Skip to main content

2022 | Buch

Recent Advances in Power Electronics and Drives

Select Proceedings of EPREC 2021

herausgegeben von: Dr. Shailendra Kumar, Dr. Bhim Singh, Prof. Arun Kumar Singh

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe: Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering


Über dieses Buch

This book contains select proceedings of EPREC-2021 with a focus on power electronics and drives. The book includes original research and case studies that present recent developments in power electronics focusing on power inverters and converters. The book also consists of research work on electrical drives, regulated power supplies, operation of FACTS & HVDC, etc. The book will be a valuable reference guide for beginners, researchers, and professionals interested in the advancements of power electronics and drives.


Fuzzy Controlled Multi-converter-UPQC for Power Quality Improvement in Distribution System

Most of the researchers have investigated the behavior of the Unified Power-Quality Conditioner (UPQC) that is present in a secondary power distribution system. Generally, there exist no investigations of UPQC in a sub-transmission system for enhancing the power quality in the primary power distribution substations. The sub-transmission system is identical to the primary power distribution system. It helps a vast geographical area and huge energy is distributed at high voltage levels. This paper intends to improvise the power quality in distribution system using a novel controller-based Multi-Converter Unified Power-Quality Conditioner (MC-UPQC). The fuzzy theory with SRF is used for implementing the control strategies of MC-UPQC. The main objective of the fuzzy controlled-MC-UPQC is to minimize the total harmonic distortion. The efficiency of the suggested fuzzy controlled-MC-UPQC is estimated by comparing over the conventional models.

S. Joyal Isac, S. Srinath
Modified BBO-Based PV Integrated Reduced Component Multilevel Inverter for Mitigating THD

With the escalation in power demand of modern world, necessity of renewable energy source integration is increasing simultaneously. Recent trend of research involving the renewable energy source integration seeks intensive attention to the new designs of cascaded H-bridge (CHB) Multilevel Inverter (MLI) topologies. Provision of multiple isolated sources in CHBMLI is advantageous in interfacing the renewable sources over the traditional MLI which needs several switches. Hence, reduced component count CHBMLI topologies are presiding over the conventional MLI in terms of size, cost, efficiency, electro-magnetic interference (EMI), etc. This work proposes a new topology for 5-level MLI with 5 switches with the objective to minimize the amplitude of the lower order harmonics. The proposed MLI consists of an integrated photovoltaic (PV) source as renewable source of energy, a DC supply and 5 semiconductor switches. For achieving lesser total harmonic distortion (THD) in the output voltage without using filter, an optimization scheme, selective harmonic elimination (SHE), has been used. A new metaheuristic technique namely modified biogeography-based optimization (MBBO) is proposed to optimize the firing angles by using the SHE problem. The proposed technique shows better firing angle optimization in comparison to the other popular techniques, i.e., butterfly optimization algorithm (BOA), biogeography-based optimization (BBO), gravitational search algorithm (GSA), and particle swarm optimization (PSO) when applied in the proposed MLI scheme.

Debanjan Mukherjee, Sourav Mallick
Power Quality Improvement of an Interconnected Grid System Using PWM Technique of D-STATCOM

Electrical distribution systems are witnessing the increase in nonlinear loads with the increased demand for power electronics devices. Such non-linear loads draw distorted currents that degrade the power quality of distribution systems. This paper presents the schematic procedure of the modeling and simulation of the Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM) for power factor improvements. It is important to establish a means of providing reactive power compensation near the distribution side. This article presents the use of a D-STATCOM for compensation of harmonics in distribution systems. It describes the methodology of designing controllers based on DQ method. The current regulator control with two-input two-output for the AC side of a voltagessourcesconverter (VSC) can be represented by a transfer function with single–input–single–output. The proposed shunt controller is based on the VSC topology which generates controllable current directly at its output terminal. All responses are carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK toolbox.

Manoj Kumar Kar, Sanjay Kumar, Arun Kumar Singh
Speed Control of a Three-Phase IM with Closed-Loop Control Scheme

The features of induction motor (IM) such as higher reliability, self-starting, higher power to weight ratio, and low cost made it more popular in industrial applications. Due to time-varying dynamics, non-linearity, and complexity, the speed control of IM is an interesting topic in industries but nowadays, enhancement in power electronic devices and the microcontroller, industry makes it stress-free to control the speed of IM with new and latest technology. In this article, the speed control of the IM is achieved by using SPWM and closed-loop v/f control techniques. When voltage and frequency vary, then speed also varies. These control techniques are developed using MATLAB/Simulink model-based design. In this study, the flux presented in air gap of the machine is preserved as fixed magnitude by maintaining a constant v/f ratio. The closed-loop control system takes care of the steady state and transient performance of the IM drive system during modification in speed without and with the loaded condition.

Rajkumar Yadav, Manoj Kumar Kar, Arun Kumar Singh
A Review on Recent Technologies in Power Electronic Drives for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

In recent years, worldwide environmental policies have set targets with the goal to shift internal combustion engine vehicle to electrified vehicles. Significant interest has been created to develop hybrid and electric vehicles, due to reduce fuel consumption and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents the introduction between conventional vehicle and electric vehicles and also discussed various types of hybrid electrical vehicles, power electronics drives, various aspects, and techniques are discussed related to electric drives and propulsion systems of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). The classification of different possible combinations of HEVs is summarized in the table along with the relevant references. Moreover, this paper also gives a brief summarization of motor drives and the electric configuration system of HEV.

