looming health risks. The large majority of statistical analysis and data science is performed on numbers either as individuals or sequences. Images, however, do not neatly fit into the standard paradigms and have resulted in “graveyards” of large stagnant image storage systems completely independent of the other standard information collected. In this chapter, we will introduce the basic concepts of quantitative image analysis and show how such work can be used in the biomedical context to link hereditary information (genomic sequences) to the health or quality of bone. Since inheritance studies are much easier to perform if you are able to control breeding, the studies are performed in mice where in-breeding and cross-breeding are possible. Additionally, mice and humans share a large number of genetic and biomechanical similarities, so many of the results are transferable (Ackert-Bicknell et al. Mouse BMD quantitative trait loci show improved concordance with human genome-wide association loci when recalculated on a new, common mouse genetic map. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 25(8):1808–1820, 2010).

### Chapter 12. Beyond ImageNet: Deep Learning in Industrial Practice

Deep learning (DL) methods have gained considerable attention since 2014. In this chapter we briefly review the state of the art in DL and then give several examples of applications from diverse areas of application. We will focus on convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which have since the seminal work of Krizhevsky et al. (ImageNet classification with deep convolutional neural networks. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 25, pp. 1097–1105, 2012) revolutionized image classification and even started surpassing human performance on some benchmark data sets (Ciresan et al., Multi-column deep neural network for traffic sign classification, 2012a; He et al., Delving deep into rectifiers: Surpassing human-level performance on ImageNet classification. CoRR, Vol. 1502.01852, 2015a). While deep neural networks have become popular primarily for image classification tasks, they can also be successfully applied to other areas and problems with some local structure in the data. We will first present a classical application of CNNs on image-like data, in particular, phenotype classification of cells based on their morphology, and then extend the task to clustering voices based on their spectrograms. Next, we will describe DL applications to semantic segmentation of newspaper pages into their corresponding articles based on clues in the pixels, and outlier detection in a predictive maintenance setting. We conclude by giving advice on how to work with DL having limited resources (e.g., training data).

Thilo Stadelmann, Vasily Tolkachev, Beate Sick, Jan Stampfli, Oliver Dürr

### Intrusion Detection – Systeme für vernetzte Fahrzeuge – Konzepte und Herausforderungen für Privatheit und Cyber-Sicherheit

Die zunehmende Vernetzung im Fahrzeug erhöht das Risiko für Cyberangriffe mit schwerwiegenden Folgen sowohl für die Privatheit als auch für Leib und Leben der Insassen. Für derartige Angriffe werden intrinsische Schwachstellen im Controller Area Network Protokoll, das in der Automobilindustrie den verbreitetsten Standard zur Realisierung von In-Fahrzeugkommunikationsnetze darstellt, ausgenutzt. Ein sowohl in der Forschung als auch in der Industrie zunehmend als effektiv und praktikabel angesehener Lösungsansatz stellen Intrusion Detection Systeme (IDS) dar. Die grundlegende Architektur und vorgesehene Datenverarbeitungsschritte in derzeitigen Vorschlägen für IDS im Kontext vernetzter Fahrzeuge weisen auf ein wachsendes Spannungsverhältnis zwischen der notwendigen Absicherung der In-Fahrzeugnetze durch Datenanalyse (Cybersicherheit) und der in der Regel fehlenden oder ungenügenden Berücksichtigung der Prinzipien des Data Protection-by-Design und Data Protection-by-Default – also Datenschutz durch Technikgestaltung und datenschutzfreundliche Voreinstellungen.

Hervais Simo, Michael Waidner, Christian Geminn

### Nachweismöglichkeiten der IT-Sicherheit

Vernetzte und miteinander kommunizierende Fahrzeuge bieten grundsätzlich Angriffsmöglichkeiten auf ihre vorgesehenen Funktionen. In diesem Beitrag werden zunächst basierend auf dem „Reference Architectural Model Automotive“ Schutzobjekte aus IT-Sicherheitssicht in Fahrzeugen aufgezeigt. Anschließend wird dargelegt, welche Strukturierungsmöglichkeiten in der IT-Sicherheit bekannt sind, um Sicherheitsanforderungen für diese Schutzobjekte zu definieren und deren Einhaltung und Umsetzung nachzuweisen. Zum Ende zeigt dieser Beitrags auf, wie die bestehende Typprüfung bzw. Hauptuntersuchung erweitert werden könnten, um in diesem Rahmen spezifische IT-Sicherheitsnachweise zu führen.

Markus Ullmann, Thomas Strubbe, Christian Wieschebrink

### Wird das automatisierte und vernetzte Auto zur digitalen Zwangsjacke für Verbraucher?

Automatisierung und Vernetzung sind mit einer hohen Nutzung von Daten im und um das Auto verbunden – und die meisten Personen, die davon betroffen sind, sind Verbraucherinnen und Verbraucher. Für sie kann das Autofahren zwar einfacher, leichter und sicherer werden, für steigt aber auch das Risiko, ihrer individuelle Autonomie zu verlieren und sich einer umfassenden Überwachung ihrer Mobilität, ihrer Kommunikation und ihrer Beziehungen auszusetzen. Daher geht der Beitrag der Frage nach, ob die steigende Automatisierung und Vernetzung des Autos Verbraucherinnen und Verbraucher an die digitale Leine legt und das vernetzte Auto für sie für zur digitalen Zwangsjacke wird. Diese Risiken können aber auch vermieden werden, wenn die jeweils Verantwortlichen die Datenschutzgrundsätze strikt beachten und die Hersteller diese durch „Privacy by Design“ in den Systemen für vernetztes und automatisiertes Fahren umsetzen.

Marion Jungbluth

### Open Cars and Data Protection in the United States of America

Openness, data access and data protection have become important attributes, features and value factors for cars and mobility services more broadly. An open car comes with interoperable interfaces and openly disclosed software and hardware for technology upgrades, aftermarket products, services and security researchers. The open car can protect data privacy and security as well or better as proprietary automotive products do today. The closed car remains controlled by its original manufacturer, which is in most cases a large company with a strong brand, good safety track record, well-capitalized, subsidized or supported by governments, and generally considered more trustworthy than many smaller companies. Owners of closed cars will have less options und depend on the original manufacturers with respect to data privacy and security protections. Compared to the closed, proprietary car, the open car comes out ahead based on technology, competition, sustainability and environmental policy considerations. Car makers and buyers should start considering, communicating and bargaining about the degree of openness of vehicle interfaces and data access - as well as data protection and privacy safeguards relating to cars and mobility services.

Lothar Determann, Bruce Perens

### Notwendige Transparenz für betroffene Personen

Die vielfältige Vernetzung von Fahrzeugen führt zu einer enormen Steigerung der Anzahl von personenbezogenen Daten und zu einer unüberschaubaren Anzahl verschiedener Akteure, die ihre Dienste anbieten und ein ganz erhebliches Interesse an den anfallenden personenbezogenen Daten haben. Es stellt sich daher die Frage, wie in dieser unübersichtlichen Situation Transparenz für die jeweils betroffenen Personen hergestellt werden kann, und ob die mit der Datenschutz-Grundverordnung eingeführten Informationspflichten diese Transparenz herzustellen in der Lage sind. Der Beitrag kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass ausreichende Transparenz nicht durch eine einmalige Unterrichtung oder eine Erläuterung im (elektronischen) Bordbuch hergestellt werden kann. Vielmehr erfordert eine Transparenz, die selbstbestimmte Entscheidungen der betroffenen Person über die Verarbeitung ihrer Daten ermöglichen soll, eine risikoadäquate Information in der jeweiligen Entscheidungssituation.

Charlotte Husemann

### Chapter 12. A Global City in a Less and Less Integrated World

During the interwar years of the twentieth century, the impact of the United States’s disengagement with rest of the world had a modest impact on the volume and composition of economic activity in New York. Although the City shared the nation’s robust prosperity during the 1920s, the local economy evidenced less of the structural dynamism that had characterized the previous decades.

Aaron Gurwitz

### Chapter 19. A City of Niches and Enclaves

As during the previous globalization era, immigration from abroad provided the impetus for New York City’s robust growth around the turn of the twenty-first century. It was the rapidly growing, diverse local immigrant communities that created the demand for new, locally supplied goods and services. And it was the rapidly growing immigrant communities that provided the elastic supply of labor that facilitated broader economic expansion.

Aaron Gurwitz

### Taking Sides in Scientific Research? The Struggle for the Right to Participate in Public Decision-Making Related to a Mining Project in Brazil

This chapter is based on my PhD research on the Minas-Rio iron-ore mining project, which is currently being implemented in Brazil despite strong contestation. Assisted by environmentalists, researchers and lawyers, local groups have been mobilizing inter alia for their right to information and to participate effectively in decision-making processes in order to fight the loss and contamination of their livelihoods. Under Brazilian law, official decision-making within the environmental licensing process must respect the rights to information and participation. However, these rights are undermined in everyday juridical-administrative procedures and processes. Based on the theoretical debates about legal proceduralization and following an action research approach, I have tried to understand the mechanisms that lead to a hollowing out of the rights to information and participation in an attempt to produce knowledge that supports local peoples’ rights. The chapter also sets out to reflect upon ethical and methodological implications of action research. While the objectivity of social sciences has been generally questioned, the normative outlook of action researchers and their siding with one faction in a conflict necessitates even more explicit reflections about positionality and subjectivity in research. I maintain that including the perspective of actors who traditionally are ignored by political and economic authorities is justified on academic, normative and social grounds.

Aline Rose Barbosa Pereira

### Chapter 7. Minding the Gap? The Media and the Realisation of SDG 13 in Kenya

The mediaMedia in AfricaAfrica haveKenya a role to play in the attainment of Sustainable DevelopmentDevelopment Goals (SDGs) by building awareness, setting the public agenda, and influencing and holding to account political leaders. In this chapter, we examine the problematic context of a commercialised and privatised mediaMedia system playing a significant role in debates about developmentDevelopment and in developmentDevelopment educationEducation and advocacy—topics which are not necessarily profitable. MediaMedia can play a role as public information channels, engagement platforms, watchdogs and advocates for policy improvement—all crucial to the successful implementation of the SDGs—but mediaMedia do not necessarily fulfil these obligations. With advances in technologyTechnology , the power of the mediaMedia to open new opportunities to drive social change and to transform developmentDevelopment in AfricaAfrica is unsurpassed. We explore how the contemporary political economyEconomy of Kenyan mediaMedia challenges or supports such objectives. We also examine how information gaps concerning SDG goals, such as climate information in rural communities, pose a challenge to the realisation of the SDGs. We conduct an investigation into the form of analysis of mediaMedia coverage of climate changeClimate change and action in KenyaKenya , but draw primarily from existing researchResearch concerning Kenyan mediaMedia . Our findings show that the Kenyan mediaMedia are ill-equipped to specifically support SDG 13 on climate changeClimate change and action in the country.

Jacinta Mwende Maweu, Chris Paterson

### Chapter 4. Chinese and Western Development Approaches in Africa: Implications for the SDGs

ThisDevelopment chapter discusses the entry of ChinaChina into the game of foreign finance in AfricaAfrica in an international comparative perspective. We present an analysis of long-run changes in the allocation of Western aidAid both globally and in AfricaAfrica, along with estimates of the global sectoral allocation of Chinese aidAid. A similar analysis is also applied to ChinaChina’s foreign direct investment and international tradeTrade. While previous literature has predominantly attributed ChinaChina’s economic embrace of AfricaAfrica to domestic factors, we argue that the sectoral distribution of Beijing’s foreign aidAid—and partly foreign direct investment—is also affected by changes in the patterns of Western aidAid and investment flowing to the African continent. We provide quantitative evidence for long-run trends, switches and breaks in Western developmentDevelopment assistance. ChinaChina’s foreign aidAid typically flows into AfricaAfrica’s physical infrastructure and productive sectors of agricultureAgriculture and manufacturing, filling the vacuum which emerged when Western financial flows shifted to other activities, most notably capacity building and good governanceGovernance reforms. While the increasing tradeTrade relationships between ChinaChina and AfricaAfrica are often described as South–South tradeTrade, the pattern highly resembles the typical North–South tradeTrade patterns. Overall, this chapter shows that financial resources from both the traditional Western donors and emerging donors from the Global SouthGlobal South such as ChinaChina can help African recipient countries to achieve the Sustainable DevelopmentDevelopment Goals. ChinaChina’s developmentDevelopment assistance in AfricaAfrica may serve as a complement to the kinds of foreign aidAid provided by the traditional donor countries.

### Ergonomic Evaluation of Pilot Helmet and Neck Injury

In addition to protecting pilot’s head, flying helmet is also a mounting platform for head-mounted display, tracking and sighting systems, night vision devices, oxygen masks, and wireless communication devices. Although these helmets can greatly improve the combat effectiveness, these systems may increase the support load of head and neck, and the irrational design of helmet ergonomics will lead to the shift of Centre of Gravity (CG) of helmet and the increase of joint torque of neck, which increases the risk of neck injury to pilot. In response to this problem, this paper developed a system based on the three-point method for measuring CG of helmet, which is used to measure CG and Moment of Inertia (MI) of helmet, and to measure the physical parameters of two flying helmets. Measurement results are follows: mass M1 = 1.143 kg, M2 = 1.020 kg, CG C1 = (0.002, 0.542 and 7.630 cm), C2 = (0.314, 0.117 and 2.446 cm).MI J1 = (0.072, 0.089, 0.016 kg•m2), J2 = (0.041, 0.056, 0.015 kg•m2).The error analysis results show that the measurement error of system is less than 2 mm, which indicates that the system has high calculation accuracy and simple testing steps. In addition, the neck muscle fatigue test of wearing a helmet was carried out, and the fatigue degree of each muscle was analyzed quantitatively by using muscle fatigue model. This paper can provide some method support for man-machine ergonomics design of helmet, analysis of helmet mass parameter and evaluation of pilot’s neck injury.

