Two basic facts motivate this paper: (1) particle filter based trackers have become increasingly powerful in recent years, and (2) object detectors using statistical learning algorithms often work at a near real-time rate.
We present the use of classifiers as likelihood observation function of a particle filter. The original resulting method is able to simultaneously recognize and track an object using only a statistical model learnt from a generic database.
Our main contribution is the definition of a likelihood function which is produced directly from the outputs of a classifier. This function is an estimation of calibrated probabilities
). Parameters of the function are estimated to minimize the negative log likelihood of the training data, which is a cross-entropy error function.
Since a generic statistical model is used, the tracking does not need any image based model learnt inline. Moreover, the tracking is robust to appearance variation because the statistical learning is trained with many poses, illumination conditions and instances of the object.
We have implemented the method for two recent popular classifiers: (1) Support Vector Machines and (2) Adaboost. An experimental evaluation shows that the approach can be used for popular applications like pedestrian or vehicle detection and tracking.
Finally, we demonstrate that an efficient implementation provides a real-time system on which only a fraction of CPU time is required to track at frame rate.