Rajakumar Sakile, Umesh Kumar Sinha
Comparative THD Analysis of Multilevel Inverter Using Different Multicarrier PWM Schemes

Multilevel inverters (MLI) have applications for large voltage and medium power. Multiple carrier PWM scheme is mainly applied for pulse generation due to its simple design and simpler implementation. In phase disposition (IPD), phase opposition disposition (POD), and alternative phase opposition disposition (APOD), multi-carrier PWM (MCPWM) techniques are discussed for pulse generation. The comparative analysis of harmonics is discussed in this paper using MATLAB simulation. Cascaded H-Bridge MLI (CHBMLI) topology of MLI is used for discussion. CHBMLI topology of MLI is preferred in comparison to other topology due to its reduced power semiconductor components, cost, and size. THD percentage for 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 levels of output voltage waveform is discussed and compared. IPD scheme has the lowest THD compared to other schemes for same level of output voltage. As THD reduces output waveform becomes smoother and more sinusoidal.

Shashi Shekhar Tripathi, Manoj Kumar Kar, Arun Kumar Singh
Design and Implementation of Two-Phase Interleaved Boost Converter with Voltage Multiplier for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles require DC-DC boost converters to be highly efficient to power output loads operated at much higher voltages using low-voltage fuel cell systems. This paper proposes a two-phase interleaved DC-DC boost converter provided with a voltage multiplier cell to enhance the performance and to gain a higher voltage level at the output load. The design also reduces the input current ripples, output voltage ripples, and the size of passive electric components. The DC-DC converter is configured and analyzed with the help of MATLAB-SIMULINK to validate the performance of the proposed converter. Simulation and experimental results show that the size of the passive components can be significantly reduced, and the reliability of the fuel cell hybrid electric system can be enhanced.

Melisa Miranda, M. Komal, Shweta P. Hegde
A Unipolar Phase Disposition PWM Technique for Reduced Switch Count Symmetrical Nine-Level Multilevel DC Link Inverter Topology

This paper presents the implementation of single-phase symmetric nine-level Multilevel DC link (MLDCL) inverter topology with Unipolar Phase Disposition (UPD) PWM control scheme. This topology consists of four half-bridge cells which are connected in cascaded manner with eight unidirectional switches in level generator side and to decide the polarity, one full H-bridge with four unidirectional switches have been integrated at the polarity generator side. This topology possesses less per unit standing voltage and high modularity as compared with traditional multilevel inverters like diode clamped flying capacitor and cascaded H-bridge topologies. In order to generate K level output, Phase Disposition (PD) control scheme requires (K-1) high-frequency carriers. However, the proposed UPD control scheme reduces the number of carrier count by half to generate the K level output. The reduction of carrier count reduces control complexity and burden on the processor. The proposed control technique is well suitable for generalized structure of MLDCL topology to any level count. The simulation results of the topology with proposed control technique have been validated through MATLAB/Simulink environment.

Rajakumar Sakile, Marco Rivera, Kasoju Bharath Kumar, Bandela Supriya, A. Bhanuchandar
A Novel Current Control Scheme for Three-Phase Three-Level Grid-Tied Neutral Point Clamped Inverter

In this paper, a simple and novel current control scheme for three-phase three-level grid-tied neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter is proposed. In this control scheme, conventional space vector modulation (SVM) is basically reflected with a new digital switching approach. In this approach, PI controller and phase-locked loop (PLL) are not used unlike to that of conventional space vector modulation (SVM). Therefore, the computational burden on the processor reduces as compared with the conventional SVM technique and is simple to execute. The NPC inverter with proposed current control scheme can be applicable in wind energy conversion and photovoltaic system-related applications. Simulation studies are validated for the proposed current control scheme for three-phase three-level grid-tied NPC inverter with MATLAB/Simulink platform. By using the proposed control scheme, it is possible to get grid synchronization easily without using the phase-locked loop concept. This scheme also gives a good transient/dynamic response for injected grid current reference values.

Kowstubha Palle, Bandela Supriya
Active and Reactive Power Control of Grid-Tied Asymmetrical MLI-based PV System with Reduced Switching Frequency

In this paper, controlling of active power and reactive power of single-phase grid-tied asymmetrical Multi Level Inverter (MLI)-based Photovoltaic (PV) system is done using Model Predictive Controller (MPC). The MLI topology consists of reduced switching device count and it is operated at the reduced switching frequency. The injection of current into the grid has been controlled using a model predictive controller to achieve improvement in power quality and active power injection to the grid from PV. The proposed technique has the capability of excellent current tracking in addition to control of the active and reactive powers flow. The reduced switching frequency and model predictive active and reactive power control algorithm along with the injection of grid current tracking capability are simulated and results are verified under variable weighting factor of MPC.

Hareesh Myneni, A. Pranay Kumar, Somnath A. Mandale, Ganjikunta Siva Kumar
Modelling and Control Aspects of STATCOM Connected to a Grid-Integrated PV System

This paper provides a detailed modelling and controller design for a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) connected to a grid-integrated PV-based system. Synchronous reference frame modelling of STATCOM has been discussed in this work. Reference current generation-based control scheme has been discussed in this paper. For maintaining a near-constant DC-link, PI controller has been used. Detailed analysis and simulation has been provided for the AC microgrid system comprising of a grid-integrated PV-based system accompanied by STATCOM for reactive power compensation.

Koneti Varalakshmi, R. L. Narasimham, G. Tulasi Ramdas
Comparative Analysis Between Single Diode and Double Diode Solar Topologies of Solar PV Cell

This paper focuses on the impact of renewable energy sources on generation. The intention of today’s world shifts towards the extraction of power from renewable energy sources like solar, wind, ocean, tidal, hydro, etc. The availability of solar is quite effective than all other sources. So, the design of solar PV cell has been depicted in this paper. Basically, two different modes of approaches are considered over here one is single diode and another double-diode topology. The comparative study between these two models from its source, i.e., the design to its output, i.e., the power generated has been shown to analyze the efficiency of the topologies. Further, the yearly power generation is also plotted from where it can be observed that the total power generated by double diode topology is quite high as compared to single diode topology.