Xiangyu Ge, Qianxiang Zhou, Zhongqi Liu

### Modeling Social Influence in Mobile Messaging Apps

Social influence is the behavioral change of a person because of the perceived relationship with other people, organizations and society in general. With the exponential growth of online social network services especially mobile messaging apps, users around the world are logging in to messaging apps to not only chat with friends but also to connect with brands, browse merchandise, and watch content. Mobile chat apps boast a number of distinct characteristics that make their audiences particularly appealing to businesses and marketers, including their size, retention and usage rates, and user demographics. The combined user base of the top four chat apps is larger than the combined user base of the top four social networks. Therefore, it makes great sense to analyze user behavior and social influence in mobile messaging apps. In this paper, we focus on computational aspects of measuring social influence of groups formed in mobile messaging apps. We describe the special features of mobile messaging apps and present challenges. We address the challenges by proposing a temporal weighted data model to measure the group influence in messaging apps by considering their special features, with implementation and evaluation in the end.

Songmei Yu, Sofya Poger

### Kapitel 1. Einleitung

Weit mehr als eine halbe Million Non-Profit-Organisationen leisten in Deutschland wichtige Arbeit. Viel zu wenig erfährt die Öffentlichkeit davon. Woran liegt das? Unter anderem daran, dass die Pressearbeit dieser NPOs unzureichend ist.

Norbert Franck

### Kapitel 6. Gelassen bleiben: Konflikte mit der Presse und Krisenkommunikation

Konflikte mit der Presse gehören zum Geschäft. Um solche Konflikte geht es im ersten Abschnitt.

Norbert Franck

### Kapitel 2. Wirklich etwas mitteilen: Die Pressemitteilung

Wir lesen in der Zeitung, was die Parteivorsitzende meint oder der Verkehrsminister plant. Wir hören im Rundfunk, was der Geschäftsführer von Greenpeace fordert und die Präsidentin von Brot für die Welt unterstützt.

Norbert Franck

### Chapter 2. IoT Architecture

The domain of the internet of things will encompass a wide range of technologies. Thus, single reference architecture cannot be used as a blueprint for all possible concrete implementations. While a reference model can probably be identified, it is likely that several reference architectures will coexist in the internet of things. In this context, architecture is specifically defined as a framework for specifying the physical components and functional organization and configuration of a network, operational principles, and procedures, as well as data formats used in its operation. In fact, IoT is like an umbrella around all possible computer devices around us. Therefore, the IoT architecture should be open enough with open protocols to support a variety of existing network applications. Additionally, some middleware for scalability, security, and semantic representation should also be included to promote data world integration with the internet. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the internet of things architectures.

### Shiny Tools for Sample Size Calculation in Process Performance Qualification of Large Molecules

The regulatory guidance documents on process validation have been recently revised to emphasize the three-stage lifecycle approach throughout validation. As an important milestone within Stage 2: process qualification, the process performance qualification (PPQ) requires taking adequate samples to provide sufficient statistical confidence of quality both within a batch and between batches. To help meet the PPQ requirements and to further support continued process verification for large molecules, for continuous critical quality attributes, Shiny tools have been developed to calculate the minimum numbers of samples within batches to control the batch-specific beta-content tolerance intervals within prespecified acceptance ranges. The tolerance intervals at attribute level are also displayed to assure the suitability of the predefined number of PPQ batches. In addition, another Shiny application for creation and evaluation of the sampling plans for binary attributes will be illustrated in terms of failure rates of future batches and consumer’s and producer’s risk probabilities. The tools for both continuous and binary attributes allow to adjust the sampling plans based on historical data, and are designed with interactive features including dynamic inputs, outputs and visualization.

Qianqiu Li, Bill Pikounis

### Chapter 16. Data Science Virtual Machine and AI Frameworks

Data Science Virtual Machine (DSVM) is a virtual machine on the Azure cloud that is customized for doing data science. DSVM has some pre-configured and preinstallation tools that help users build artificial intelligence (AI) applications. DSVM assists data science teams to access a consistent setup. In this chapter, a brief introduction to DSVM and how to install it is provided, in addition to an overview of the tools installed.

Leila Etaati

### Study of Voice-Based Crowdsourcing Platform for the Enhancement of Self-support for the Visually Impaired

This research suggested a voice-based crowdsourcing platform that can increase the independence of visually impaired people. This study used a qualitative analysis; one group interview and one in-depth interview. As a result, they expressed needs to know information that are directly related to health such as medicines, clothing, and food. This research suggested a platform construction based on the information most needed by the visually impaired.This platform allows both people with visual disabilities and the public to freely share and utilize information. The application’s QR code and voice search functions provide immediate access to the various product information available from the platform. Users’ voluntary participation will provide an opportunity to register and modify product information needed. In addition, public institutions and companies will be able to use this voice-based crowdsourcing platform to promote independent living of visually impaired people.

Jini Kim, Ga Ram Song, HaYeong Kim, Enseo Kim, Wonsup Lee

### CasaE Xperience - Creation Method Focused in Accessibility

Create products with accessibility is a way of reaching a greater number of users and especially encourage the inclusion of users who have some disability, something increasingly important. This was the prerogative for the process of creating an application: to enable users with some vocal, auditory and mainly visual limitations to have an experience similar to that of ordinary users. In this article, we present the process of creating a new version of an application that had no accessibility at all.

Aender Ferreira, Luciano do Nascimento, Vitorio Kuroda, Daniele Zandona, Marcelo dos Anjos, Bruno Ribeiro, Fernanda Pellegrini, Walter Correia, Jefté Macêdo, Jonysberg Quintino

### Heuristic and Bias Information on Ship Engine Operation Alarm Display

The fast and correct decision-making from an operator in the ship engine operation is needed. Specifically in an emergency situation, when numbers of alarms occur at the same time. This research aims to study the effect of adding information attribute into the alarm display to the behavior of the operator on their decision-making process. Either make improvement or bias is studied on behalf of the effect. Several students (N = 17) belong to Marine Engineering Department have participated. The experiment divided into three sessions with different amount of information. The participant should arrange the priority of the alarm that occurred using drag and drop feature on an HTML page. After each session, participants fill Likert-type scale of confidence level. From the statistical calculation, participants confidence level was difference each session (p < 0.05, χ(2,17) = 16.32). The participants also tend to change their priority of alarms between session (p < 0.05) and support the correlation (r = 0.51) between high confidence level with the tendency to follow the quantitative information in ordinally. The time on task of participants solving each session was shorter between session (p < 0.05, f(2,28) = 5.37). We conclude that adding more information into alarm display was increasing the confidence, but the decision- making tends to be biased.

Adi Mas Nizar, Takashi Miwa, Makoto Uchida, Masumi Nakamura

### Chapter 5. The Ocean in Motion!

The ocean is restless. It never stops moving. The famous American oceanographer Matthew Maury described the Gulf Stream ocean current as “a river in the sea,” but all the world’s rivers combined transport only a tiny fraction of the volume of ocean currents. The great ocean currents regulate the climate by transporting heat around the globe, taking warm water from the equator toward the poles and cool water from the poles toward the equator. Water evaporates from the ocean, falls as rain on the land, and returns to the sea. In this chapter we will learn about the Coriolis effect, one of the most important concepts in oceanography and its consequences for wind and ocean currents. Eddies shed from the ocean currents can reach to great depths and cause deep ocean “storms.” We will answer important questions like: What would happen if ice did not float? Why don’t icebergs drift in the same direction as the wind blows? What is storm “wave base”? What does a tsunami wave look like in the middle of the ocean? Why are there new beaches forming on the Arctic coast? What has caused Antarctic sea ice “factories” to close down?

Peter Townsend Harris

### Chapter 2. Oceans Created: Oceans Destroyed

Oceans have been created, and oceans have been destroyed many times in the Earth’s history by plate tectonics. In this chapter we shall meet Alfred Wegner and learn about his early theory of continental drift and its problems. Rivals to Wegner’s theory were the shrinking Earth theory and the expanding Earth theory, but they had problems of their own. We will meet Marie Tharp and her discovery of the great rift valley that encircles the globe. The “Rosetta Stone” for plate tectonic theory was the discovery of magnetic “stripes” on the ocean floor created by episodic reversals of the Earth’s magnetic field. The disintegration of Pangea 170 million years ago and the rise and fall of the Tethys Ocean 6 million years ago are merely brief stages of the cycle of the birth and death of oceans.

Peter Townsend Harris

### Energy-Aware Capacity Provisioning and Resource Allocation in Edge Computing Systems

Energy consumption plays a key role in determining the cost of services in edge computing systems and has a significant environmental impact. Therefore, minimizing the energy consumption in such systems is of critical importance. In this paper, we address the problem of energy-aware optimization of capacity provisioning and resource allocation in edge computing systems. The main goal is to provision and allocate resources such that the net profit of the service provider is maximized, where the profit is the difference between the aggregated users’ payments and the total operating cost due to energy consumption. We formulate the problem as a mixed integer linear program and prove that the problem is NP-hard. We develop a heuristic algorithm to solve the problem efficiently. We evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm by conducting an extensive experimental analysis on problem instances of various sizes. The results show that the proposed algorithm has a very low execution time and is scalable with respect to the number of users in the system.

Tayebeh Bahreini, Hossein Badri, Daniel Grosu

### Stackelberg Game-Theoretic Spectrum Allocation for QoE-Centric Wireless Multimedia Communications

Multimedia Quality of Experience (QoE) is a predominant factor that drives customer satisfaction and user experience in the future wireless networks. This paper proposes a Stackelberg game theoretic spectrum allocation approach for QoE-centric wireless multimedia communication rather than the traditional data traffic. Here, we introduce the cost of utilizing the spectrum as a factor in the utility of the service provider and the client device. Both service provider and client devices are assumed rational and selfishly look to maximize their utility in a non-cooperative manner. Stackelberg game is used to formulate the interaction between the service provider and the client device, and to derive the Nash Equilibrium for the utility maximization problem. The paper proves existence of a Stackelberg game solution such that the utility of both client device and the service provider is maximized. The simulation results demonstrate that QoE and fairness can be achieved by the proposed game-theoretic spectrum allocation scheme.

Krishna Murthy Kattiyan Ramamoorthy, Wei Wang, Kazem Sohraby

### Kapitel 5. Über die Herstellung des Forschungsfeldes

Das Kapitel 5 markiert den Auftakt in den empirischen Teil meiner Untersuchungen. Dabei soll deutlich werden, wie sich das von mir untersuchte Feld des leistungssportorientierten Nachwuchstrainings im Trampolinturnen zusammensetzt und wie sich im Verlauf der Forschung nicht nur ein Forschungsfeld, sondern auch ein Untersuchungsgegenstand konstruiert hat. Zu Beginn werden einige generelle Anmerkungen zur Bedeutung des Feldzugangs im Kontext ethnographischer Forschung gemacht (Kap. 5.1).

Ajit Singh

### Chapter 3. Persons Subject to the Duty of Confidentiality

Once the sources of confidentiality obligations have been identified, it is important to catalogue the persons who can be bound by the duty of confidentiality and to determine the scope of their duty. The main addressees of the duty of confidentiality are the parties with their representatives, the arbitrators and the relevant arbitration institution. Although the circle of persons involved in arbitration proceedings is usually limited, there will inevitably be other natural and legal persons, who will have access to the information relating to the arbitration proceedings.

Elza Reymond-Eniaeva

### Enabling Technologies of Industry 4.0 and Their Global Forerunners: An Empirical Study of the Web of Science Database

Knowledge management in organizations brings many benefits for R&D operations of companies and corporations. This empirical study demonstrates the power of large database analyses for industrial strategies and policy. The study is based on the Web of Science database (Core Collection, ISI) and provides an overview of the core enabling technologies of Industry 4.0, as well as the countries and regions at the forefront of the academic landscape within these technologies. The core technologies and technologies of Industry 4.0 and Manufacturing 4.0 are: (1) Internet of Things and related technologies (2) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), (3) Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), and (4) ubiquitous computing. It also covers (5) Cloud computing technologies, including (6) Virtualization and (7) Manufacturing as a Service (MaaS), and new (8) Cyber-physical systems, such as (9) Digital Twin-technology and (10) Smart & Connected Communities. Finally, important for the manufacturing integration Industry 4.0 enabling technologies are (11) Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), (12) Business Process Management (BPM), and (13) Information Integration and Interoperability. All these key technologies and technology drivers were analysed in this empirical demonstration of knowledge management.

