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This book presents an analysis of the concept of the administrative act and its classification as ‘foreign’, and studies the administrative procedure for adopting administrative acts in a range of countries in and outside Europe. While focusing on the recognition and execution of foreign administrative acts, the book examines the validity, efficacy and enforceability of foreign administrative acts at national level. The book starts with a general analysis of the issue, offering general conclusions about the experiences in different countries. It then analyses the aforementioned themes from the perspective of the domestic law of different European nations and a number of international organisations (European Union, MERCOSUR, and Andean Community). In addition, the book studies the role of the European Union in the progress towards the recognition and execution of foreign administrative acts, where the principle of mutual recognition plays a vital part. Finally, the book analyses the international conventions on the recognition and execution of administrative acts and on the legalisation of public documents.



Chapter 1. Foreign Administrative Acts: General Report

Most countries recognise the notion of “administrative act” as an individual decision taken by a public authority to rule a specific case, submitted to public law and immediately enforceable and, in general, they also identified a foreign administrative act as the one issued by a foreign or international authority and submitted to foreign or international law. However, the existence of a international legal framework does not prevent the existence of broad differences on service, recognition and execution of these foreign administrative acts. It is necessary, to deepen the study of the transnational administrative act, paying special attention to how it affects the conception of the administrative act in different legal cultures and its potential impact on procedural rights and judicial guarantees of the recipients of such acts.

Jaime Rodríguez-Arana Muñoz, Marta García Pérez, Juan José Pernas García, Carlos Aymerich Cano

Chapter 2. The EU’s Role in the Progress Towards the Recognition and Execution of Foreign Administrative Acts: The Principle of Mutual Recognition and the Transnational Nature of Certain Administrative Acts

The EU has promoted the mutual recognition of national administrative acts and therefore helped provide extraterritorial effectiveness to the administrative decisions of the Member States. This phenomenon has been carried out in the EU through secondary legal norms, in areas where the EU has intense competence or powers. These community norms of secondary legislation are an expression of the principle of mutual recognition, which has been the axis around which the EU internal market has been built.

Juan José Pernas García

Chapter 3. The Incorporation of the Acts of the Andean Community of Nations into Internal Legal Systems

This work studies the effects of Andean communitarian law over the domestic administrative laws of the State members of the Andean Community of Nations. Specifically, it deals with the increase of sources of legality applicable to internal decisions. For this purpose, the work analyzes the reception of primary and secondary Andean communitarian law in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia; and the status in which that communitarian law is embodied in such countries.

Libardo Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Jorge Enrique Santos-Rodríguez

Chapter 4. Recognition of Foreign Administrative Acts in Australia

This chapter describes the recognition of foreign administrative acts in the Australian context. The models available to determine how administrative acts of one state can be given effect by other states are considered, including mutual recognition, harmonisation and uniformity of requirements. A key issue is whether the enforcement of another state’s administrative acts should require a prior recognition or authorisation. The chapter analyses the recognition and enforcement of specofoc administrative acts within the federation of Australia as well as Australia’s recognition and enforcement arrangements with different countries.

Justice John Griffiths

Chapter 5. Foreign Administrative Acts in Brazil

The present work deals with administrative acts as studied in Brazil, with particular attention to foreign administrative acts, a subject still little known in Brazilian doctrine and practice. An administrative act in the Brazilian legal system arises when the public administrator expresses a Public Administration declaration of intent. It is always linked to a public purpose. The administrative act is foreign when it has the same elements of a national administrative act and also represents the manifestation of the will of the body or agent who is part of a foreign state. Brazil has no regulations about foreign administrative acts, which creates many problems related to recognition and enforcement of foreign administrative acts. The country has not ratified the Apostille Convention, as will be discussed in this work.

Romeu Felipe Bacellar Bacellar Filho, Tatyana Scheila Friedrich

Chapter 6. Foreign Administrative Acts: The Case of Estonia

Problems concerning transnational administrative acts have not yet induced the rise of a subject-related legal-theoretical writings in Estonia. On the practical level, however, Estonia has taken several various steps regarding recognition of foreign administrative acts. This has been done both on the basis of international law as well as within the framework of the EU law. Mutual trust, the principle of reciprocity and respect for the rule-of-law make it possible to move forward towards further actions to be taken in order to develop closer cooperation in this important sphere.

Vallo Olle, Triinu Rauk

Chapter 7. La reconnaissance des actes administratifs étrangers au droit français

M. Timothée Paris

Chapter 8. The Recognition of Foreign Administrative Acts: A German Perspective

The chapter examines the legal basis for the recognition of foreign administrative acts in Germany. Starting with a description of the concept of administrative acts in Germany, it gives an insight into the term “Verwaltungsakt” (general German concept of administrative acts) and its different forms, the question of entry into force and binding effect of administrative acts in Germany, the notification and promulgation by service of administrative acts, the enforcement of administrative acts in Germany and the division between German and foreign administrative acts. In the second part, the chapter deals with question of “proof of authenticity”, “translation” and the “execution” of foreign administrative acts in Germany. Doing so, the author distinguish clearly between beneficial and onerous administrative acts. The third part is build up on the context of transborder activities of German administration. Finally, the conclusion sums up the quite complex system of administrative acts in Germany in a transborder context.