Sriparna Das, Kumari Namrata
Control of Three-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter Using dq Axis Theory

In this paper, the controller design and MATLAB Simulation of a 3-ɸ grid-connected inverter (3-ɸ GCI) are implemented. Sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) scheme with unipolar switching in dq axis theory or synchronous reference frame is used to control 3-ɸ inverter. The objective of the paper is to design a model in MATLAB/Simulink employing dq theory to control active and reactive grid current separately and maintain total harmonic distortion (THD) less than 5% as per IEEE standard. The control mechanism includes a PI controller and phase-locked loop (PLL). The parameters of the controller have been selected in such way that the injected grid current should be sinusoidal and Unity Power Factor (UPF) along with better dynamic response. The system has been implemented a DC-link high-voltage, 3-ɸ inverter, an LCL filter, and a PLL algorithm. The dq axis theory is preferred as it is easy to implement, active and reactive current can be separately controlled. The simulation results have been verified with the theoretical approach successfully.

Deepak Kumar Singh, Saibal Manna, Ashok Kumar Akella
Active–Reactive Power Support with Optimal Allocation of DG and DSTATCOM in Distribution System Using Flower Pollination and Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Load Growth

After deregulation of power system network, power quality problems like, power loss, voltage reduction, lower reliability, lower environmental friendly, limitation on restructuring, etc., increased. Distribution Network (DN) is directly connected to the load center so majorly power quality problems may have occurred by distribution system. Day-by-day electricity demand is increasing and old power system network is not capable to fulfil load demand. To remove limitations of older power system network, some FACTS devices and Distributed Generation (DG) are used so that consumer can also capable to generate electricity. This paper discusses the distribution system network after implementing DG for active power and DSTATCOM for reactive power support at the best possible place to reduce active power loss and improve the system's voltage profile. In this paper, the comparison of two optimization methods Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm and Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) with existing methods is done to find optimal size and location of DG and DSTATCOM. Result of FPA and ABC is implemented on IEEE 33 Radial Distribution Test systems (RDS) using the MATLAB. Furthermore, results of voltage profiles and power losses after DG and DSTATCOM installation is compared with different cases. The analysis verifies that DG + DSTATCOM can reduce power losses and can improve voltage profile of each bus.

Nandola Maitrey Bharatbhai, Atma Ram Gupta
Analysis and Design Optimization of Six-Phase Induction Motor by Metaheuristic Methods

This paper deals with a new modified version of Flower Pollination algorithm (mFPA), Novel Bat algorithm (NBA) with habitat selection, and Doppler effect in echos, Cuckoo Search algorithm, and also traditional method of design in case of a six-phase induction motor (SPIM). The positional vector of Flower Pollination algorithm has been modified. The performance of the motor has also been compared using the parameters obtained from these methods in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The objective of the paper is to optimize the design parameters of six-phase induction motor by the fittest method of metaheuristic algorithm.

Pratyush Prasanna Das, S. N. Mahato
Implementation of Complete Vector Control for DFIG Based Wind Turbine

A lot of development is carried out on renewable energy technologies for the upcoming trend among which wind energy system and solar energy system is mostly admired and preferred due to the availability of their sources. This paper deals with the wind energy system and control method implementations on the wind turbine system for continuity in the supply of power. Basically, two types of generators, asynchronous and synchronous generator can be used in the function of wind power system. Among asynchronous machines, we are implementing doubly fed induction machine (DFIM), which operates as generator in one of the operation modes for the conversion of mechanical energy (obtained from the wind conversion system) to electrical energy. The wind turbine implemented with DFIM is linked to a grid modeled system via following converters termed as converter of rotor side and converter of stator side converter whose firing angles are dependent on the vector control designed for the system to ensure a better-quality output power. The DFIG based wind turbine model is designed by using MATLAB Simulink software and vector control on the rotor side depends on d-axis current and the required transformation matrices are modeled by using function blocks. The results obtained are studied and analyzed properly considering some of the practical considerations and are able to explain the working of the system.

Rajesh Kumar, Ch. Sekhar, Saibal Manna, A. K. Akella
TLO Based OPF with FACTS Devices for DC Link Placement Problem

This paper presents a TLO based OPF with FACTS devices for DC link Placement Problem. The DC links placed in the transmission system involve consumption of reactive power by the converters at both ends. The placement of FACTS devices can be represented as an optimization problem with an objective of reducing a cost function while satisfying network constraints, which may be a nonlinear problem and non-convex and the most complex optimization problem in electric power systems.. The solution process involves sequential NR based AC/DC power flow. It presents simulation results of IEEE14 and 30 bus test systems with a view of demonstrating its effectiveness.

B. Suresh Babu
Performance Comparison Analysis of Energy Management Strategies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The performance of three widely used energy management strategies for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is compared in this paper. The HEV considered here consists of the fuel cell (FC), battery, and supercapacitor (SC). Performance comparison is carried out among conventional proportional-integral (PI), rule-based (RB), and equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategies (ECMS) in terms of overall efficiency, battery state of charge (SOC) level, and FC hydrogen consumption. The comparative results reveal that the RB control strategy gives the highest overall efficiency. ECMS can maintain a higher SOC level, and PI control strategy reduces the hydrogen consumption of FC. The choice of the appropriate strategy for the energy management of HEV depends on the specific objectives.

Jai Kumar Maherchandani, R. R. Joshi, Ritesh Tirole, Raju Kumar Swami, Bibhu Prasad Ganthia
Evaluative Study of Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Topologies

Multilevel inverters have recently gained popularity due to their ability to deliver virtually pure ac output voltage using different dc sources. Multilevel inverters have many special characteristics over two-level inverters such as high-performance efficiency, low unit ratings, structural modularity in their cascade topology, and so forth. One of the most rarely used topologies is the cascade topology in which the number of output voltage levels can be increased by connecting the identical module of the inverter in a series string. The conventional cascade topology has many cons that include the use of an increased number of switches and complexity in modulation schemes. Hence to overcome these problems a modified topology has been put forward in which for the same preferred output voltage the number of solid-state devices get reduced. In this research work, a comparative assessment has been realized to conclude the best among the two topologies.

Hemant Gupta, Arvind Yadav, Sanjay Kumar Maurya
Low Speed Performance Improvement of Dual VSI Fed Direct Torque Controlled Five Phase Open-End Winding Induction Motor

A Modified lookup table based direct torque control (DTC) scheme for open end winding five phase induction motor drive is proposed for low speed performance improvement. Proposed DTC scheme uses 40 active vectors that are generated from dual inverter configuration and are classified as small, medium, and large vectors. In conventional DTC, large and medium voltage vectors are used for all possible speeds which generates high torque ripple and zero vectors and creates demagnetization and high switching frequency under low/zero speed operation. In this paper, a modified Lookup table for 3-level dual inverter fed open end winding Induction motor used, where small voltage vectors used under low/zero speed operation which gives lesser torque ripple. To eliminate flux instability at low/zero speed, suitable active voltage vectors used under flux error +1 and torque error 0 instead of null vectors. The proposed DTC scheme provides benefits of torque ripple reduction, switching frequency reduction, and elimination of flux instability problems under low speeds. The proposed DTC scheme verified through MATLAB simulations and compared with conventional DTC.

C. Venkata Subba Reddy, Swati Devabhaktuni
Self-balanced Symmetric Source Configuration of Nine Level Switched Capacitor-Based Grid Connected Inverter with LCL Filter

This paper presents a single-phase self-balanced symmetric source configuration of nine level switched capacitor (SC)-based grid connected inverter with LCL filter. It comprises two DC sources, two switched capacitors and ten unidirectional switches with less per unit Total Standing Voltage (TSV). Out of ten switches, eight switches have been faced the stress of 0.5Vdc only and rest of the switches have been faced the stress of 2Vdc individually. By changing input DC voltage ratios, it is possible to get more number of levels also. For both symmetric and asymmetric source configurations, a Unified Rounding Control Scheme (URCS) has been applied with RL load. In grid connection point of view, to achieve UPF operation, a dq frame current control strategy along with Unipolar Level Shifted Phase Disposition Pulse Width Modulation (ULSPD-PWM) scheme has been elucidated clearly. While considering resonant peak problems and grid stability, the LCL filter has been designed carefully. In this topology, the capacitors are self-balanced without the need of auxiliary circuits and separate complex control schemes. Lastly, to corroborate the proposed concept of nine level grid connected inverter with LCL filter and other source configurations have been elucidated with MATLAB/Simulink platform.

Aratipamula Bhanuchandar, Bhagwan K. Murthy
Priority-Based Charging of Electric Vehicles to Prevent Distribution Transformer Overloading

There is a need for charge scheduling schemes that can manage the adverse effects on distribution systems due to the imminent influx of electric vehicles. An immediate effect of widespread domestic charging will be sustained overloads on the distribution transformer, especially during the peak load hours. In this paper, a scheduling algorithm that prevents the transformer’s load from rising beyond its rated capacity is introduced. During peak load hours, the charging of low-priority vehicles is delayed until sufficient capacity becomes available. The priority value assigned to each plugged-in vehicle is designed to reflect its owner’s urgency of charge requirement. By shifting the electric vehicle loads from on-peak to off-peak hours, the scheduling algorithm can limit the transformer loading without missing any charging deadline.

Arjun Visakh, T. Sornavel, M. P. Selvan
Implementation of Three-Phase Hybrid Energy System Integrated with UPQC

This article refers to the design and execution of three-phase hybrid energy system (solar PV, battery, and wind) integrated with UPQC. The hybrid energy system-unified power quality conditioner (HES-UPQC) contains series and shunt compensator attached with the common DC-link voltage. UPQC mitigates the power quality problems generated by the non-linear load. An Integrator Second-Order with Frequency for better output of the hybrid energy system UPQC, a locked loop control based on a zero crossing detection is used to remove the load active current portion. The grid power quality concerns such as grid voltage sags/swells are balanced through series compensator. The voltage injects through compensator that is in or out of the phase with the point of common coupling (PCC) voltage in the swell and sag situations. The new framework combines the advantages of renewable energy production with the improvement of power efficiency.

Shravan Kumar Yadav, Krishna Bihari Yadav
Design of Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor for Electric Vehicle Traction Application

This paper introduces the feasibility of the implementation of high-efficiency motors in electric vehicles (EVs) and their design. Four major areas focused on in the proposed work include the selection of motors for EV propulsion, vehicle dynamics analysis, design of the motor of desired power rating, and simulation of the motor using software tools. This paper covers the motors used for EV applications and compares them based on several criteria to choose the best among them for the desired application. The motors compared are induction motors (IM), Brushed DC motors (BDCM), and Permanent magnet brushless DC motors (PMBLDCM), among which PMBLDC motors are chosen. PMBLDC motors are high-efficiency and high-power density electrical machines with a wide range of applications. Electric vehicle drives using PMBLDC motors are one of the major areas of application for PMBLDC Motors. The vehicle understudy is chosen to be a three-wheeler, which is a widely popular, very low-cost, and common mode of transportation. The forces acting on the vehicle are assessed and the average power needed to drive the vehicle is calculated. The internal structure of the motor is studied and the motor is designed using standard formulae and the dimensions of the motor are obtained. The design parameters obtained are then inputted into motor design software. The software used here is ANSYS’s Maxwell design package. The motor parameters and the design dimensions are input into a package like ANSYS RMxprt, which gives an analytical output and then exported to Maxwell 2D (FEM-based) and simulated again to obtain various output curves.