Mikkel Stein Knudsen, Jari Kaivo-oja, Theresa Lauraeus

### Design of an Identification System for Crop Monitoring as First Step to Implementing Precision Agriculture Technology: The Case of African Palm

The use of emerging technologies brings multiple benefits to the agricultural sector, not only at an economic level, but also in reference to sustainability and the use of natural resources. Some technological systems make it possible to, among others things, improve the monitoring process of crops through (1) the identification of pests and diseases in plants to implement corrective and preventive measures, (2) the planning of different activities and crop rotation times such as planting, collection, pollination, etc. having a direct impact on the product quality, the crop useful life, its productivity and the producer income. In Colombia, the monitoring of extensive crops such as African palm (465,985 ha) is still manually done, therefore this work proposes a prototype identification system, designed and validates to provide data to an information system for the monitoring of each plants in African palm crops as a starting point (data collection) to implement precision agriculture in this agro sector.

Jose Cruzado Jimenez, Katherine Andrea Cuartas Castro

### Customer Knowledge Management: Micro, Small and Medium - Sized Enterprises in Bogotá - Colombia

The idea of Customer Knowledge Management (CKM) is quite new, especially linked to operations within an organization. In this context, it is required to recall 80’s worldwide concepts as Customer Relation Ship (CRM) or Customer Lifetime Value (CLV). CRMs were complex and focused on large companies in the 90’s. At the beginning, CRMs worked through connections in infrastructures; nonetheless, from 2010 it was normal to use Cloud Computing versions. CRMs arose in Colombia firstly in large companies, now it is available for micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME). There are approximately 2.5 million MSME operating in a competitive environment, pursuing their market share. Besides, customer loyalty appears to be a difficult issue as well. Hence, the present paper aims to identify the Customer Knowledge Management Strategies developed by Colombian MSME. The methodology incorporates primary data, through a validated instrument by experts. Research results confirm that MSME work on customer loyalty strategies without systematization or measurement technology. Thus, an opportunity emerges for MSME regarding the use of cloud computing or CKM.

Yasser de Jesús Muriel-Perea, Flor Nancy Díaz-Piraquive, Rubén González-Crespo, Trinidad Cortés Puya

### Chapter 10. Human Centred Cyber Physical Systems

This Chapter presents four prototype systems which have been developed for testing and evaluating various activity recognition approaches investigated in previous chapters. These prototype systems are categorised based on the styles of their software architecture into a standalone, a multi-agent and two SOA systems. This reflects and closely corresponds to the evolution of the latest technologies in software engineering and smart cyber-physical systems. Given that previous chapters have already described how systems are used for specific use scenarios, this chapter has focused on the implementation details and operation processes of these systems which are described one by one in four sections. It is expected that interested researchers can use these systems or follow the implementation methodologies to support their research. In addition, the performance, strengths and limitations, and future work of these systems are also discussed.

Liming Chen, Chris D. Nugent

### Chapter 2. Sensor-Based Activity Recognition Review

This chapter presents a comprehensive survey on the state of the art of various aspects of sensor-based activity recognition. It first examines the general rationale and distinctions of different sensor technologies for activity monitoring. Then we review the major approaches and methods associated with sensor-based activity modeling and recognition from which strengths and weaknesses of those approaches are analysed and highlighted. The survey makes a primary distinction between data-driven and knowledge-driven approaches, and uses this distinction to structure our survey.

Liming Chen, Chris D. Nugent

### Chapter 13. Researching the Impact of the South African Kha Ri Gude Mass Literacy Campaign: Considering the Support for Those Otherwise Marginalized in Economic, Social, and Political Life

In this chapter, we explore how the South African Kha Ri Gude mass literacy campaign, flowing from and drawing on the experience of the an earlier national literacy campaign, was developed to support those otherwise marginalized in the South African society. We explain the aims of the campaign as furthering the goal of ‘Literacy Plus’ (i.e. Literacy Plus enabling increased participation in economic, social, and political life). We explicate how a range of (mixed) methods was used for soliciting feedback from learners (as well as from educators and coordinators) throughout both campaigns and further to this in an assessment that took place (2013–2015) by the Adult Basic Education and Youth Development Department at the University of South Africa. We indicate how, in the assessment, we considered ourselves to be involved in a relationship of reciprocity with the (sampled) participants as we explored the impact of the Kha Ri Gude campaign from their perspectives (as developed/recounted through the interactional encounter with us).

Veronica I. McKay, Norma R. A. Romm

### UNESCO Approach to Crafts

This chapter demonstrates how and why UNESCO was the first UN Agency to forecast, three decades ago, the socio-cultural and economic role of crafts in a globalized world and within the creative economy. On the basis of relevant references to international conventions and conferences, the chapter argues that the originality of the UNESCO approach lies in its recognition of the dual role crafts as part of the Intangible Cultural Heritage and of the creative industries side by side with the establishment of linkages between designers and artisans. This implies a comprehensive policy based on the three pillars of coordination, complementarity and cooperation among all the concerned stakeholders from public and private sectors.

Indrasen Vencatachellum

### Visual Analysis of Bird Moving Patterns

In spite of recent advances in data analysis techniques, exploration of complex, unstructured spatial-temporal data could still be difficult. An interactive approach, with human in the analysis loop, represents a valuable add on to automatic analysis methods. We describe an interactive visual analysis method to exploration of complex spatio-temporal data sets. The proposed approach is illustrated using a publicly available data set, a collection of bird locations recorded over an extended period of time. In order to explore and comprehend complex patterns in bird movements over time, we provide two new views, the centroids scatter plot view and the distance plot view. Successful analysis of the birds data indicates the usefulness of the newly proposed approach for other spatio-temporal data of a similar structure.

Krešimir Matković, Denis Gračanin, Michael Beham, Rainer Splechtna, Miriah Meyer, Elena Ginina

### Kapitel 7. Mit Sprachassistenten verkaufen?!

Das Kap. 7 widmet sich der Frage nach Vertrieb und Umsatzgenerierung mit Sprachassistenten. Welche Angebote auf Sprachassistenten unterstützen direkt den Kaufvorgang der Kunden? Welche Anwendungsfälle eignen sich besonders, um Kaufabschlüsse über diese herbeizuführen? Dabei werden direkte wie auch Cross-Channel-Ansätze (z. B. „say and collect“) berücksichtigt.

Thomas Hörner

### Kapitel 4. Voice Content Marketing

Dieses Kapitel widmet sich einer zentralen Marketingstrategie auf Sprachassistenten: dem Voice Content Marketing. Nach einigen Überlegungen zu Content Marketing aus Sicht der Werbewirkungsforschung werden Anforderungen an gutes Voice Content aufgezeigt. Es folgen vielfältige Empfehlungen und Anregungen für die Marketingpraxis für Voice Content auf Sprachassistenten.

Thomas Hörner

### Kapitel 3. Sprachassistenten im Marketing

Eine Einordnung von Sprachassistenten in die Marketingtheorie nimmt dieses Kapitel vor. Als Grundlage werden die besonderen Spezifika des Medienkanals Sprachassistent betrachtet und die Festlegung von Zielen für das Sprachassistentenmarketing diskutiert. Es wird dann eine Einordnung des Sprachassistenten-Marketings in den Kaufprozess nach Kotler sowie in den Marketingmix vorgenommen. Ergänzt werden diese Darstellungen mit Überlegungen zu Gestaltung von Sprache und Kommunikation auf Sprachassistenten.

Thomas Hörner

### Kapitel 8. Marken auf Sprachassistenten

Das Kap. 8 ist dem Thema Marke gewidmet. Es ordnet Sprachassistenten in die Markenführung ein und zeigt auf, welche neuen Aktivitäten für diesen Medienkanal notwendig werden. Es wird gezeigt, um welche neuen Aspekte die Markenpersönlichkeit erweitert werden muss; zudem werden praktische Hilfestellungen für den Marketingalltag gegeben.

Thomas Hörner

### Interne und externe Markenkommunikation im Rahmen des Internal Branding

Da Mitarbeiter direkt und indirekt für die Umsetzung des Markennutzenversprechens verantwortlich sind, stellt Internal Branding einen zentralen Erfolgsfaktor für das Markenmanagement dar. Die Markenkommunikation ist in diesem Zusammenhang eines der wirkungsvollsten Instrumente zur Beeinflussung von Internal Branding-Zielgrößen wie Markenwissen, Markenidentifikation, Brand Commitment und Brand Citizenship Behavior. Im Hinblick auf einen erfolgreichen Einsatz der Instrumente der internen und externen Markenkommunikation können aus der Literatur zahlreiche Anforderungen abgeleitet werden.

Christoph Burmann, Rico Piehler

### Aufbau und Pflege von Marken durch klassische Kommunikation

Kommunikation ist im Wandel, die digitale Revolution macht vor der Kommunikation für Marken nicht halt. Die Rolle der klassischen Kommunikationsmedien wie TV, Print, Radio für Marken hat sich verändert und der Kommunikationsmix ist breiter geworden. Das Kommunikationsverhalten der Konsumenten ist linear und dialoghaft gleichermaßen, der Vergleich der Generationen zeigt Unterschiede im Medien- und Kaufverhalten. Doch in diesen wechselhaften Zeiten ist eines konstant: die limitierte Aufnahme-Kapazität der Konsumenten und die verhaltenswissenschaftlichen Regeln, mit denen die gewünschten Verhaltensbeeinflussung erreicht werden können. Der systematische Aufbau von Zielen, Beeinflussungsstrategien und Kommunikationsmaßnahmen war noch nie so wichtig. Dies gilt nach wie vor für den Aufbau und die Pflege von Marken durch klassische Kommunikation.

Simone Roth, Franz-Rudolf Esch

### Aufbau von Marken-Erlebniswelten durch Kommunikation

Der Aufbau von erfolgreichen Marken-Erlebniswelten wird vor dem Hintergrund der heutigen Markt- und Kommunikationsbedingungen immer wichtiger, um die Marke eindeutig und nachhaltig in der Gefühls- und Erfahrungswelt der KonsumentInnen zu positionieren. Zuerst erfolgt eine Beschreibung der Bestandteile, Funktionen und Wirkungen von Erlebniswelten. Im Anschluss liegt der Fokus auf der strategischen und operativen Konzeption von Erlebniswelten. Die LeserInnen finden eine detaillierte Checkliste, anhand derer geprüft werden kann, ob die intendierte Erlebniswelt zur Marke passt und Empfehlungen für die bildhafte und multisensuale kommunikative Umsetzung der Erlebniswelt. Vor dem Hintergrund der zunehmenden Globalisierung wird auch die Internationalisierbarkeit von Erlebniswelten diskutiert und anhand von Praxisbeispielen auf die notwendige Abstimmung der Social Media Aktivitäten auf die Erlebniswelt hingewiesen. Das Kapitel schließt mit ethischen Betrachtungen zu Marken-Erlebniswelten.

Sandra Diehl, Ralf Terlutter

### Markendynamik neu definiert: Mit dem ConversionModel Wachstumspotenziale entdecken und realisieren

Das ConversionModel wird seit über 30 Jahren erfolgreich zum Markencontrolling eingesetzt. Es liefert handlungsorientierte Diagnosen damit sich Marken gegenüber dem Wettbewerb durchsetzen und im Markt wachsen können. Bisher wurden mehr als 11.000 ConversionModel Projekte weltweit in über 90 Ländern und 300 Produktkategorien durchgeführt. Damit ist es das am häufigsten validierte Instrument zur Messung der Markenbindung. Kantar TNS hat den ursprünglichen Ansatz 2012 sorgfältig modifiziert und 2014 um eine 360° Touchpoint-Analyse erweitert.

Niels Neudecker, Peter Ludwig, Britta Richter

### Customer Touchpoint Management: Kontaktpunkte marken- und kundenspezifisch deklinieren

Jeder einzelne Kontaktpunkt mit einer Marke hinterlässt Spuren in den Köpfen der Konsumenten unabhängig davon, ob dieser aktiv vom Unternehmen gesteuert wird oder nicht. Daher ist das systematische Management der Kontaktpunkte mit einer Marke, den sog. Customer Touchpoints, ein wichtiger Erfolgsfaktor für die Markenführung. Kontaktpunkte prägen das Markenerleben und das Markenimage. Was bei einem professionellen Customer Touchpoint Management zu beachten ist, wird in diesem Beitrag dargelegt. Dabei liegt der Fokus auf der Relevanz der Kontaktpunkte, auf deren Systematisierung, der Customer Journey, der Customer Experience, der Erfolgskontrolle sowie den Benefits.

Franz-Rudolf Esch, Daniel Kochann, Jana Tabellion

### Measuring Brand Equity

Building a strong brand with significant equity provides a host of benefits for firms. Understanding the sources and outcomes of brand equity provides managers with information how and where brands add value. This article reviews measures of both sources and outcomes of brand equity and discusses a model of value creation, the brand value chain, as a holistic, integrated approach to understanding how to capture the value created by brands. The chapter also closes with issues in developing a brand equity measurement system.

Kevin Lane Keller, Tim Oliver Brexendorf

### Multisensuale Markenführung: Marken mit allen Sinnen erlebbar machen

Für Marken wird es immer schwieriger, Kunden massenmedial zu erreichen. Die meisten Kanäle sind überfüllt, viele Botschaften austauschbar. Als Ausweg bietet sich eine differenzierte Ansprache über alle fünf Sinne an. Die multisensuale Vermittlung der Markenwerte kann sowohl massenmedial erfolgen als auch an den zahlreichen persönlichen Kundenkontaktpunkten, z. B. in Geschäften, bei Events oder auf Messen. Der vorliegende Beitrag beschreibt wie Markenelemente und Markensignale als kommunikative Mittler der Markenidentität zur Profilierung und Präferenzbildung genutzt werden können. Abschließend wird ein dreistufiger Prozess zur Implementierung multisensualer Markensignale vorgestellt.