Ulrich Stelkens, Michael Mirschberger

Chapter 9. On the Recognition of Foreign Administrative Acts in Greece

A framework for the recognition and enforcement of foreign administrative acts does not yet exist in Greece. National legislation should be adopted, taking into consideration criteria and methods which emerged from the academic and practical development of the concept of the transnational administrative act in the European Union. In order to achieve the aims of the European Union, common recognition and enforcement criteria and procedures should be adopted at European level, in order to have unified solutions which would facilitate the process in question.

Alexandra E. Douga

Chapter 10. La reconnaissance des actes administratifs étrangers en Hongrie

István Balázs, Marianna Nagy, Krisztina Rozsnyai

Chapter 11. From the Recognition of Foreign Acts to Trans-national Administrative Procedures

This paper suggests that a public law analysis of the recognition of foreign administrative acts or decision can contribute to the discussion between specialists of different fields of law. We are now in a position to appreciate why this might be the case. The aim is to show that under the traditional label “recognition”, there are two distinct models, each based on distinct underlying assumptions and producing different institutional and operational consequences.

Giacinto della Cananea

Chapter 12. Notion and Recognition of Foreign Administrative Acts in Poland

The subject of enforcement of foreign administrative acts has not been undertaken in Poland. Only some elements have been identified when discussing the problems of global administrative law, international administrative acts or EU administrative law. As it has been repeatedly raised above Polish law has also many gaps in that materia. The increasing importance of application of the international and foreign administrative acts should lead to new solutions in public international law. The European Union has the greatest opportunities and resources for creation of that kind of provisions under condition of the respect of the different forms of administrative activities (e.g. regulatory acts, single-case decisions) and numerous branches of administrative law (e.g. environmental law, construction law or tax law).

Zbigniew Kmieciak, Przemysław Florjanowicz-Błachut, Robert Siuciński

Chapter 13. Recognition of Foreign Administrative Acts in Portugal

The subject of recognition and enforcement of foreign administrative acts is not new, but is undergoing renewal and has recently attracted great interest from part of the Portuguese doctrine, mostly under the dogmatic of transnational acts. However not always greater attention means better regulation. And this is a field were, unlike what should be expected (or desired), plurality and fragmentation are still the rule and the need for clarification of recognition procedures is crucial. Indeed, beyond the recognition demands resulting from international and European Union law and from specific legislative provisions, there is no general framework on recognition and enforcement of foreign administrative acts, nor in what regards their possible effects, neither in what concerns the requirements and procedures from which they can or should be drawn.

Dulce Lopes

Chapter 14. Searching for Foreign Administrative Acts in Spanish Law

Although in Spain there is no explicit reference in the legislation of administrative procedure to the validity, efficacy and enforceability of foreign administrative acts, the international and european framework provides for instruments to fix most of the problems raised by foreign administrative acts, their service and their efficacy.

Carlos Aymerich Cano

Chapter 15. The Recognition of Foreign Administrative Decisions in Sweden

This contribution describes some basic features of the procedure relating to the recognition of foreign administrative decisions under Swedish law. After some comments on the general legal and theoretical framework relating to administrative decisions in Swedish law, the article discusses the preconditions for service of documents, including international aspects. The subsequent section discusses matters of validity, efficacy, and enforcement in relation to foreign administrative decisions. Thereafter, special attention is given the impact of EU law and international conventions. In the subsequent section, the development of doctrinal treatment of matters relating to recognition of foreign administrative decisions is described. Some general comments conclude the article.

Henrik Wenander

Chapter 16. The Recognition of Foreign Administrative Acts in Switzerland

The article focuses on the Recognition of Foreign Administrative Acts according to Swiss law. The Federal Act on Administrative Procedure delineates the concept of administrative act. It does not specifically mention foreign administrative acts. Their treatment is not unified in Switzerland. Much more it depends on the area concerned and blocking statutes may apply. With view to the role of the issue in Switzerland, efforts are underway to reconsider the regulatory situation. Overall, the doctrinal treatment of the subject is not very elaborated.

Myriam Senn

Chapter 17. Les actes administratifs étrangers et le droit turc

Çağla Tansuğ

Chapter 18. Recognition of Foreign Administrative Acts in the United States

The legal rules governing recognition in the United States of foreign administrative acts vary sharply depending on whether the foreign administrative act in question is covered by a mutual recognition agreement (MRA), which seeks to eliminate duplicative assessments in international trade of conformity of goods and services with applicable product and service standards, or similar treaties. Such agreements and their implementing legislation and regulation give a clear legal basis for recognition to the extent that they cover foreign administrative acts though in fact many do not. Otherwise, recognition is based on the common law, which provides for recognition--chiefly enforcement of money judgments or collateral estoppel on common issues, but excluding fines and penalties--in order to avoid duplicative litigation in situations in which there has already been a full and fair opportunity to litigate all relevant issues in connection with the issuance of the foreign administrative act. The common law is subject to exceptions to protect crucial U.S. public policies, but the act of state doctrine extends the scope of administrative acts that may be granted recognition in the United States by eliminating the defense of public policy in certain cases.

John C. Reitz
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