Sandeep Vuddanti, Sharankumar Shastri, Surender Reddy Salkuti
D-FACTS-Based Power Quality Enhancement Using Power Balance Theory

Continuous advancement in FACTS expertise has innovated novel device based on distributed FACTS (D-FACTS) thought. This has confirmed to stand more advantageous in refining class and enactment of power systems. This device is named “Distributed Power Flow Controller (DPFC)”. Underneath framework, this article objectives at a theoretical reading of probable DPFC to diminish sag/swell and elimination of harmonic alteration for subtle load. This is demonstrated over control model centered D-Q axis theory and PI control scheme in SIMULINK environs. Simulation outcomes confirm capability of DPFC in enhancing power quality at superior level.

Vikash Anand, S. K. Mallik
Design and Implementation of Electrical Dynamic Braking System in Electric Car Using Buck Converter

This paper proposes the design of a closed-loop control of a pulse width modulated DC converter with a PID control method used to control a braking system in an electric car. The control output determines the desired switching signals to reduce the tracking error in the presence of a variable setpoint. The setpoint is a function of the car’s speed and it reaches zero as the car comes to a complete stop. The proposed system of the controller, the converter, and the electric brakes, is designed to reduce the speed to zero in two seconds. Unlike hydraulic braking systems, this system is eco-friendly. The system is described using mathematical equations, simulated with Matlab/Simulink, which proved the effectiveness of the proposed system.

Walid Alqaisi, Claude Ziad El-Bayeh
A Reduced Device Count of Self Balancing Five-Level Switched Capacitor-Based Grid-Connected Inverter

This paper presents a Reduced Device Count (RDC) of self-balancing five-level Switched Capacitor (SC)-based grid-connected inverter with LCL filter. It comprises eight unidirectional switches, one bidirectional switch, and one SC with a single DC source supply. In this topology, the voltage stress of each switch has been faced an equal amount of Vdc and it possesses less per unit Total Standing Voltage (TSV), thereby the cost requirement of devices have been reduced. Here, the capacitor is self-balanced without the need for additional circuits and separate control schemes. It also provides twice the voltage gain or boosting factor. Here, the LCL filter has been integrated with the grid for higher ripple attenuation purposes and designed carefully without making instability problems. With RL load, the new Unified Low Switching Frequency Control Scheme (ULSFCS) has been applied and for grid-connected case, a dq frame current control strategy has been applied to get Unity Power Factor (UPF) operation of the system. Finally, the entire operation of the system with both RL load and grid-connected cases have been corroborated through MATLAB/Simulink environment.

Aratipamula Bhanuchandar, Bhagwan K. Murthy
Pitch Angle Control Using Fuzzy Logic for DFIG-Based WECS

Electrical energy is produced by exploiting the kinetic energy from the wind. However, higher wind speeds above the rated speed may harm the system, so there is a high need for effectively maintaining its operation beyond the rated speed. Therefore, in this paper, leveling of power output is carried out by regulating the blade pitch angle of a doubly fed Induction Generator (DFIG)-based wind turbine. The control mechanism of pitch angle is used to regulate the power output and to smoothen power fluctuations whenever the wind speed becomes greater than the rated speed. The fuzzy logic-based control scheme is utilized for controlling the angle of a pitch to sustain the rated power at the output. Simulation results and studies show that this control mechanism is very potent in reducing fluctuations and leveling of the output power of DFIG-based WECS (Wind energy conversion system) as compared to the PI control strategy. This given technique is verified by MATLAB/SIMULINK software, the results are obtained on various operating conditions, and finally, comparisons are drawn with the PI and fuzzy controller.

Kirti Kaharwar, Bhavnesh Kumar
Class-E Power Amplifier-Based Wireless Power Transfer System

This paper present, a new scheme of wireless power transmission system (WPT) using bridge rectifier with class-E power amplifier for the enhancement of the system efficiency. This WPT system is designed specially for the transfer of power in the medium range, i.e., between 150 and 300 watts. With the increase in the system frequency, the size of the WPT is decreased, i.e., the compactness of the system increases, here the system is operating at 100 kHz frequency. In this system, 260V AC input is supplied and output of the system is greater than 300V and efficiency of the system is 59.4 percent without any compensation, which indicates a high-performance wireless power distribution system. The suggested wireless power transmission system is designed and performance of the same is verified by using MATLAB\SIMULINK.

Jay Prakash Narayan, Anamika Das, Ananyo Bhattacharya
Enhancement of Power Factor and DC-Link Voltage Stabilization Using Multiple Techniques of HPFC

Three-phase AC/DC power conversion is commonly used in variable-speed drives, uninterruptible power supplies, high-voltage DC systems, and utility interfaces for non-conventional energy sources such as photovoltaic systems, battery energy storage systems, electric cars, and so on. New-generation switch mode power supplies are based on the concept of power conversion at two stages to achieve smooth DC output, i.e., uncontrolled AC-to-DC conversion at the first stage and DC-to-DC conversion at the second stage to achieve a smooth DC output. In general, all these power converters draw non-linear currents from the supply and, in turn, distort the voltages at the point of common coupling due to source impedance. High-Power Factor Converter (HPFC) will help us in addressing these issues. In this paper, three control techniques, namely, current control, vector control, and voltage control used for HPFC are discussed. These control techniques are simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK and FFT analysis is done to know the total harmonic distortion in the AC side current waveform. The voltage and current waveforms at the AC side of the converter are in phase with each other, i.e., maintains unity power factor. The DC-link voltage of the converter is also made constant using these techniques.

Satya Venkata Kishore Pulavarthi, Jami Rajesh, Nakka Jayaram, Sukanta Halder
Design and Modeling of 3.3 kW GaN-Based HPFC Converter for Onboard EV Charger

This paper proposes a high power factor correction (HPFC) converter using a GaN HeMT MOSFET for the onboard EV charging application. Power factor plays a decisive role in AC–DC conversion. Low power factor load draws high current from the main supply. To optimize the active power drawn from the supply mains, the system's power factor must be kept close to unity. It boosts the converter's effectiveness and reliability. The power stage implementation is based on small-signal modeling, and the state-space averaging is used to derive the power-level transfer function of the HPFC converter. With the assistance of the MATLAB SISO tool, a control strategy for the voltage and current loops is proposed to satisfy the design criteria. Finally, a 3.3 kW GaN-based HPFC converter experiment is performed for the input power factor greater than 0.99 for different power and also shows the current THD for different values of power factor.