Karsten Kilian

### Aufbau starker Marken durch integrierte Kommunikation

Kommunikation ist die Stimme einer Marke und stellt eine langfristige Investition in die Marke dar. Sie dient dazu, die Identität der Marke und die Markenpositionierung sichtbar an allen relevanten Kontaktpunkten mit Kunden und sonstigen Anspruchsgruppen zu vermitteln, damit sich ein klares und präferenzprägendes Markenimage bilden kann bzw. ein vorhandenes Image gestärkt wird.Durch die Digitalisierung mit dem damit verbundenen drastischen Anstieg an möglichen Kommunikationskanälen und dem unterschiedlichen Kommunikationsverhalten jüngerer versus ältere Zielgruppen erhöhen sich die Anforderungen an die Gestaltung wirksamer Kommunikation stetig. Starke Marken bedürfen einer integrierten Kommunikation, um entsprechende Lernprozesse für eine Marke zu fördern und präferenzbildend zu wirken.Der folgende Beitrag stellt das Konstrukt der integrierten Kommunikation im Detail vor, bietet einen theoretischen Zugang und betrachtet Dimensionen und Mittel zur Integration unter Berücksichtigung des Involvements von Konsumenten. Abschließend wird die Rolle integrierter Kommunikation bei einfachen und komplexen Markenarchitekturen untersucht und Empfehlungen zum Aufbau starker Marken gegeben.

Franz-Rudolf Esch

Open Access

### Chapter 20. Biodiversity and Health in the Face of Climate Change: Perspectives for Science, Policy and Practice

Increases in non-communicable diseases, biodiversity loss and climate change are among the greatest global challenges society is facing today. At the same time, biodiverse natural environments can buffer the negative effects of climate change to society and support human health. Contributions in this volume demonstrate the growing interest in the impact of biodiversity on human health and well-being in the face of climate change. The chapters in this volume present and critically review the growing body of literature on the associations of biodiversity and human health, with mounting evidence of positive effects for physical health and well-being. In this concluding chapter, we summarise the key outcomes of the chapters in this book. Synthesising the main results with a link to current policy, we develop recommendations to address the urgent health and sustainability challenges in science, policy and practice.

Melissa R. Marselle, Jutta Stadler, Horst Korn, Katherine N. Irvine, Aletta Bonn

### Chapter 3. A Sneak Peek into the Motivation of a Cybercriminal

In this chapter we analyze the motivation of cybercriminals by systematizing empirical evidence from hackers’ direct speech. We conjecture that while the hackers of the past were primarily motivated by intellectual curiosity, at the beginning of the 21st century the goals of contemporary cybercriminals shifted toward obtaining financial benefits. We provide a comprehensive topology of cybercriminals as well as their business models. We also consider cybercriminal ecosystems and the way they function. Finally, we consider costs versus benefits of engaging into cybercriminal activity and look at factors which may discourage adversaries from committing unlawful acts.

Ganna Pogrebna, Mark Skilton

### Mapping Digital Media Content

The paper suggests that a variety of newly emerged/emerging journalistic forms have enriched online media content. The authors define these as innovative textual, audio, pictorial, and/or video techniques for presenting journalistic production. By examining digital content across both desktop and mobile-based platforms of media organisations, the authors identify 15 ‘hybrid’ and 9 ‘genuine’ new content forms and suggest a draft table-format map for their classification.

Stella Angova, Svetla Tsankova, Martin Ossikovski, Maria Nikolova, Ivan Valchanov

### An Analysis of Mobile Questionnaire Layouts

This study examines the effects of mobile questionnaire layouts. The goal is to shed more light on mobile questionnaire usage. Furthermore, we aim to give guidance for researchers implementing online surveys. Researchers in a variety of fields use online questionnaires for their flexibility and efficiency. Poor usability on mobile devices may be associated with underrepresentation of certain target groups or lower data quality. In contrast, the use of well-designed smartphone-based surveys can open up new possibilities for researchers. We developed three different layout variants for comparison with an international sample of N = 204 smartphone users. The results show that grouping questions on separate pages works best with regard to missing values, dropouts, and completion time. However, results also suggest a possible distortion of answering patterns in this layout.

Helge Nissen, Yi Zhang, Monique Janneck

### The Design Adaptation of the Virtual Assistant Anne for Moderate Dementia Patients and Their Formal Caregivers in Protected Environment Tests

Dementia has become a major health problem with an equally important economic impact on our society and enabling patients with dementia and their caregivers to improve their quality of life and dignity is a great challenge. A significant solution to meet the challenge, could be the use of Personal Virtual Assistant (PVA). The aim of this paper is to share the know-how reached in the design and adaptation of the Personal Virtual Assistant “Anne” for moderate dementia patients and their formal caregivers. The paper presents the results of the first iteration of protected environment tests in Italy and Luxembourg.

Vera Stara, Michiel de Jong, Elisa Felici, Daniel Bolliger, Edith Birrer, Viviane von Döllen, Lorena Rossi, Marcel Heerink

### Design and Implementation of Bed-Exit Alarm System for Preventing Elderly Falling

In recent years, with the aging of the population, the increase in the elderly population has brought a greater burden on medical institutions. Therefore, how to reduce the incidence of hospitalization through medical technology will become an important issue for hospitals. In many hospitalization accidents, the greatest threat to the elderly due to falls. Besides immediate dangers, the sequelae will also increase the burden on caregivers and health care. In order to reduce the second-degree injury caused by falls, hospitals or nursing homes often use the bed-exit alarm system to actively inform the nurse or caregiver to help when the patient gets out of bed. However, the false alarm of related products on the market are too frequent, which not only causes the caregivers to be exhausted, but also delay critical rescue opportunities.Based on the above issues, this study will propose two new types of bed-exit alarm systems, one of which is based on the nurse’s clinical care experience, setting up multiple sensing such as infrared, ultrasonic and triaxial accelerometers on the route that patients pass by most often. Another set of bed-exit alarm system uses the infrared array sensor mounted on the headboard of the bed to capture the patient’s thermal imaging, and then uses the support vector machine to analyze the position of the patient on the bed to determine whether the behavior is about to leave the bed. Unlike traditional image processing, this method eliminates the need for edge detection and motion tracking and is immune to ambient light sources.

Ching-Ta Wu, Chien-Hsu Chen

### Antenna Technology in Wireless Biometric Systems

The article presents basic medical research, as well as measuring devices and methods used in these studies. Human life parameters, which can be obtained after the examination, were also characterized.The concept of a wireless biometric system consisting of a research module, a central unit and an antenna is presented. The first two elements were described theoretically while the antenna was developed in the CST Microwave Studio program. It is a microstrip antenna working in the frequency range from 2.3 GHz to 2.8 GHz. The energy gain of the designed antenna is from 3 dBi to 3.8 dBi. The physical model of the antenna meets the assumption of using it in a wireless biometric system.

Rafal Przesmycki, Marek Bugaj, Marian Wnuk

### Research on the Construction Method of the Hospital Information System Hourglass Model

The informatization construction of modern health care has gradually shifted from “hospital informatization” around 1993 to “health care intelligentization”. The studies on Hospital Information System (HIS) are carried out from multiple perspectives: research review, theoretical proposal and case application. Based on user experience elements and Actor-Network Theory, the construction method of HIS “hourglass model” is proposed. The hourglass model consists of three parts: the upper structure composed of the hospital ethnographic research and the definition of medical staff’s requirements, the connected pipeline structure composed of HIS architecture design, and the lower structure composed of HIS interaction and visual design and HIS design evaluation. By expounding the complete development process of the nurse station service system, the reproducibility of the hourglass model construction method is proven, and the three structures of the hourglass model are refined, providing reference solutions for the subsequent development and research of agile projects.

Shifeng Zhao, Jie Shen, Zhenhuan Weng

### An Interactive Device for Reducing Risk of Infusion Therapy and Blood Transfusions

Administration of high-risk medications and transfusion of blood components are routinary medical procedures that can be potentially harmful to patients due to a set of multifaceted factors, such as, conservation of the medical product, poor asset tracking, and human errors. Although they represent a very small percentage of adverse events, errors and complications associated with transfusion and infusion therapy can cause major morbidity and death.In the recent years, several reporting initiatives and intervention measures led to the adoption of dedicated processes and tools designed for preventing errors, reducing the associated potential damage, and increasing patient safety. Nevertheless, statistics and reports of incidents demonstrate that infusion and transfusion therapies still demand more effective solutions. In this paper, we introduce an innovative interactive system that aims at reducing risk by taking into consideration human factors that are involved at bedside, such as, fatigue, stress, attention, and cognitive load. Specifically, the proposed solution consists in an attachment that locks a medical container in the prescription phase and prevents access to its content and administration unless all the safety conditions as met. In addition to enforcing safety with a physical barrier, it operates as a visual management tool throughout the process and, specifically, at bedside, where most incidents occur.

Nicholas Caporusso

### Chapter 8. eDemocracy

Chapter 8 deals with Web-based processes for the participation of citizens in political events. Section 8.1 proposes a participation pyramid based on the involvement of the citizens and the complexity of public tasks. In electronic votes and elections, there is a multitude of solutions (Sect. 8.2); some especially standing out are time and place independent options via Internet. Section 8.3 explains the sub-processes for eVoting and eElection. The way in which anonymous voting works is treated in Sect. 8.4. Section 8.6 describes multi-dimensional visualization techniques for results of votes and elections. The political and cultural memory (Sect. 8.7), realized in the eGovernment by portals and digital archives, widens the options of an information and knowledge society and makes a democratic political controlling possible. Section 8.8 gives bibliographical notes. The case studies of a VAA for the 2013 Ecuador National Elections and the technical and procedural mechanisms to enhance transparency and trust in Internet voting for the Swiss elections and votes, are presented.

Andreas Meier, Luis Terán

### Chapter 2. eAssistance

Chapter 2 procures the basic principles for Web-based information and experience exchange. To this end, Sect. 2.1 outlines the most important Internet services. Trends in the Internet, known by the name Web X.Y, are displayed in Sect. 2.2; in addition to that, a classification of social software is given. In Sect. 2.3, a list of criteria for municipality Web sites allows to make an estimate of the content. A gross architecture for more ample eGovernment portals is presented in Sect. 2.4. The guidelines for barrier-free Web access were created by the W3C and constitute the basis for all publicWeb sites (Sect. 2.5), with the goal that people with mental or physical handicaps can profit from Web-based information and services as well. In order to assure quality in the Internet, there are criteria for usability, content and ethics to be taken into account, as displayed in Sect. 2.6. Section 2.7 contains bibliographical notes. Finally, the case study of the Web site of the Technical Secretariat for Inclusive Management in Disability of Ecuador (SETEDIS) is presented, in which different forms of access to the Web without barriers are considered.

Andreas Meier, Luis Terán

### 10. Viral Marketing

Jiawei Zhang, Philip S. Yu

### The Prototype View of Concepts

Concepts are important and basic elements in human’s cognition process. The formal concept gives a mathematical format of the classical view of concepts in which all instances of a concept share common properties. But in some situation this view is not consistent with human’s understanding of concepts. The prototype view of concepts is more appropriate in our daily life. This view characters some analog categories as internally structured into a prototype (clearest cases, best examples of the category) and non-prototype members, with non-prototype members tending toward an order from better to poorer examples. The objective of this paper is to give a mathematical description of prototype view of concepts. Firstly, we give a similarity measurement of an object to another object in a formal context. Then based on this similarity measurement, the mathematical format of prototype view of concepts, named k-cutting concept, induced by one typical object is obtained. Finally, the properties of k-cutting concepts are studied. In addition to presenting theorems to summarize our results, we use some examples to illustrate the main ideas.

Ruisi Ren, Ling Wei

### Use of Wearable Technology to Measure Emotional Responses Amongst Tennis Players

Competitive sports generate powerful emotional responses among both participants and spectators. It also has been proven that the emotions experienced by players prior to and during the sports can have a profound effect upon the quality of their performances, especially in competitive sports like tennis which has been described as an emotionally demanding game where emphasis is given on training of player’s mentality for their success. Successful measurement of emotions is a challenging task and there have been a very few research on measurement of emotions using technology in sports. This paper reports the use of two wearable technology, Apple Watch Series 2 and NeuroSky MindWave headset, in measuring emotional responses amongst tennis players. Experiments were conducted to measure the heart rates and EEG (electroencephalography) responses to categorise emotions and then to compare the results with the subjective ground truths scored by each participant. The results demonstrate statistically significant relationships between the objective and subjective measures of emotions indicating the use of wearable devices as a legitimate method of measuring emotional responses in a competitive sport like tennis.

