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There are different types of rainfall depending on elevation, temperature, or pressure differences that generated by composition of various meteorological factors such as light, moderate, or extreme rainfall occurrences with or without flood consequences. In arid regions, elevation (orographic ) and temperature (convective) differences may cause to floods, but in humid regions, pressure difference (frontal) rainfalls are the major factors. In order to calculate various rainfall characteristics such as the intensity recording, raingauge records are necessary, but with accurate measurements. Different sources of measurement errors are explained in the text with their correctional actions in the field and office. Various areal average rainfall calculation methodologies, especially innovative percentage-weighted methodology, are presented in comparison with the classical and about 100-year-old Thiessen approach. New concepts such as the dimensionless intensity–duration curves are explained, and their application to annual maximum rainfall amounts is presented with actual data processing. The importance of the intensity–duration–frequency curves is explained with the concepts of different risk levels. The significance of probable maximum rainfall and its connection with probable maximum flood calculation is presented through the applications to a set of drainage basins from the western part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Efficiency factor is defined the first time in the text for distinction of the climate change impact on the rainfall occurrences in the region.
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- Rainfall and Floods
- Chapter 2