Piyush Kumar, Amit Singh Tandon, Naveen Yalla, A. V. J. S. Praneeth
A Novel Thirteen-Level Two-Fold Gain Inverter Topology with Reduced Voltage Stress

This paper explains a novel single-sourced hybrid 13-level two-fold gain multilevel inverter (MLI) topology which comprises 13 semiconductor devices and three capacitors that are of two flying and one switched capacitor. The presented MLI has the potential to produce the two-fold voltage boosting and any switch has the maximum blocking voltage (MBV) within input voltage so it requires low power rated devices and low total standing voltage (TSV). The intermediate voltage levels are generated by the capacitors and the switching strategy allows the capacitors with the self-balancing property without any additional sensor circuitry and the total output harmonic distortion is very low with better performance. The presented topology is investigated by comparing with recently developed topologies in terms of active/passive components, TSV, MBV and cost function. Moreover, in the MATLAB simulation environment, the presented topology is verified and the results were presented for R and RL load along with the capacitor voltages.

M. S. H. Naidu, C. Sadanala, S. Patnaik
PV-Array-Integrated UPQC for Power Quality Enhancement and PV Power Injection

This paper emphasizes on design and performance analysis of photovoltaic-array-integrated unified power quality conditioner (PV-UPQC) and presents the idea of power quality enhancement along with the green energy transfer to the grid. PV array is integrated with UPQC by using maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit (boost converter and MPPT algorithm). PV-UPQC is dealing with power quality issues such as unbalanced current, harmonics, reactive power, dip and swell in the supply voltage. It will also transfer active power from the PV array to the load and/or grid depending upon solar radiation. Synchronous reference frame (SRF) theory is used in the control strategy of PV-UPQC. Performance of PV-UPQC under dynamic conditions such as a change in insolation, dip and swell in the source voltage and change of the load condition is analyzed. Simulation studies for steady-state and dynamic conditions are accomplished in MATLAB/Simulink.

Harsh D. Patel, Priyank Gandhi, Pranav Darji
A Fuzzy-Based Buck-Boost Photovoltaic Inverter for Voltage Stabilization During Mismatched Environmental Conditions

This paper proposed a buck-boost operating inverter with two photovoltaic arrays generating power at different levels of voltages because of shading conditions. The introduced buck-boost inverter with two series-connected photovoltaic arrays is interconnected to a single-phase grid with maximum power injection. The inverter can work in both modes, i.e., buck mode and boost mode depending on the voltage amplitude produced by the photovoltaic arrays. This makes the inverter draw the largest power from the photovoltaic arrays during different solar irradiation conditions on the panels. The inverter is controlled by a feedback loop control system with a reduction in leakage currents in the photovoltaic arrays. The control structure is further updated with the FIS module for better stability of the inverter. The comparison of conventional and FIS control structures is represented using MATLAB/Simulink software.

Varun Bhardwaj, Prerna Gaur
Modified Hysteresis Current Control Implementation for Three-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter

In recent years, integrating the grid with distributed energy systems like solar photovoltaics has emerged with simplicity and resilience. There are various types of grid integration ranging from kilowatt to Megawatt classified as small scale and large scale. The grid’s effective working mainly depends on switching pulses of the inverter coupled with the grid system. However, there is a need to develop a robust, efficient, and cost-effective pulse generation technique that maintains the constant voltage at the dc bus, even in loaded conditions. Therefore, this paper describes the control of a three-phase grid-connected inverter system for generating electricity at the distribution end. The control method implemented is hysteresis current control, which is easy and robust compared to various literature methods. Hence, this current control method is used by changing the reference frame and comparing the actual value of currents which is then passed through the hysteresis band for pulse generation. This pulse generation method using hysteresis control is presented in this paper using the MATLAB/Simulink model.

Mayank Arora, C. Vyjayanthi
A Quasi-Direct Buck-Boost Fuzzy Controlled Rectifier for Rapid Charging of Electric Vehicle Battery

This paper proposes a rapid DC type charger for electric vehicle battery charging. For charging of the battery a controlled rectifier is utilized for conversion of three-phase AC voltages the DC voltage for which a feedback loop controller is applied. A quasi-direct buck-boost converter is proposed in this paper with three-legged module comprising of one boosting inductor connected between a buck switch and a boost switch. The control of these two switches is achieved by feedback loop control with PI controller. The traditional PI controller is replaced with FIS controller for better rapid charging of the battery with higher current magnitude. This paper includes a simulation comparative analysis of the quasi-direct buck-boost converter with PI and FIS controllers through graphical representation using powergui toolbox in MATLAB software. The results are generated in with respect to time and magnitude of the given parameter.

Rohan Jain, M. S. Manisha
Comparative Analysis of Controlling Methods for Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Energy System

Significant progress has been made in wind energy generation over recent years. Wind turbines based on doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG-WTs) are popularly used in wind power generation due to its advantages compared to SCIG and PMSG. In order to cope with stability and efficiency, the wind power system requires advanced and robust control methodologies. This article presents a comparative study of DFIG control methods for wind energy systems using three of the most popular and efficient control methods namely, field-oriented control, direct torque control and direct power control. These methodologies are reviewed as well as their performance under various operating conditions is analyzed and compared using MATLAB Simulation.

Aftab Ahmed Ansari, Giribabu Dyanamina
Adaptive Pitch Control of Wind Turbine Generator to Counter Transient Contingencies in a Multi Machine System

In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Pitch Control (APC) technique to augment the stability of a wind turbine generator (WTG), when incident with a transient contingency. The control scheme is based on a single input, single output turbine blade pitch regulation, determined from network frequency deviations. This is implemented using MATLAB Level-1 equipped s functions. The aforesaid adaptive control scheme enables the model parameters to be updated online using a trained recursive least squares algorithm, so as to bring the network frequency and voltage deviations to zero. The main motivation behind the adaptive pitch controlled system is the stabilizing of wind generator’s power output under turbulence of staggering wind as well as 3- $$\phi $$ ϕ faults. Detailed mathematical modeling of the WTG is also discussed, along with the incorporation of a modified Newton Raphson load flow technique for arriving at system’s steady state operating points. It is concluded through simulation studies that the APC equipped WTG guarantees better performance in terms of smooth power and voltage than any conventionally tuned pitch control scheme.

Hailiya Ahsan, Abdul Waheed Kumar, M. D. Mufti
Detection of Broken Rotor Bar Fault in an Induction Motor Employing Motor Current Signature Analysis

In the present industrial scenario, an induction motor plays an important part for any industry. Any faults in induction motor may lead to expensive and catastrophic for a plant, which may directly influence the reliability of the whole system. Also, rotor faults constitute an important portion of all electrical machine faults and can be a key reason for downtime of the system. Therefore, rotor fault diagnosis of an induction at an early stage can avoid the costly breakdown in an industrial plant. The present work proposed a novel detection algorithm for broken rotor bar in an induction motor using motor current signature analysis (MCSA) which is able to detect fault at an early stage. Real-time motor current from stator winding of an induction motor was acquired and developed algorithms were applied for the detection of broken rotor bar fault. Previously, other sensors such as vibration sensors were also used for this purpose but, those are invasive in nature with high cost however, current sensors are non-invasive and low cost which allow the current sensors-based techniques easier to implement. In this work, statistical method such as multiscale entropy (MSE) algorithm is used as a novel technique which is extracted from the real-time motor current for the detection of broken rotor bar fault. Later, support vector machine (SVM) has been successfully implemented to diagnose the fault at early stage with minimum accuracy of 90.1%.

Alok Verma, Pratul Arvind, Somnath Sarangi, Jayendra Kumar, Anumeha
Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic-Grid Connected System for Electric Vehicle Charging

Solar energy is one of the main renewable energy sources used as an alternative source throughout the world. A number of researches have been carried out to harness solar energy efficiently and effectively. The one major application of solar energy is charging of electric vehicles. The carbon emissions from internal combustion engines (ICE) of vehicles have necessitated shifting to an alternate source of transportation. Electric Vehicles (EV) being a clean alternative is an ideal candidate for transportation. These EVs when charged through an AC grid generate harmonics that are inserted into the grid resulting in various problems like power shortages, voltage sags, etc. In this work, a practical model has been designed with four charging stations, each serving eight electric vehicles at a time. The power generated from the PV module will be continuously measured and the shift between PV and grid will take place by supervisory control. The battery of EVs considered has the same specifications as that are used in real-life batteries of EVs. The analysis is done regarding the effect of different internal resistances, different state of charge, total harmonic distortion (THD) and scheduling of PV-grid system. It is observed that THD is drastically dropped in terms of voltage and current distortions when charged on ac grid alone. The results reveal that the proposed PV-Grid connected system is quite effective to boost the solar energy and can be practically implemented.

Manoj Kumar Sharma, Karanbir Singh, Satish Kansal
Development of the System of Initial Excitation of the Autonomous Induction Generator

The article defines the conditions of self-excitation of an inductive generator with capacitor excitation as part of an autonomous power source. Recommendations for the design of an autonomous power source based on an asynchronous machine in terms of the implementation of self-excitation conditions and optimal operating modes are formulated. A simulation model of an autonomous inductive generator and a solar battery for the analysis of transient, static and dynamic modes of operation has been developed. The conducted theoretical studies of capacitive self-excitation of inductive machines have created a good basis for solving problems related to the practical use of autonomous sources based on an inductive generator.

Volodymyr Chenchevoi, Valeriy Kuznetsov, Iurii Zachepa, Oleksii Chornyi, Olga Chencheva, Vitaliy Kuznetsov, Rostyslav Yatsiuk, Olha Luhova
Single Phase Five Level Step-Up Switched Capacitor Based Grid Connected Inverter with LCL Filter

In this paper, single phase five level step-up switched capacitor based grid connected inverter with LCL filter has been presented and it comprises six unidirectional switches, eight diodes, two switched capacitors (SCs), and one dc source. Here, LCL filter has been integrated with grid and it provides higher ripple attenuation capability. The cascade connection of two SC units with 1:5 source configuration has the capability to generate 25 level output with RL load has been elucidated with Unified Rounding Control Scheme (URCS). Both in grid connected and RL load cases, the SCs are self-balanced without need of auxiliary circuits and separate complex control schemes. The five level inverter topology provides less per unit Total Standing Voltage (TSV) and boosting ability with single dc source. For grid connected case, a dq frame current control strategy has been applied to achieve Unity Power Factor (UPF) operation with respect to grid voltage and grid current. Finally, to verify the feasibility of proposed topology with RL load and grid connected cases have been validated through MATLAB/Simulink platform.

Aratipamula Bhanuchandar, Bhagwan K. Murthy
Single Stage Multiple Source Bidirectional Converter for Electric Vehicles

Multiple battery energy storage system is gaining popularity for electric vehicles (EVs). This article presents a novel technique for charging multiple batteries using multi-source bidirectional converter (MSBC) for EV application. The DC/DC converter is eliminated which is otherwise used for battery charging. This reduces the size and weight of EVs and improves overall efficiency of the electric vehicle drive. The stator winding of the traction motor is used to charge batteries so the inductance requirement is also eliminated. This scheme is suitable for single phase level 1 charging of EVs. The bidirectional converter is also used for running EV traction motor through main battery. This paper discusses operation of MSBC while charging through single phase supply, the voltage/current waveforms, and the switching sequences. The performance of the proposed model in the MATLAB/Simulink environment is presented for validation of proposed concepts.