M A Hannan Bin Azhar, Tommy Nelson, Anthony Casey

### Viral Marketing in Political Communication: Case Study of John Tsang’s Campaign in the 2017 Hong Kong Chief Executive Election

Viral marketing is one of the trends of the marketing strategy for building up a brand image because of the rapid development of internet. Viral marketing helps the information spreading quickly and widely on the internet through the sharing from the youngsters. Some politicians use the strategies of viral marketing to create noises and exposures for their political campaign and communication in Hong Kong through social media such as Facebook. This study will focus on how viral marketing works in political campaign and communication. A case study of John Tsang’s campaign in the 2017 Hong Kong Chief Executive Election using the Berger’s STEPPS framework is analyzed to assess how viral marketing was applied to political communication. The focus of analysis will be on the changes of the youth perceptions and attitudes toward John Tsang’s image during the Umbrella Movement in 2014 and after his Election campaign in 2017.

Daren Chun-kit Poon, Sunny Sui-kwong Lam

### Chapter 14. Donald Trump and the Future of American Foreign Policy: Syria, Iran and North Korea

Based on semantic and psycholinguistic analyses of President Trumps’ speeches and tweets, this chapter finds that his temperament has a remarkable similarly to that of Kaiser Wilhelm II, which was a highly depressive one. However, Trump’s temperament, like that of George W. Bush, is counter-balanced by the non-depressive temperaments of his influential inner circle of advisors, including Vice-President Michael Pence, Secretary of State Michael Pompeo, and Secretary of Defense James Mattis. As a result, Trump is unlikely to underestimate the resolve of America’s current adversaries, Syria, Iran and North Korea, but there remains a substantial risk that he may overestimate it.

Peter S. Jenkins

### Chapter 13. The Yom Kippur War and the Soviet-Afghan War

The Yom Kippur WarYom Kippur War (1973) and the Soviet invasion of AfghanistanSoviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979) that launched the Soviet-Afghan War, both occurred during periods of rising happiness in the U.S. Congress, although the conventional wisdom is that the outbreak of both of these wars took the U.S. completely by surprise. This chapter finds that both of these conflicts were not only anticipated but also encouraged by the U.S. – the former by the non-depressive Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and the latter by the non-depressive National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, under Presidents Nixon and Carter, respectively, who also had non-depressive temperaments. The U.S. expected the Egyptian attack to be more robust than it was (thus overestimating Egypt’s resolve) while Brzezinski and his associates in the CIA incorrectly assumed that, after it invaded Afghanistan, the Soviet Union would never leave pursuant to a negotiated settlement (thus overestimating the Soviet Union’s resolve).

Peter S. Jenkins

### The TNG50 Simulation of the IllustrisTNG Project: Bridging the Gap Between Large Cosmological Volumes and Resolved Galaxies

Cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation are a powerful theoretical tool, and enable us to directly calculate the observable signatures resulting from the complex process of cosmic structure formation. Here we present early results from the ongoing TNG50 run, an unprecedented ‘next generation’ cosmological, magnetohydrodynamical simulation—the third and final volume of the IllustrisTNG project, with over 20 billion resolution elements and capturing spatial scales of $$\sim$$ 100 parsecs. It incorporates the comprehensive TNG model for galaxy formation physics, and we here describe the simulation scope, novel achievements, and early investigations on resolved galactic and halo structural properties.

Dylan Nelson, Annalisa Pillepich, Volker Springel, Rüdiger Pakmor, Lars Hernquist, Rainer Weinberger, Shy Genel, Mark Vogelsberger, Federico Marinacci, Paul Torrey, Jill Naiman

### Chapter 12. The Vietnam War Versus the Iraq War

The Vietnam War Iraq War VietnamVietnam WarVietnam War (1965–1973) and the Iraq WarIraq War (2003–2011) were both lengthy quagmires that were instigated by the U.S.U.S. based on false intelligence. The Iraq War originated in a period when the happinesshappiness levels of the U.S. CongressCongress were ascending, while the Vietnam War arose in a period when they were declining. This chapter concludes that the Vietnam War was caused by the highly depressive President Lyndon Johnson’s underestimation of North Vietnamese resolve, and the subsequent American defeat was caused by the non-depressive Richard Nixon’s overestimation of it. The chapter also concludes that the outbreak of the Iraq War was caused by the Bush White House’s bona fide overestimation of Saddam’s military capabilities as well as his resolve to use them against America. Contrary to his father, President George W. Bush has a depressive temperament, but those who were in his influential inner circle of advisors, including Cheney and Powell, clearly have non-depressive ones.

Peter S. Jenkins

### Chapter 8. The Crimean War Versus the Suez Crisis

The Crimean WarCrimean War (1853–1856) occurred during a period of rising happiness in the British Parliament, and the Suez CrisisSuez Crisis of 1956, during a period of falling happiness, although the absolute happiness levels were similar in both times. This chapter finds that the outbreak of the Crimean War was caused by the Russophobe faction in the British Cabinet (the non-depressive Lords Palmerston and Russell) which prevailed over the Russophile one (the depressive Lords Aberdeen and Gladstone), so that Britain overestimated Russia’s resolve to dismember the Ottoman Empire. This chapter also concludes that the reason for the outbreak of the Suez Crisis was Britain’s underestimation of Nasser’s resolve in 1954 when the ailing and depressive Prime Minister Winston Churchill, together with his obsequious Foreign Secretary, Anthony Eden, agreed to withdraw British Forces from Egypt, leading to Nasser’s decision to nationalize the Canal.

Peter S. Jenkins

### 13. Versorgungsqualität und Patientensicherheit

In diesem Kapitel wird die professionsbezogene und versorgungsrelevante Qualitätsperspektive des Qualitätsmanagements betont. Einleitend wird zunächst der Stellenwert von Leitlinien, Expertenstandards und anderen Formen professionsbezogener Qualitätsaussagen im Gesundheitswesen sowie deren Entwicklungsmethodik behandelt. Im zweiten Teil dieses Kapitels wird das Thema Patientensicherheit als Qualitätskriterium der Versorgungsqualität behandelt. Hierzu werden Aspekte einer förderlichen Sicherheitskultur, der Qualitätsbestimmung mittels Patientensicherheitsindikatoren und der Entwicklung von praxisrelevanten Handlungsempfehlungen erörtert.

Peter Hensen

### Chapter 4. Judicial Scrutiny of Regulatory Decisions at the UK’s Specialist Competition Appeal Tribunal

This chapter explores the determinants of judicial scrutiny of regulatory decisions at the UK’s specialist Competition Appeal Tribunal (CAT); a unique feature of the UK’s regulatory and competition law landscape. Unlike ordinary courts, the CAT’s bench combines legal and non-legal expertise in areas such as economics, business and accountancy. Despite its specialist nature, however, and contrary to what intuition would suggest, the CAT does not always afford a narrow margin of appreciation to the regulators’ discretionary assessments. Rather, as the chapter demonstrates, the CAT’s scrutiny of regulatory decisions is determined by a tripartite relationship between the expert regulators, the expert CAT and the generalist Court of Appeal. It is the interplay between the specialist/specialist relationship, which characterises judicial scrutiny of the regulators’ decisions by the CAT and the generalist/specialist relationship, which in turn characterises judicial scrutiny of the CAT’s assessments by the Court of Appeal that determines the degree of deference to the regulators’ discretionary assessments.

Despoina Mantzari

### Kapitel 7. Vergleich

Im Folgenden sollen die untersuchten Parteien und ihre Ausprägungen nun direkt miteinander verglichen werden. Hierdurch sollen Besonderheiten und Abweichungen genauso aufgedeckt werden, wie hervorstechende Gemeinsamkeiten. Genauso kann hierüber geklärt werden, ob es regionsspezifische Charakteristika der Parteitypen gibt.

Tanja Wolf

### Chapter 3. Incremental Train Control System of Qinghai–Tibet Railway

The application of GPS technology in Qinghai–Tibet railway mainly focuses on the navigation, monitoring, command, and dispatching system of the train positioning. GPS is used as the auxiliary train positioning device in the railway train control system of Qinghai–Tibet railway and is taken as a backup of the query balise (redundant system) in the moving block control system. The vehicle-mounted GPS shown in Fig. 3.1 is used as the auxiliary correction of the reference position of the ground track. GPS-aided dispatching system uses GPS to compute the actual positioning, the operational direction and speed of the operational train, and then transmits the positioning results to the dispatch center through wireless communication channel to realize the real-time whole-process monitoring and ensure the safety of the train. The continuous operational location information of train provided by GPS covers the whole operational line of the train (station and zone), which can be used to adjust the operation plan, train dispatching and controlling, and accurate real-time monitoring

Dewang Chen, Ruijun Cheng

### Kapitel 3. Forschungsstand – Stereotype-Untersuchungen im deutschsprachigen Raum

Bevor eine Betrachtung der bisherigen Stereotype-Untersuchungen im deutschsprachigen Raum erfolgt, soll zuvor kurz auf den Forschungsstand im anglophonen Raum eingegangen werden. Oakes/Haslam/Turner (1994) bezeichnen die Studien von Lippmann (1990/1922), Katz/Braly (1933), Adorno et al. (1950), Allport (1971/1954), Sherif (1967), Tajfel (1969), Hamilton (1981) und Tajfel (1981) als „major milestones“ (vgl. Oakes/Haslam/Turner 1994: 8) der Stereotypenforschung fassen die genannten Publikationen in folgende Abbildung zusammen.

Stefan Ossenberg

### Kapitel 6. Fallstudien

Nachdem nun die zu untersuchenden Fälle ausgewählt wurden und die Operationalisierung der Kriterien dargelegt wurde, sollen die einzelnen Fälle dargestellt und analysiert werden.

Tanja Wolf

### Chapter 6. Data Reduction

Because satellite positioning has many advantages, such as low cost, good real-time performance and no accumulative error (Blomenhofer in Acta Astronaut 54:965–968, 2004 [1]), it is widely used in automobile navigation (Skog and Handel in IEEE Trans Int Transp Syst 10(1):4–21, 2009 [2]) and electronic map software (Zhang et al. in IEEE Trans Int Transp Syst 9(4):666–677, 2008 [3]). In addition, satellite positioning technology is also applied to train positioning and tracking by replacing the track circuit and radio frequency positioning technology that have been used in the past (Santos et al. in IEEE Trans Int Transp Syst 6(2):244–258, 2005 [4]). The adoption of satellite positioning technology can greatly reduce the installation and maintenance costs of the wayside equipment (Raymond et al. in Railway Gaz Int 160(12):835–837, 2004 [5].

Dewang Chen, Ruijun Cheng

### Kapitel 3. Medienregulierung im Digitalen Zeitalter

Wie Manuel Puppis feststellt, befindet sich der demokratisch konstituierte Staat in einem grundlegenden Dilemma was sein Verhältnis zu den Medien angeht. Bei jeder medienpolitischen Entscheidung stehen die Entscheidungsträger vor der Gratwanderung die Freiheit der Medien gegen eine Vielzahl von konkurrierenden Rechten, staatlichen Aufsichtspflichten und Akteursinteressen abzuwägen. Die Unabhängigkeit der Medien von staatlichen Eingriffen und Zensur ist dabei eine ebenso konstituierende Grundlage demokratischen Gemeinwesens wie Rechtsstaatlichkeit oder die Wahrung individueller Freiheitsrechte.

Björn Küllmer

### Kapitel 4. Die Länderstudien

Nachdem die theoretischen Grundlagen sowie der allgemeine inhaltliche und technische Hintergrund aufgezeigt wurde, sollen nun im Folgenden die Länderstudien in den Fokus rücken. Kern der Untersuchung bildet hierbei die Darstellung der Regulierungsregime im Bereich der Inhaltsregulierung. Es geht folglich um die Bereiche der Regulierung, die direkten Einfluss auf die zu transportierenden Informationen, Daten und Inhalte im jeweiligen Mediensystem haben.

Björn Küllmer

### Chapter 4. Key Scientific Problems Based on GPS Positioning System

In recent years, China’s rail transit industry has entered a period of rapid development. The national “12th five-year plan for comprehensive transportation system” has clearly defined the construction plan and high-speed railway construction plan of China’s central and Western regions in the future period and also put forward new requirements for railway transportation technology and safety equipment.

Dewang Chen, Ruijun Cheng

### Chapter 5. Error Data Detection

There are a large number of measurement data points of GPS that are distributed on Qinghai–Tibet railway with a length of 1142 km. Due to various measurement reasons, there are inevitably some measurement errors. It is very important to develop a method to detect possible errors from all data points, and thus the reliability of GPS data can be improved by modifying or re-measuring them. Four error modes based on expert knowledge exist in the measurement data, including redundant measurement, sparse measurement, back-and-forth measurement, and large angle change. For the four error modes of the measurement data, four algorithms need to be developed to detect the possible errors of the corresponding data points. In order to remove repeated error data points and effectively display possible errors with different algorithms, an integrated error detection method is proposed by reasonably assembling four algorithms.

Dewang Chen, Ruijun Cheng

### Research on Information Security Test Evaluation Method Based on Intelligent Connected Vehicle

In order to effectively evaluate the information security level for an intelligent and connected vehicle, a novel Intelligent Connected Vehicle (ICV) Information Security Attack and Defense (ICV-ISAD) test evaluation method is proposed in this paper. ICV-ISAD test method is based on long-term large number of real vehicle test experiments. It mainly consists of security threat and risk analysis, test strategy design, test tool call, test point mapping, test procedure execution, and remediation measures mapping. Using ICV-ISAD test method, we conducted test experiments to In-vehicle Network, Telematics Box, Engine Control Unit, In-Vehicle Infotainment, Mobile Application, Radio and Telematics Service Provider for different types of vehicle. The results show that some vulnerabilities exist in ICV’s system, such as gateway filtering vulnerability, high-risk port opening, Cross Site Scripting (XSS), Structured Query Language (SQL) injection, weak password, and cleartext network traffic (HTTP). Besides, ICV-ISAD test method could map some remediation measures or recommendations for these vulnerabilities. It denotes that ICV-ISAD test method can effectively test and evaluate the information security of ICV.

