Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

The increasing application of integrated circuits in situations where high reliability is needed places a requirement on the manufacturer to use methods of testing to eliminate devices that may fail on service. One possible approach that is described in this book is to make precise electrical measurements that may reveal those devices more likely to fail. The measurements assessed are of analog circuit parameters which, based on a knowledge of failure mechanisms, may indicate a future failure. . To incorporate these tests into the functional listing of very large scale integrated circuits consideration has to be given to the sensitivity of the tests where small numbers of devices may be defective in a complex circuit. In addition the tests ideally should require minimal extra test time. A range of tests has been evaluated and compared with simulation used to assess the sensitivity of the measurements. Other work in the field is fully referenced at the end of each chapter. The team at Lancaster responsible for this book wish to thank the Alvey directorate and SERe for the necessary support and encouragement to publish our results. We would also like to thank John Henderson, recently retired from the British Telecom Research Laboratories, for his cheerful and enthusiastic encouragement. Trevor Ingham, now in New Zealand, is thanked for his early work on the project.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction to VLSI Testing

Abstract
Digital, very large scale integrated circuits (VLSICs) are used widely. In many applications the incorrect function of the circuit upon installation, or the malfunction or failure during use, are inconveniences which are often detected during the early operation or burn-in period of the system in which the circuit is used. However, in some applications where the replacement cost is high or the consequences of failure are serious, highly reliable devices of high quality are needed. Examples of such uses are in satellites, undersea cable, remote stations, manned space vehicles and for military systems.
A. P. Dorey, B. K. Jones, A. M. D. Richardson, Y. Z. Xu

Chapter 2. The Devices Studied and their Simulation

Abstract
As part of the general investigation of rapid reliability assessment the devices being studied experimentally were also simulated using a standard circuit simulation package, PSPICE (Microsim Corporation), which i3 a version written for use on the IBM personal computer. The simulations gave the size and shape of the waveforms occuring in the circuits being studied and the effect of different conditions within the circuit on these waveforms.
A. P. Dorey, B. K. Jones, A. M. D. Richardson, Y. Z. Xu

Chapter 3. The Tests and Stress Experiments

Abstract
As has been discussed in Chapter 1 there are, in general, two types of approaches toward reliability testing of digital ICs. Digital testing, which is the conventional approach, is normally developed on the basis of the function that the device is supposed to perform. The criterion for this approach is then function or malfunction. The problem is therefore transformed into mathematical operations which are tackled with the help of computer-aided design (CAD) techniques. This approach ignores the detail of the failure modes which involves a separate detailed analysis of the devices by experiment. The other approach is derived from the parametric characteristics such as supply current, threshold voltage, propagation delay, cut-off frequency, and so on, which are normally analog features. Instead of being functionally related and digital as in digital testing, this approach detects gradual changes or degradation of the electrical parameters which may not be large enough to cause a complete functional fault at that moment. These parameters are closely related to the chemical and physical processes of the operating devices and affect the performance of the device in one way or another. In developing test methods for this approach, the tactics involved in the development of digital testing are no longer valid since the target is now to measure gradual changes or degradation of the parameters, not necessarily the digital fault.
A. P. Dorey, B. K. Jones, A. M. D. Richardson, Y. Z. Xu

Chapter 4. Assessment of the Tests as Predictors of Failure

Abstract
In this section we will illustrate the usefulness of the devised tests by referring to the behavior of the devices subject to thermal and electrical stress. Before we discuss this in detail in the next few subsections we first of all introduce the experimental details for reference.
A. P. Dorey, B. K. Jones, A. M. D. Richardson, Y. Z. Xu

Chapter 5. Implementation of the Tests for Industrial Use

Abstract
In the preceding chapters a series of analog tests have been described which can be performed on digital ICs to assess their quality of manufacture and hence their probable lifetime in use. The description has concentrated on the tests themselves, the way in which they are performed, their sensitivity, their ability to detect weak devices and a justification for supposing that the test results actually produce a measure of the quality of the device. The development of the tests, their assessment and their verification in sample batches of stressed devices has been carried out under laboratory conditions such that the basis of the tests is fully understood. The results suggested strongly that for the CMOS family studied, the tests can be a valuable set of laboratory procedures.
A. P. Dorey, B. K. Jones, A. M. D. Richardson, Y. Z. Xu

Chapter 6. Conclusions

Abstract
In this book we have described a set of analog measurements which may be used to test the quality of a digital IC. Although other tests are possible, and have been proposed, we have described and used a set of tests which are sensitive to degradation of the circuit quality, are convenient to use, give results which can be readily interpreted and have potential for incorporation into an industrial environment using standard equipment.
A. P. Dorey, B. K. Jones, A. M. D. Richardson, Y. Z. Xu

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen