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Über dieses Buch

This book presents the latest advances in thermal energy storage development at both the materials and systems level. It covers various fields of application, including domestic, industrial and transport, as well as diverse technologies, such as sensible, latent and thermochemical.
The contributors introduce readers to the main performance indicators for thermal storage systems, and discuss thermal energy storage (TES) technologies that can be used to improve the efficiency of energy systems and increase the share of renewable energy sources in numerous fields of application. In addition to the latest advances, the authors discuss the development and characterization of advanced materials and systems for sensible, latent and thermochemical TES, as well as the TES market and practical applications. They also report on and assess the feasibility of uniform characterization protocols and main performance indicators, compared to previous attempts to be found in the literature.
The book will help to increase awareness of thermal energy storage technologies in both the academic and industrial sectors, while also providing experts new tools to achieve a uniform approach to thermal energy storage characterization methods. It will also be of interest to all students and researchers seeking an introduction to recent innovations in TES technologies.



Thermal Energy Storage Technologies


Sensible Thermal Energy Storage at High Temperatures

Sensible thermal energy storage is widely used in different technologies such as buildings and solar power plants, but also in solar cooling, solar drying of food products, and solar cooking. This chapter summarizes the materials mostly used in thermal energy storage, with special highlight to high temperatures (>150 °C).
Luisa F. Cabeza

Latent Thermal Energy Storage

In the present chapter, an introduction about latent TES technology is reported. Requirements and different types of phase change materials (PCM) are discussed. Finally, a short introduction to PCM composites is presented.
Luisa F. Cabeza

Thermal Energy Storage with Chemical Reactions

The chapter addresses the main issues dealing with four types of reversible processes, such as dehydration of salt hydrates and hydroxides, thermal decomposition of oxides and perovskites for thermal energy storage as example of thermochemical processes covering a broad range of temperature heat sources.
Candida Milone, Yukitaka Kato, Emanuela Mastronardo

Sorption Thermal Energy Storage

In the present chapter, an introduction about the concept of sorption TES technology is reported. The closed and open configurations are discussed and an overview on the ongoing research and development activities for materials, components and systems is given.
Andrea Frazzica, Vincenza Brancato, Valeria Palomba, Salvatore Vasta

Materials Selection for Thermal Energy Storage Applications—Case Studies

To accomplish their duties, engineers need information, and this must be easily accessible, so they can readily choose among all the possibilities they can find to fit to a specific application. To build a thermal energy storage system, engineers always wonder which the best storage material they can find. The answer always depends on several factors. In the present chapter, the materials selection methodology is introduced to proceed for an optimal material selection for a certain application in thermal energy storage systems. Several case studies using this methodology are explained for different thermal energy storage applications: long term and short term sensible heat thermal energy storage, and phase change materials (PCM) for latent heat thermal energy storage for low temperature applications (buildings sector), and high temperature applications (concentrated solar power plants or CSP).
Mercè Segarra, Camila Barreneche, Alejandro Calderón, Ana Inés Fernández

Experimental Characterization of Materials and Components for Thermal Energy Storage


Characterization of Materials for Sensible Thermal Energy Storage at High Temperature

Among the several materials that can be appropriate for thermal energy storage (TES) application, this study focuses on sensible heat storage technology. In particular, are selected the common used materials at high temperature, molten salts and concrete. The aim is to define the key parameters and characterization techniques that determine the suitability of the material for TES. Broadly, in both materials thermo-physical and mechanical properties are evaluated. In the characterization of these materials highlights the procedure and equipment used to measure the specific properties. Mainly, the testing depends on the required sample size and operating temperature to be achieved. This chapter is based on the characterization carried out in previous researches as well as to define these thermal and mechanical techniques properly.
Ángel G. Fernández, Laura Boquera, Luisa F. Cabeza

Experimental Methods for the Characterization of Materials for Latent Thermal Energy Storage

This chapter summarizes the techniques to characterize phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications. The most relevant properties include giving answer to physical, thermal, and technical requirements. The chapter includes characterisation at different scales, from laboratory (including latent heat, melting temperature, specific heat, thermal conductivity, durability and cyclability) to pilot plant scale, including a novel dynamic characterization of composites.
Camila Barreneche, Anna Laura Pisello, Ana Inés Fernández, Luisa F. Cabeza

Experimental Methods for the Characterization of Materials for Thermal Energy Storage with Chemical Reactions

The present chapter deals with the experimental characterisation methodologies for TES thermochemical materials with chemical reactions. In particular, thermogravimetric techniques, small-scale reactors configurations and methodologies for the evaluation of thermal energy and power density are discussed. Furthermore, morphological, structural and mechanical characterisations are introduced and applied to typical thermochemical TES materials.
Yukitaka Kato, Shigehiko Funayama, Elpida Piperopoulos, Candida Milone

Experimental Methods for the Characterization of Materials for Sorption Storage

The present chapter deals with the main experimental characterizations available to measure the performance of sorbent working pairs used in sorption TES. The experimental methods for the evaluation of equilibrium sorption curves and the models for the sorption equilibrium description are introduced. Furthermore, theoretical and experimental approaches for the heat of sorption evaluation are defined and some examples, reported in the literature, about the thermal storage capacity evaluation of different working pairs are reported.
Vincenza Brancato, Andrea Frazzica

Corrosion Characterization in Components for Thermal Energy Storage Applications

This chapter presents the corrosion characterisation methods used for thermal energy storage, in molten salts used in CSP plants and phase change materials (PCM) used for latent energy storage. The chapter also summarises results found in the literature and give hints on corrosion mitigation techniques.
Ángel G. Fernández, Margalida Fullana, Luigi Calabrese, Edoardo Proverbio, Luisa F. Cabeza

Experimental Characterization of Systems for Thermal Energy Storage


Experimental Characterization of Latent Thermal Energy Storage Systems

In the present chapter, the experimental methods employed for the characterisation of latent TES are discussed. The investigated systems comprise both static and dynamic PCM storage concepts. In particular, experimental approaches applied by different laboratories are discussed in details and examples are provided to confirm the reliability of the proposed methods.
Valeria Palomba, Andrea Frazzica, Jaume Gasia, Luisa F. Cabeza

Experimental Characterization of Sorption Thermal Energy Storage Systems

In the present chapter, the experimental methods employed for the characterisation of sorption TES are discussed. The investigated systems comprise liquid and solid sorption technologies, both for closed and open systems. In particular, the proposed procedure for the closed sorption TES systems is described in details and an example on a lab-scale adsorption TES is reported. Finally, also experimental methodologies applied for components testing, namely, kinetic testing of small-scale adsorbers and characterisation of evaporators, are introduced.
Valeria Palomba, Salvatore Vasta, Andrea Frazzica

Definition of Performance Indicators for Thermal Energy Storage

With the aim of standardizing the evaluation of thermal storage systems/tanks, this chapter assesses and compares the different performance indicators that can be found in the literature and tries to recommend those which enable a better comparison.
Valeria Palomba, Jaume Gasia, Joaquim Romaní, Andrea Frazzica, Luisa F. Cabeza
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