Yanan Zhang, Shengqiang Han, Stevenyin Zhong, Peiji Shi, Xuebin Shao

### Design of ZigBee-Based Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Network and Modeling of Solar Energy

Traditional wireless sensor networks rely on battery power to operate, but when the node’s energy is exhausted, the node loses its ability to operate. To enable wireless sensor networks to achieve continuous working, researchers have turned their attention to energy harvesting wireless sensor networks. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network has the advantages of energy renewable, low maintenance cost, etc., and can achieve permanent use of nodes to a certain extent. However, the energy collected by nodes in such networks will change with the change of environment and time, so the survival of energy-gathering wireless sensor networks in environmental detection needs further study and research. In view of the above problems, we designed a solar energy harvesting wireless sensor network in this paper, and designed energy harvesting and energy consumption related experiments to record the energy and network characteristics under different weather and time, collected under different conditions, and model the solar energy collected under different circumstances, so as to provide basic data for the further research of network reliability and other characteristics.

Yingcong Liu, Wuyungerile Li, Baoyintu, Bing Jia

### A Survey of Trusted Network Trust Evaluation Methods

The proposed trusted network is respond to the increasingly prominent internal network security threats. At present, research on trusted networks focuses on two aspects: pre-network access check and dynamic evaluation after access. The pre-access check considers the integrity of the terminal and uses encryption and authentication methods to achieve it. The dynamic evaluation uses the static and dynamic attributes of the trust to implement trust evaluation.

An-Sheng Yin, Shun-Yi Zhang

### Intrusion Detection System for IoT Heterogeneous Perceptual Network Based on Game Theory

With the acceleration of the Internet of things (IoT) construction, the security and energy consumption of IoT will become an import factor restricting the overall development of the IoT. In order to reduce the energy consumption of the IoT heterogeneous perceptual network in the attack-defense process, the placement strategy of the intrusion detection system (IDS) described in this paper is to place the IDS on the cluster head nodes selected by the clustering algorithm called ULEACH, which we have proposed in this paper. Furthermore, by applying modified particle swarm optimization, the optimal defense strategy is obtained. Finally, the experiment results show that proposed strategy not only effectively detects multiple network attacks, but also reduces energy consumption.

Man Zhou, Lansheng Han, Hongwei Lu, Cai Fu

### Digital Forensics and Privacy-by-Design: Example in a Blockchain-Based Dynamic Navigation System

This research presents an experimental model and prototype to exploit digital evidence in Internet of Things (IoT). The novelty of this research is to consider new data privacy mechanisms that should be implemented in IoT, in compliance with the GDPR regulation, and their impact on digital forensic processes. The testbed is an innovative project for car navigation [1, 2], GDPR compatible, which offers users the possibility to submit their GPS position into a blockchain for obtaining road traffic information and alternative paths. The vehicles are communicating among themselves through IoTs and circumvent the use of third-party services. We propose a solution for forensic investigations of such a service by building a solid case thanks to the non-repudiable, immutable, identifiable as current and authentic properties of data logged into the blockchain. This solution applies to criminal and insurance cases, where law enforcement and individuals need to prove their claims.

David Billard, Baptiste Bartolomei

### 34. Emerging Applications of Cellulose Nanofibers

Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth. In addition, it is renewable, biodegradable, and relatively cheap. Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) have been produced most commonly from plants, algae, and bacteria. They can be isolated, e.g., from wood-derived fibers that have been microrefined to microlevel and even to nanolevel. In this chapter, we comprehensively review the unique properties and emerging applications of CNFs. We anticipate that CNFs as a new environmentally friendly material will be widely used in many areas such as reinforcement of polymers, energy production and energy storage, environmental protection and improvement, and healthcare. Therefore, there is a necessary to do more research on the potential emerging applications of CNFs.

Ahmed Barhoum, Haoyi Li, Mingjun Chen, Lisheng Cheng, Weimin Yang, Alain Dufresne

### 2. Fabrication of Nanofibers: Electrospinning and Non-electrospinning Techniques

Fabrication of nanofibers has received increasing attention due to their unique properties and wide range of applications in energy production, energy storage, environmental protection and improvement, healthcare, and many more. Nanofibers provide a good material system that can improve the electrical, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties of many types of bulk materials. To date, various materials (metal, metal oxides, ceramics, polymers, and carbon) have been fabricated into nanofibers by electrospinning and non-electrospinning. Hence, several non-electrospinning techniques were developed to improve the production yield of nanofibers. Some of these techniques include solution blowing (or air-jet spinning), drawing techniques, template synthesis, centrifugal spinning, phase inversion/separation, and freeze/drying synthesis. This chapter discusses the designing, fabrication, and properties of nanofibers for various morphologies and compositions. A comprehensive review is presented on electrospinning and non-electrospinning techniques, along with their synthesis mechanisms. The chapter splits the nanofiber fiber fabrication techniques into: physical synthetic routes (e.g., mechanical milling, physical vapor deposition, laser ablation, and electrospinning) and chemical synthetic methods (e.g., Chemical vapor deposition, hydrothermal, sol-gel, template assisted synthesis, sonochemical and microwave synthesis, and electrochemical deposition).

Dalapathi Gugulothu, Ahmed Barhoum, Raghunandan Nerella, Ramkishan Ajmer, Mikhael Bechelany

### 18. Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds: A Versatile Therapeutic Tool for Cancer Management

According to WHO cancer is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide with 8.2 million cancer-related deaths in 2012. Nanotechnology deals with creating a new and targeted platform for cancer therapy and diagnostics. Similar to nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery and diagnostic methods nanofibers are also being used for the same purpose. The advantages of using nanofibers are the high loading capacity, large surface area, porosity, biodegradability, cost effective, delivery of multi-model therapeutics etc. One of the most important methods for the synthesis of nanofibers is electrospinning which is based on the stretching of melt solution by electrostatic forces. Similar to the applications in reconstructive surgery and regenerative medicine, nanofibers can be used in cancer diagnostics and therapy. Researchers are trying to develop biosensors using nanofibers which can amplify the signals, improve sensitivity and accuracy of assays. Isolation and detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC) using cell capture based on nanofibers are also under development. Targeted and implantable devices for delivering bioactive components, tissue engineering and magnetic hyperthermia based intelligent nanofiber scaffolds are used in cancer treatment and management. 3D cultures of cancer cells on scaffolds have vital applications in tumor biology as well as anticancer drug screening and development whereas 3D culture and differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) on scaffolds have application in cancer surgery and wound healing.

Preethi Gopalakrishnan Usha, Maya Sreeranganathan, Unnikrishnan Babukuttan Sheela, Sreelekha Therakathinal Thankappan Nair

### 21. Structural Multifunctional Nanofibers and Their Emerging Applications

Nanofibers are an exciting new class of nanomaterials (NMs) produced by using innovative manufacturing process technologies. Nanofibers are developed from a wide variety of materials of diverse architecture and nature. Nanofibers are divided into the following classes: (1) based on the raw material, nanofibers are classified into organic, inorganic, and carbon and composite fibers, and (2) based on the structure, nanofibers are divided into nonporous, mesoporous, hollow, and core-shell fibers. The geometrical shape (structure) of the fiber materials can be tuned from the non-woven web, yarn, to bulk structures using nanofiber fabrication techniques. Nanofibers have been widely used in a range of applications, such as energy generation, production, and storage, environmental protection and improvement, tissue engineering, pharmaceutical, and biomedical applications. This chapter discusses the nanofibers’ types, structures, fabrication techniques, inherent properties, and how these properties affect their potential usage.

Dalapathi Gugulothu, Ahmed Barhoum, Syed Muzammil Afzal, Banoth Venkateshwarlu, Hassan Uludag

### 7. Dielectric Polymers

Polymer-based dielectric materials have attractive features making them potentially promising alternatives to usually used inorganic and ceramic-based dielectric materials due to a number of reasons including (a) higher flexibility; (b) easy, cost-effective processing feasibility; and (c) attractive chemical stability along with readily changeable characters. However, one of the main disadvantages of this type of polymer dielectric is their lower thermal stability which limits their wider application potentials. In addition, usually polymer dielectric materials show low dielectric constants compared to inorganic dielectric materials. In addition, dielectric characters can be designed by introducing polarizable groups into polymer chains by increasing free volume by inducing porosity as well as copolymerization. Besides this, the value of dielectric constant can be effectively increased by synthesizing nanocomposites by introducing inorganic fillers into composite structure to acquire high dielectric constants. Dielectric polymers have many applications in electronics. For example, the performance of advanced polymer dielectrics is useful to realize high-power electronic circuits in a miniature form. However, these polymeric materials are required to fulfill different criteria (such as thermal, environmental, and electrical stability, low moisture uptake, high breakdown voltage or low leakage current, low dielectric constant, low loss tangent, high glass transition temperature, and low surface roughness) for their effective applications in different devices including in microelectronics. Many investigations have been reported on the use of polymer dielectrics and evaluated the feasibility of utilizing these materials for various applications. Briefly three types of polymer dielectrics (such as dielectric polymers, organic-inorganic material-based hybrid composites, and coated polymer dielectrics) along with other necessary elements are selectively discussed in this chapter. In addition, behaviors of dielectric elastomers are also briefly covered.

Shah Mohammed Reduwan Billah

### 12. Composites and Nanocomposites

In general, a composite is usually made up of two or more materials having two or more phases with heterogeneous characters, where at least one is in a microscopic scale. In addition, a composite can be classified as a nanocomposite when at least one of the reinforcement dimensions is in the nanometer range (from 10 to 200 nm). Both composites and nanocomposites have many promising mechanical, thermal, electrical, optical, and other interesting properties that make them a field of current active research interest both in academia and industry. This chapter selectively covers both fundamental and applied research involved mostly with polymer-based composites and nanocomposites along with a brief discussion on the future research directions for further improvements on high-performance composites and nanocomposites for a variety of conventional and high-tech applications.

Shah Mohammed Reduwan Billah

### 10. Membrane Surface Modification and Functionalization

Surface functionalization of membranes is one of the efficient techniques that can bestow these membranes with novel properties and transform them into valuable finished products. It has been widely applied to polymeric membranes in many fields and has progressed rapidly in recent years. The modified membranes have been widely used in various applications, such as in separation processes for liquid and gaseous mixtures (gas separation, reverse osmosis, pervaporation, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, microfiltration), biomaterials, catalysis (including fuel cell systems), and “smart” membranes. In this chapter, various approaches to the surface modification and functionalization of polymeric membranes are highlighted and reviewed. Also, the applications of the modified membranes will be discussed from the aspect of environmental stimuli-responsive gating membranes, antifouling membranes, adsorption membranes, pervaporation and reverse osmosis membranes, membranes for energy conversion, gas separation membranes, and biomedical membranes. A detailed overview of the usage of polyzwitterions and oxidative stability of surface modifiers to alter membrane surface charge will be outlined. Finally, recent advances and developments in surface modification techniques such as layer-by-layer assembly and chemical vapor deposition will be discussed.

Syed Mohammed Javaid Zaidi, Kenneth A. Mauritz, Mohammad K. Hassan

### 4. Polymer Processing and Rheology

This chapter is devoted to the presentation of the fundamental rheological properties of polymers and their processing technologies. Measurements of the rheological properties offer a fast and reliable way to determine molecular weight distribution and long-chain branching, which, in combination with the processing conditions, have a decisive influence on the end-use product properties. Shear viscosity, elongational viscosity, normal stress differences, stress relaxation, and some other measures and rheological phenomena, of relevance to polymer processing, are discussed. The most widely used polymer processing technologies of extrusion and injection molding are discussed with some details. The discussion includes key features of equipment used and design and operation challenges. Brief descriptions are presented on calendering, compression molding, blow molding, thermoforming, rotational molding, fiber spinning, and additive manufacturing. It is argued that computer-aided flow analysis and rheological measurements are necessary for equipment design, troubleshooting, and optimization in the processing of thermoplastics.

Nickolas D. Polychronopoulos, John Vlachopoulos

### 11. Fiber-Reinforced Composites

Fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) are widely used in spacecraft, helicopters, aircraft, ships, boats, automobiles, chemical processing equipments, biomedical devices, sports items, buildings, bridges infrastructure, etc. Nowadays, more and more exciting development on advanced forms of FRC materials are happening across the world. Development of high-performance resin systems, incorporating carbon nanotubes and other nanoparticles, are one among them. Polymer fibers have numerous imperative applications apart from using as reinforcement in composite materials. They are widely used in packaging, flooring, rope, textile industries, etc. In this context, the study on fiber-reinforced composites is very much important and the chapter gives an insight on the fiber-reinforced composites from macro to nanoscale.

Ajithkumar Manayan Parambil, Jiji Abraham, Praveen Kosappallyillom Muraleedharan, Deepu Gopakumar, Sabu Thomas

### 15. Shape-Memory Polymers

Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are stimuli-sensitive materials capable of changing their shape on demand. A shape-memory function is a result of the polymer architecture together with the application of a specific programming procedure. Various possible mechanisms to induce the shape-memory effect (SME) can be realized, which can be based on thermal transitions of switching domains or on reversible molecular switches (e.g., supramolecular interactions, reversible covalent bonds). Netpoints, which connect the switching domains and determine the permanent shape, can be either provided by covalent bonds or by physical intermolecular interactions, such as hydrogen bonds or crystallites. This chapter reviews different ways of implementing the phenomenon of programmable changes in the polymer shape, including the one-way shape-memory effect (1-W SME), triple- and multi-shape effects (TSE/MSE), the temperature-memory effect (TME), and reversible shape-memory effects, which can be realized in constant stress conditions (rSME), or in stress-free conditions (reversible bidirectional shape-memory effect (rbSME)). Furthermore, magnetically actuated SMPs and shape-memory hydrogels (SMHs) are described to show the potential of the SMP technology in biomedical applications and multifunctional approaches.

Magdalena Mazurek-Budzyńska, Muhammad Yasar Razzaq, Marc Behl, Andreas Lendlein

### Sums of Key Functions Generating Cryptosystems

The paper develops an algorithm based on derivative disproportion functions (DDF) for modeling a cryptosystem for transmitting and receiving devices. The transmitted symbols are encoded with the aid of sums of at least two of those functions weighted with random coefficients. Some important properties of the derivative disproportion functions are also discussed. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the algorithm is quite reliable and robust.

Nataliya Kalashnykova, Viktor V. Avramenko, Viacheslav Kalashnikov

### Augmented Reality for Real-Time Navigation Assistance to Wheelchair Users with Obstacles’ Management

Despite a rapid technological evolution in the field of technical assistance for people with motor disabilities, their ability to move independently in a wheelchair is still limited. New information and communication technologies (NICT) such as augmented reality (AR) are a real opportunity to integrate people with disabilities into their everyday life and work. AR can afford real-time information about buildings and locations’ accessibility through mobile applications that allow the user to have a clear view of the building details. By interacting with augmented environments that appear in the real world using a smart device, users with disabilities have more control of their environment. In this paper, we propose a decision support system using AR for motor disabled people navigation assistance. We describe a real-time wheelchair navigation system equipped with geological mapping that indicates access path to a desired location, the shortest route towards it and identifies obstacles to avoid. The prototyped wheelchair navigation system was developed for use within the University of Lille campus.

Sawssen Ben Abdallah, Faiza Ajmi, Sarah Ben Othman, Sébastien Vermandel, Slim Hammadi

### Optimization of Demodulation for Air–Gap Data Transmission Based on Backlight Modulation of Screen

Air–gap is an efficient technique for the improving of computer security. Proposed technique uses backlight modulation of monitor screen for data transmission from infected computer. The optimization algorithm for the segmentation of video stream is proposed for the improving of data transmission robustness. This algorithm is tested using Monte Carlo approach with full frame analysis for different values of standard deviations of additive Gaussian noise. Achieved results show improvements for proposed selective image processing for low values of standard deviation about ten times.

Dawid Bak, Przemyslaw Mazurek, Dorota Oszutowska–Mazurek

### Nonparametric Approach to Weak Signal Detection in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)

It might be easier for intelligent extraterrestrial civilizations to be found when they mark their position with a bright laser beacon. Given the possible distances involved, however, it is likely that weak signal detection techniques would still be required to identify even the brightest SETI Beacon. The Bootstrap Error-adjusted Single-sample Technique (BEST) is such a detection method. The BEST has been shown to outperform the more traditional Mahalanobis metric in analysis of SETI data from a Project Argus near infrared telescope. The BEST algorithm is used to identify unusual signals and returns a distance in asymmetric nonparametric multidimensional central 68% confidence intervals (equivalent to standard deviations for 1-D data that are normally distributed, or Mahalanobis distance units for normally distributed data of d dimensions). Calculation of the Mahalanobis metric requires matrix factorization and is order of d3. Furthermore, the accuracy and precision of the BEST metric are greater than the Mahalanobis metric in realistic data collection scenarios (many more wavelengths available then observations at those wavelengths). An extension of the BEST to examine multiple samples (subclusters of data) simultaneously is explored in this paper.

Anne D. Brooks, Robert A. Lodder

### Cross-Cultural Difference of Free Agency (FA) System Between MLB and NPB (Nippon Professional Baseball)

This study explored FA system of MLB and NPB, and summarized the cross-cultural difference of FA between MLB and NPB. First, the cognitive biases that are observed in common to both leagues were discussed from the viewpoint of our propensity to inaccurately predict the future. Second, the cross-cultural difference was discussed from the two viewpoints: (1) difference of mindset between two leagues, and (2) difference of authority of commissioner between two leagues. Finally, it was proposed how inefficiencies in baseball markets in sports management (failure in FA) should be avoided for the coexistence of teams and the prosperity of the league.

Atsuo Murata

### Cross-Cultural Motivations for Information Sharing in Incident Management at Major Events

The purpose of this paper is to explore how the motivations for sharing information exhibiting aspects of cross-cultural differences and how decisions undertaken by diverse organizations participating in incident management at major events interact. This context is natural and challenging, one that embraces routine and contingent incidents involving varied and linked organizations serving as incident responders. Here, a qualitative and interpretive paradigm was used in order to obtain a clear picture of the context. Activity Theory served as a conceptual and analytical tool providing the basis to discover the mentioned elements. Diverse themes were recognized exhibiting those revealed from incident responders. Diverse motivations were uncovered through the actions undertaken in sharing information. These similarly revealed the cross-cultural differences and decisions between organizations using information sharing in a context that could shape the performance of incident responders.

Guadalupe Hernández-Escobedo, David K. Allen, Alan D. Pearman, Claudia Alejandra Ituarte-González

### Effectiveness in Prosthetic Adaptation and Users’ Satisfaction: Comparison Between Different Technologies

The effectiveness of a hearing aid (HA) is commonly assessed by a questionnaire that provide information on the benefits/disadvantages of the use of the HA in real life situations. This work wants to analyze if acoustic benefit and satisfaction levels depend by an HA equipped with different technologies (Basic technology HA, Medium technology HA, Premium technology HA trough the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) questionnaire administered to 60 patients and the Hearing Handicap Inventory (HHI) questionnaire administered to 14 patients. The results show that regardless of technology, persistent problems remain such as perception in noisy environments. A further effort is required by the technicians in the evaluation of the patient as a whole, from the identification of the HA that ergonomically better suits the needs of each patient until the adaptation in complex environments, for the minimization of the perception of disability.

Maria Patrizia Orlando, Claudia Giliberti, Fabio Lo Castro, Raffaele Mariconte, Lucia Longo

### Chapter 16. Encyclopedia/Glossary

An → arrow in the text refers to a corresponding key word in the encyclopedia.

Reinhard Haberfellner, Olivier de Weck, Ernst Fricke, Siegfried Vössner

### Kapitel 3. Sozialer Wandel und Personalisierung des Wahlverhaltens in Deutschland

Bereits in der Einleitung wurden einige der zentralen gesellschaftlichen Entwicklungen angesprochen, die Personalisierungsprozesse des Wahlverhaltens befördern sollten. Diese werden nun genauer beleuchtet. Zunächst richtet sich der Fokus dabei auf den Rückgang langfristiger parteipolitischer Bindungen in der Wählerschaft: Im Zuge dieser Dealignmentprozesse sollte mehr Raum für den Einfluss kurzfristiger Faktoren entstehen.

Toni Sebastian Schell

### Kapitel 6. Digitale Kommunikation

Digitalisierung schenkt allen Unternehmen die Chance, Kommunikation aktiv und effizient zu betreiben. Gesetze, Regeln und Beschränkungen der früheren Massenkommunikation sind aufgehoben. Das Set aus Formaten, Rezepten, Kanälen und Erfolgskriterien für Kommunikation wirkt im Vergleich zu früher wie eine Drohne im Vergleich zum Papierflieger. Vernetzte Daten erschließen neue Dimensionen der Kommunikation und Beziehungen mit Kunden.

Thomas Bily

### Kapitel 5. Kundenzentrierung dank Digitalisierung

Die deutsche Landkarte für Konsum und Wachstum hat sich deutlich verschoben. Heute sind Segmente von Kunden wertvoll, die früher ein Schattendasein führten und wenig beachtet wurden. So herrscht bei vielen Unternehmen dringender Nachholbedarf, diese Kunden kennenzulernen. Dank digitaler Tools können sie das heute schneller, genauer und verlässlicher als je zuvor. Auf der Basis von Daten und mit Hilfe von Maschinen lassen sich beste Beziehungen zu den tatsächlich relevanten Kunden aufbauen.

Thomas Bily

### Kapitel 2. Wandel wagen

Unsere Gesellschaft befindet sich im Umbruch. Megatrends wie demografischer Wandel und Digitalisierung definieren unser Zusammenleben neu. Sie revolutionieren Märkte, Kommunikation und Geschäftsmodelle. Trotz ihrer Kraft und Wirkung werden Megatrends regelmäßig verkannt, vernachlässigt oder gar ignoriert. Wandel verschiebt die Tektonik unseres Lebens und ist viel mehr als eine singuläre Herausforderung für einzelne Spezialgebiete wie Marketing und Kommunikation. Nicht nur das Stadion ist neu, sondern die gesamte Sportart wird neu definiert. Sind Sie ein Spieler, der die neuen Herausforderungen annehmen will und kann? Bringen Sie Mut und Fähigkeiten mit, Wandel aktiv zu gestalten? Dieses Kapitel soll Ihnen helfen, sich darüber im Klaren zu werden.

Thomas Bily

### Flight Eye Tracking Assistant (FETA): Proof of Concept

Accident investigations show that piloting errors (e.g., incorrect trajectory) often result from an inadequate monitoring of the cockpit instruments. Recent improvements of the eye tracking technology now allow a reliable and rather accurate recording of eye movements in ecological environments. The present study investigates how the integration of eye tracking in the cockpit could help pilots performing an efficient surveillance of their instruments. We developed FETA, an embedded system that evaluates online the visual monitoring of the cockpit. The system compares the current visual scan of the pilot with a database of “standard” visual circuits established thanks to eye-tracking recordings from 16 airlines pilots. If the current visual scan deviates too much from the database, e.g., the speed is not fixated during a too long period, FETA emits a vocal alarm to reorient attention. This paper presents the development of FETA and its preliminary evaluation with 5 airlines pilots. During an approach-landing phase in flight simulator; we assessed the impact of FETA on situation awareness, cognitive resources, flight performance, and visual scans. Results showed that FETA system efficiently redirected attention toward critical flight instruments. However, improvements must be performed to satisfy with operational requirements. For example, it seems important to take also into-account flight parameters in order to limit unnecessary alerts.

Christophe Lounis, Vsevolod Peysakhovich, Mickaël Causse

### Human Factors Evaluation of ATC Operational Procedures in Relation to Use of 3D Display

In this paper, Holding Stack Management (HSM), Continuous Climb Operations (CCO), Continuous Descent Operations (CDO), and Trajectory Based Operations (TBO) procedures are assessed in relation to the use of an additional 3D display. Two display seetings are compared, namely 2D+3D and 2D only. Twelve Air Traffic Control Officers (ATCOs) took part in the experiment. Traditional questionnaires such as NASA TLX, TRUST, etc. were given at the end of each 30-minute trial for each display setting. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded during the experiments to continuously monitor the changes of the brain states of the ATCOs. The results of the data analyses show that by using 2D+3D display setting, more positive emotions, but higher stress and workload levels were experienced by ATCOs in TBO, CCO and CDO procedures than in 2D setting. In HSM, reduced stress and significantly lower cognitive workload were experienced by ATCOs when they were using 2D+3D setting.

Yisi Liu, Fitri Trapsilawati, Zirui Lan, Olga Sourina, Henry Johan, Fan Li, Chun-Hsien Chen, Wolfgang Mueller-Wittig

### Development of a Prototype Steering Wheel for Simulator-Based Usability Assessment

Steering wheel designs in motorsport have evolved significantly in the last 20 years. Their complexity in particular has increased markedly in terms of secondary controls due mainly to the requirement for the optimization of performance-based settings. There have been multiple occurrences of driver mistakes that have been linked to this increase in complexity, suggesting the need for usability improvements. In order to assess designs, it is necessary to construct prototype wheels for experimental use in a motorsport simulator. This paper describes the processes and equipment required to construct a steering wheel. It covers the development of 3D models, the manufacturing of the chassis, and printing of the 3D structure. The integration and functionality of the electronic components is discussed, in addition to the simulator software configuration. This development structure allows multiple designs to be constructed for relatively low cost and over a short time frame.

James Brown, Neville Stanton, Kirsten Revell

### Management Model Logistic for the Use of Planning and Inventory Tools in a Selling Company of the Automotive Sector in Peru

One of the most important problems affecting companies that assemble and market vehicles is stock depletion of finished products. Therefore, many small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have attempted to manage this situation by using tools such as the Q mode, which continuously reviews inventories but does not indicate when and in what quantity a company must supply its sales outlets but requires a more complex level of supplier development and supply chain management efficiency than SMEs can achieve. Likewise, with our proposal we achieved a 50% decrease in stock depletion, based on an analysis of model results, with a confidence level of 95% and a certainty level of 75.30%, projecting a profit of 59000 soles with a return cost of 1.41 and a recovery period of 2 years and 4 months, ensuring both the sustainability and profitability of the proposal.

Luis Carazas, Manuel Barrios, Victor Nuñez, Carlos Raymundo, Francisco Dominguez

### Kapitel 3. Bereiche

Die in den letzten Jahren entstandene kommerzielle Kreativwirtschaft verbindet Kultur und Wirtschaft auf eine wirksame Weise. Die Oper, Theater, Konzerte und Ballett umfassende darstellende Kunst unterliegt der Kostenkrankheit: die Möglichkeiten zu Produktivitätssteigerungen hinken systematisch hinter den dauernd steigenden Kosten hinterher. Daraus ergibt sich ein Argument für eine öffentliche Förderung dieser Aktivitäten. Festspiele profitieren von besonders günstigen Bedingungen auf der Angebots- und Nachfrageseite und sind deshalb weit verbreitet. Die Herstellung von Filmen ist besonders riskant, der Publikumserfolg lässt sich kaum voraussagen. Es gibt viele unterschiedliche Arten von Museen. Sie sind wesentlich durch hohe Fixkosten gekennzeichnet, weshalb auch hier eine staatliche Förderung infrage kommt. Aus guten Gründen werden die Sammlungen nicht monetär bewertet, obwohl sie oft einen hohen kommerziellen Wert haben. Einige Museen haben sich zu Superstars mit vielen Millionen von Besuchern entwickelt. Sie bewegen sich in einer eigenen Liga; vor allem stellen sie eine bedeutende Touristenattraktion dar. Sonderausstellungen profitieren in ähnlicher Weise von besonders günstigen Bedingungen auf der Angebots- und Nachfrageseite. Die in der UNESCO-Liste des Weltkulturerbes erfasste Kunst setzt sich aus Weltkulturstätten, beweglichen Gegenständen (wie Antiquitäten oder Gemälde), sowie intangiblen Kulturgütern (wie Musikstücke, Rituale oder kulturelle Praktiken) zusammen. Diese Liste hat viele positive, aber auch negative Auswirkungen (etwa, dass die entsprechenden Kulturstätten Ziele für terroristische Angriffe oder durch Touristen überschwemmt werden).

Bruno S. Frey

### Determination of Safe Work Practiced in a Confine Space Work: A Case Study Research of an Organisation in Onne, Nigeria

In developing countries like Nigeria, it is generally reported that confined space accidents and injuries are still prevalent in the industries, which could be due to several factors including-poor efficiency at managing confined space work activities and enforcing required legislation/standards following safe work practice. A case study research was carried out using both exploratory designs for a quantitative approach, and explanatory design for qualitative approach bring the approach to a mixed method choice for evaluation using Confine Space Regulation, 1997, Questionnaire and Observation as an instrument for data collection for analyses.Summary of findings are; Safe Working Procedure Reviewed before the start of work, Poor Use of Communication Methods, Poor Supervision, Failure to Use Personal Protective Equipment, Ignoring Safe Work Practice. Recommendations were made for the improvement of organisations system to enhance a safe process following best practice guidance; with the aim of reducing the level of accidents and fatalities to workers working within a confined space.

Mercy Osato Omoifo-Irefo

### Understanding the Security of Traffic Signal Infrastructure

With the proliferation of using smart and connected devices in the transportation domain, these systems inevitably face security threats from the real world. In this work, we analyze the security of the existing traffic signal systems and summarize the security implications exposed in our analysis. Our research shows that the deployed traffic signal systems can be easily manipulated with physical/remote access and are vulnerable to an array of real-world attacks such as a diversionary tactic. By setting up a standard traffic signal system locally in our lab and partnering with a municipality, we demonstrate that not only can traffic intersections be manipulated to show deadly traffic patterns such as all-direction green lights, but traffic control systems are also susceptible to ransomware and disruption attacks. Through testing and studying these attacks, we provide our security recommendations and mitigations to these threats.

Zhenyu Ning, Fengwei Zhang, Stephen Remias

### A Security Evaluation of Industrial Radio Remote Controllers

Heavy industrial machinery is a primary asset for the operation of key sectors such as construction, manufacturing, and logistics. Targeted attacks against these assets could result in incidents, fatal injuries, and substantial financial loss. Given the importance of such scenarios, we analyzed and evaluated the security implications of the technology used to operate and control this machinery, namely industrial radio remote controllers. We conducted the first-ever security analysis of this technology, which relies on proprietary radio-frequency protocols to implement remote-control functionalities. Through a two-phase evaluation approach we discovered important flaws in the design and implementation of industrial remote controllers. In this paper we introduce and describe 5 practical attacks affecting major vendors and multiple real-world installations. We conclude by discussing how a challenging responsible disclosure process resulted in first-ever security patches and improved security awareness.

Federico Maggi, Marco Balduzzi, Jonathan Andersson, Philippe Lin, Stephen Hilt, Akira Urano, Rainer Vosseler

### Kapitel 4. Narratives Verstehen

Während in Kapitel 2 und 3 die Rahmenbedingungen dargelegt wurden, aus denen die kumulierte Serienrezeption als neue Rezeptionsweise hervorgegangen ist, bilden Kapitel 4 und 5 die analytische Grundlage der im empirischen Teil der Arbeit vorzustellenden Studie. Es soll gezeigt werden, dass die kumulierte Serienrezeption nicht nur technologie- und inhaltsgetrieben ist, sondern dass es sich hierbei auch um ein rezeptionsprozessgetriebenes Phänomen handelt.

Miriam Czichon

### Kapitel 3. Serielles Erzählen

In Kapitel 2 haben wir die kumulierte Rezeption als ein überwiegend technologiegetriebenes Phänomen kennengelernt. Nachfolgend soll aufgezeigt werden, dass die Rezeption am Stück ebenso ein inhaltsgetriebenes Phänomen ist. Denn auch wenn sich grundsätzlich alles kumuliert rezipieren lässt, sofern es aus zwei Teilen oder mehr besteht, sind es vor allem fiktionale Fernsehserien, auf die diese Rezeptionsweise zutrifft.

Miriam Czichon

### Chapter 6. The Emergence of a Global Economic Order: From Scientific Internationalism to Infrastructural Globalism

The objective of this paper is to trace the chronological process of establishing global infrastructure of economic order, beginning with the foundation of scientific organizations at the turn of the century and the years following World War I, through the Bretton Woods Conference of 1944, until the construction of economic statistics commissions at the League of Nations, and later on, the United Nations. The paper examines this global development which is bound by two main processes of standardization, a transition from local voluntary initiatives of scientific societies to better the world with science and to improve coordination between countries, titled “scientific internationalism”, to the establishment of coercive international institutions that reinforce global economic order during the postwar era, termed as “infrastructural globalism”. The first part of the paper centers on Canada and its role in leading the standardization of economic statistics around the British Empire. A pivotal moment of this initiative was a conference held in 1920 in London and titled “First Conference of Government Officers Engaged in Dealing with Statistics in the British Empire”. The conference dealt with the establishment of imperial statistical bureaus in the British colonies. The second part of the paper, dealing with infrastructural globalism, describes the construction of the SNA and its dissemination as a direct consequence of the Bretton Woods Conference and the economic world order it established.

Anat Leibler

### Strontium: Source, Occurrence, Properties, and Detection

This chapter gives an overview of the properties of strontium as a chemical element, the methods of its determination, data on its abundance in the environment, and its impact on the human organism in daily life. Strontium is one of the alkaline earth group elements, two of which, calcium and magnesium, are among the ten most abundant elements in the Earth’s crust. Chemical properties of strontium are analyzed in comparison with properties of other group II elements. The chemical properties of strontium are quite similar to those of calcium and barium, resulting in similar behavior in the environment and biological objects, and also making determination of strontium by chemical methods difficult, especially in environmental samples. Therefore, traditional chemical methods of strontium determination are replaced by modern physical and physicochemical analytical methods that lower the detection limit and simplify sample treatment techniques. This chapter is not focused on radioactive isotopes of strontium, for example, 90Sr, a long-lived beta-emitting fission product causing long-term environmental contamination. Because the stable and radioactive isotopes of an element act identically in most physical, chemical, and biological processes, the methods for pre-concentration and separation of strontium in the analytical techniques described here can be used successfully for determination of the radioisotopes of strontium.

Tatiana Alexeevna Nedobukh, Vladimir Sergeevich Semenishchev

### Assessment of the Alkaline Earth Metals (Ca, Sr, Ba) and Their Associated Health Impacts

This chapter provides an outline of alkaline earth metals’ contamination caused by the industrial and nuclear pollution. The assessment has been done for quantifying sources (viz. natural and anthropogenic) of the alkaline earth metals along with describing the physicochemical characteristics of calcium, strontium, and barium. The isotopes of strontium, calcium, and barium are found to have significant impact not only onto the human health but also the geoenvironment. In this view, estimation of risk assessment caused by these metals is mandatory and also described in this chapter. Notably, calcium is one of the most significant elements in human body in the form of bone skeleton. In contrast, strontium and barium are non-essential elements for human beings; however, due to their similar characteristics with calcium, they get managed to enter within the human body via accumulation onto the tissues and bones. Therefore, the quantification of strontium and barium is imperative that can be done by measuring ratios with respect to calcium (as, Ba:Ca and Sr:Ca).

Pankaj Pathak, Rajiv Ranjan Srivastava, Gonul Keceli, Soma Mishra

### Chapter 2. Reconfigurable Recycling Systems of E-waste

E-waste collected from households must be properly processed in recycling plants to acquire high-purity output materials and hazardous substances removed. It requires a systematic approach to the disassembly process and wastes classification and categorization. Big variety of shapes and materials used in the equipment need processing lines including manual and automated sections. The main purpose of the machines used on the processing lines is to shred equipment into small size fraction and then separate each material depending on the physical properties. In such case, the output material from the E-waste disassembling plants can be recycled and used in new parts or components. This chapter includes a description of methods of disassembly focused on E-waste recycling in compliance with environmental standards. The required steps of the end-of-life products disassembly vary depending on the category of waste equipment. To show these differences, the chapter includes two case studies showing the configuration of a layout of E-waste processing lines with possible options to reconfigure them. The variants of the system’s configuration depend on the volume of the waste stream, labor cost, and required purity of output materials. Economic efficiency indicator of E-waste processing indicates big differences in potential profit from recycling E-waste mainly depending on labor cost. Example of calculation of this indicator has been presented in this chapter on cooling appliances recycling for four European countries.

Piotr Nowakowski

### Chapter 4. Recent Technologies in Electronic-Waste Management

The electrical and electronic industry generates more than 50 million metric tonnes of Electronic-waste annually from discarded and obsolete equipment. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 7 million tonnes of electronic equipment become obsolete each year, making Electronic-waste the most rapidly growing waste stream in the world. Electronic-waste often contains hazardous materials as well as base metals such as zinc, copper and iron that can reach up to 60.2% in Electronic-waste products such as refrigerators, washing machines and TVs. Global legislation and regulations play an important role in Electronic-waste recycling strategies and cover 66% of electronic industry practices; most importantly to be mentioned are waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) directive, restriction of hazardous substances (RoHS) directive and registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH) directive regulations.Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) are classified into four categories which are photovoltaic (PV) panels, cathode ray tube (CRT), liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and light-emitting diode (LED) displays, computers and laptops and cell phones. Photovoltaic panels are a common silicon-based electronic equipment with 65% recycling rate. The recycling process starts with glass and aluminium recovery followed by thermal treatment at 650° C. Another category is liquid crystal displays and light-emitting diode displays which consume 70% of global indium production, while its recycling requires manual sorting and separation, solvent extraction and acid leaching, respectively. Additionally, cell phones have the lowest recycling rate due to the complexity of recycling caused by compact design and high production rate. Lithium is considered the most valuable recycling material in cell phones and smart batteries. In terms of viable Electronic-waste thermal treatment, thermal plasma consumes 2 kWh/kg in both pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical recycling processes. It plays an important role in the recovery of heavy metals such as silver, gold, lead and copper due to high energy density, gas flux temperature and ionization that increases reactivity.

Mohamed Aboughaly, Hossam A. Gabbar

### Chapter 10. E-waste Management and the Conservation of Geochemical Scarce Resources

Electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) generates very complex waste due to the wide variety of components such as metals, polymers, ceramic materials, and composite elements. In addition, the growing consumption of these devices due to technological development increases the rate they are disposed of. When improperly disposed of, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) may trigger environmental impacts and negative effects on health. Also, the expansion of the electronic industry is based on the extraction of natural resources, some of which are running increasingly scarce. In this scenario, recycling stands as an alternative in the effort to recover economically interesting materials such as metals, which are abundant in waste electric and electronic equipment. This text discusses the current scenario in the electrical and electronic equipment industry and generation of waste electric and electronic equipment considering the implications of resource management and environment, social, and economic impact in this production chain.

Tamires Augustin da Silveira, Emanuele Caroline Araújo dos Santos, Angéli Viviani Colling, Carlos Alberto Mendes Moraes, Feliciane Andrade Brehm
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