Siddhant Gudhe, Sanjeev Singh
Indirect Current Vector Controlled Three-Level Inverter for Induction Motor Driven Electric Vehicle

This paper focus on the efficient and effective control of induction motor (IM) for electric vehicles (EVs). Two commonly used topologies of three-level inverters (3LIs) namely cascaded h-bridge (CHB) and neutral point clamped (NPC) are considered in this paper for comparison of performances. The indirect current vector control (ICVC) scheme is modified to operate the 3LIs feeding EV. These two 3LIs are operated with modified ICVC scheme and their performances are compared with two-level inverter (2LI) fed induction motor drive (IMD) controlled EV. The performance simulation results favor the use of 3LIs over 2LI. This performance simulation is carried out on R2017b version of MATLAB-SIMULINK software.

Paramjeet Singh Jamwal, Sanjeev Singh, Shailendra Jain
Comparative Analysis of Conventional and Sliding Mode Control Techniques for DC-DC Boost Converter for PV System Under Transient Conditions

The PV array has low conversion efficiency and requires the techniques to meet the specific load-demand from the source. One popular technique is the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT). This operation depends upon various atmospheric and working conditions, i.e., solar irradiance and temperature. This paper objects to regulate the output voltage of a boost converter for constant voltage load application which takes power from a solar panel. In order to regulate the output voltage of a boost converter a Proportional-Integral (PI) control technique for boost converter is designed and implemented. The PI controller is tuned with Zeigler-Nichols method for satisfactory results. As the PI control scheme is a linear control scheme and easy to implement, it is used widely in industrial applications, but is sluggish in nature and does not respond well to frequent changes due to system inertia. A robust nonlinear control based on Sliding Model Control (SMC) technique is also designed and implemented to cope up with the variations in the load and supply voltage. It is observed by detailed simulation studies that SMC adapts unpredictable changes in system parameters and maintains the system performance, so best suited for variable structure systems.

Pankaj Swarnkar, Suresh Kumar Gawre, Gagnesh Akodiya
Development of Fault Indicators for Stator Inter-turn Fault Diagnosis of a Synchronous Generator Using Kalman Filter

Synchronous generator is an important component of a power generating system and hence its reliability is paramount. The need for a reliable synchronous generator has led to the development of fault indicators that can help an operator/engineer to identify faults in presence of disturbing factors. A stator inter-turn fault is a seed fault for most of the electrical faults in a synchronous generator. In this work, a linear Kalman filter-based fault indicator is developed to identify the stator inter-turn fault. The same indicator can also uniquely indicate load imbalance (a major disturbing factor). A finite element simulation is used for proving the working of this indicator. This work also extends previous work on the modeling of a faulty synchronous generator to accommodate fault in all the phases.

P. V. Sunil Nag, C. Santhosh Kumar
Grid Integration of Wind Energy Conversion System Through Parallel Inverter Topology for Power Quality Enhancement

A wind energy conversion system (WECS) is presented in this paper, which integrates the distribution grid through the parallel inverter configuration. A wind turbine unit with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) followed by a bridge rectifier and DC-DC converter for the extraction of maximum power is used. The second inverter shares the common DC link, and mitigates the reactive power and harmonics demands of the local loads. One of the major advantages of this work is the elimination of mechanical wind speed sensors. Therefore, the scheme increases the reliability, and achieves active power injection, and reactive power compensation without causing overburden to the conventional single inverter.

M. E. Aswathi, C. M. Nirmal Mukundan, M. V. Manoj Kumar, P. Jayaprakash
Improvement in Quality of Power of Grid-Connected Wind Energy System Through STATCOM—A Review

Wind energy is the most economical renewable energy as it does not emit any greenhouse gases but the power quality of wind energy degrades a lot when it integrates into grid due to fluctuating nature of wind. The degradation in power quality occurs due to harmonics, flickers, voltage dip, swell and sag. So to avoid these power quality problems, a FACT device static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is connected along with a battery. Battery energy storage system (BESS) has the role to inject and absorb the active and reactive power so it adds extra support to the STATCOM. To activate the IGBT of STATCOM; switching signals are provided by Bang Bang control scheme, which is also known as hysteresis current controlled technique of STATCOM. When this hysteresis current controller gives a switching signal to STATCOM; it will inject a harmonic free current into the grid and reactive power compensation can be done easily.

Manisha Priyadarsani Nayak, Suresh Kumar Gawre, Shailendra Kumar
A Computational Intelligence-Based Novel Bearing Defect Detection Method

This paper proposes the development of a unique method for monitoring procedures for rolling element bearing. Mechanical signals can be classified as Gaussian and non-Gaussian noise. Both of these noises obstruct the detection of rolling bearing defects using customary techniques. Analysis of bispectrum helps to filter out the Gaussian noise. The main focus of the paper is the removal of the non-Gaussian noise signal and thereafter due to noise in the signal methods like empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is carried out. In this paper, it is observed that EMD undergoes the problem of mode mixing and is incapacitated of separating mode frequencies present in octave. So, we look for another method, i.e. ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (EEMD). This reduces the non-Gaussian noise effectively with the addition of white noise to the EMD several times. Also, it is noticed from simulation results that masking of EMD helps in separating modes of the signal. So, EEMD and masking EMD have been suggested in this work to determine bearing defect.

Arpana Singh, K. R. Satyajit, Papia Ray
Recent Advances in Power Electronics and Drives
herausgegeben von
Dr. Shailendra Kumar
Dr. Bhim Singh
Prof. Arun Kumar Singh
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN