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There are different flood discharge calculation methodologies that have started more than 100 years ago, and most of the first ones are based on logical and rational thinking. The very early ones do not include any information because there were no rain gauges established at that time. As already mentioned in the previous section, they were all related to drainage area nonlinearly without any further consideration of the surface features as soil type, land use, etc., or rainfall characteristics. Reliability of these early methodologies is discussed with comparison to the present most advanced techniques. For flood discharge estimations and preliminary appreciation of the magnitude, flood envelop curves are presented, and their usage procedures are given for different parts of the world again in comparative manner. For the application of rational methods (RMs) in arid regions, empirical runoff coefficient formulation is presented with applications to some of the drainage basins in the southwestern corner of the Arabian Peninsula. Irrationality of the RM is explained, and instead, a new and innovative modification of it is presented with application example. Practical surface water discharge calculation methods are presented on the basis of different ration based on the drainage area, mean flow, and standard deviation of the flow records.
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- Rational Flood Methodologies
- Chapter 5