Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
This article is part of the Topical collection on Privacy and Security of Medical Information
The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) revolution has brought considerable socio-economic benefits to humanity over the last 50 years. However, one of its side effects has been an increased threat to personal privacy owing to the widespread use of digital services that make utility of personal information, the extreme ease with which that information is captured, transmitted, analyzed and stored coupled with the incentives for a range of actors to misuse the information at their disposal or reach. This article presents a ministerial view that one should not have to trade-off between privacy and security, or be told to give-up privacy for safety. In part, this declaration is foundationally germane to Rwanda’s digital transformation, and our society’s approach to erecting Privacy protections, harnessing the deep value that Privacy had once held in Rwanda’s pre-colonial tradition, and has again, in her most recent history. In view of a rapid transformation that is presently turning the country into a digital hub for the Continent of Africa, Rwanda is charting a path forward to achieve a double purpose; on one hand the prospect of leveraging information technology for the benefits of her citizens, and on the other hand, securing and protecting the privacy of her citizens, as a key component of Rwanda’s societal identity. This article further presents that given the leadership that Rwanda has demonstrated in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Development in Africa, the nation’s course of action in relation to data and personal privacy protection will have a positive influence on the rest of the African continent that is now bracing to form a single digital market through the Continent-wide Smart Africa initiative.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Schwab K. The fourth industrial revolution. Geneva: World Economic Forum; 2015.
Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning. Vision 2020. Ministry of finance and economic planning, government of Rwanda, Kigali: Rwanda; 2017. http://www.minecofin.gov.rw/fileadmin/templates/documents/NDPR/Vision_2020_.pdf.
Government of Rwanda. Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda. Parliament of Rwanda, Government of Rwanda, Kigali:Rwanda; 2015. http://www.parliament.gov.rw/fileadmin/Bills_CD/THE_CONSTITUTION_OF_THE_REPUBLIC_OF_RWANDA_OF_2003_REVISED_IN_2015.pdf.
Ministry of Youth and ICT. Policies and regulations. ministry of youth and ICT, government of Rwanda, Kigali:Rwanda; 2017. http://www.myict.gov.rw/fileadmin/Documents/Policies/Rwanda_Open_Data_Policy-Draft.pdf.
Law N°24 GO. Relating to governing information & telecommuncations technology, laws and orders. Rwanda utilities regulation agency, government of Rwanda, Kigali:Rwanda; 2016. http://www.rura.rw/fileadmin/docs/Law_governing_Information_and_Communication_Technologies_Levy_on_petron__27_06_2016.pdf.
Law N° 13 GO. Relating to the code of criminal procedure, government of Rwanda, Kigali:Rwanda; 2004. http://www.refworld.org/docid/46c306492.html [Also, In Official Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda].
Habumuremyi PD. Rwanda: building a model nation state. Ouagadougou: Apidama; 2013.
Kagame A. Inganji Karinga [“Songs of the Drum”]. Kabgayi: Publisher Unidentied; 1943.
Corydon B, Ganesan V, Lundqvist M. Digital by default: a guide to transforming government. New York: McKinsey & Company; 2016.
Greenstein B. The Internet of Things: Intelligent, instrumented, interconnected and in real time. 2015. Retrieved from IBM Big Data and Analytics Hub: http://www.ibmbigdatahub.com/blog/internet-things-intelligent-instrumented-interconnected-and-real-time.
GSMA. The mobile economy. London: GSMA Intelligence; 2017.
Bauer H, Patel M, Veira J. The internet of things: sizing up the opportunity. New York: McKinsey & Company; 2017. http://www.mckinsey.com/industries/semiconductors/our-insights/the-internet-of-things-sizing-up-the-opportunity
Gallagher S. Yahoo admits it’s been hacked again, and 1 billion accounts were exposed; 2017. Retrieved from Ars Technica: https://arstechnica.com/security/2016/12/yahoo-reveals-1-billion-more-accounts-exposed-and-some-code-may-have-been-stolen/.
Zetter K. LifeLock CEO’s identity stolen 13 times. New York: Wired; 2017. https://www.wired.com/2010/05/lifelock-identity-theft/
PATCO vs People’s United Bank. Case No:11–2031 (United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit March 7 2012); 2012.
Preston A. The death of privacy. London: The Guardian; 2014. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/03/internet-death-privacy-google-facebook-alex-preston
Fisher CB, Doty MW. Decoding the ethics code: a practical guide for psychologists. Los Angeles: SAGE; 2012. [Although contextually different in subject, argumentation that “Ignorance is insufficient as defense” is adequately posed]
Kelley MB. Experts destroy Obama’s argument that Americans must sacrifice privacy for security. New York: Business Insider; 2013. http://www.businessinsider.com/us-must-sacrifice-privacy-for-security-2013-7
Hein B. Tim Cook warns of dire consequences if we sacrifice privacy for security. 2015. Retrieved from Cult of Mac: http://www.cultofmac.com/312272/tim-cook-warns-consequences-sacrificing-privacy-security/.
Galilei G. Dialogue on the two chief systems of the world [Dialogo sopra i Due Massimi Sistemi del Mondo]. Florence: Giovanni Battista Landini; 1632. Florence: Italy from https://galileo.ou.edu/exhibits/dialogue-two-chief-systems-world.
Swerdlow NM. Galileo’s discoveries after 400 Years,” American scientist, Vol. 99, No: 3, May–June 2011. American Scientist, Vol. 99, No: 3; 2011. https://www.americanscientist.org/bookshelf/pub/galileos-discoveries-after-400-years.
Redmond A, Crisafulli P. Rwanda, Inc.: how a devastated nation became an economic model for the developing world. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 2012.
Quiang CZ-W, Rossotto CM. Economic Impacts of ICT. In: T. W. Bank, Information and Communications for Development (p. 157). The World Bank:Washington D.C.; 2009.
MYICT. ICT Sector Profile 2015. Ministry of Youth and ICT, Government of Rwanda, Kigali: Rwanda; 2015.
Mugisha I. Two men arrested for allegedly defrauding Rwf495m from Tigo. New York: The New Times; 2014. http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2014-11-20/183244/
Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Agency. Regulations on SIM Card registration . Government of Rwanda, Kigali:Rwanda; 2017. http://www.rura.rw/fileadmin/docs/Board_Decisions/FINAL_SIM_CARD_REGISTRATION_REGULATIONS_03.pdf.
Donohue B. Weak Encryption Enables SIM Card Root Attack. The Kaspersky Lab Security News Service, Woburn: ThreatPost; 2013. https://threatpost.com/weak-encryption-enables-sim-card-root-attack/101557/
Jennings R. Another BYOD worry: hacking via sim-card vulnerability. New Jersey: FORBES; 2013. https://www.forbes.com/sites/netapp/2013/07/22/byod-phone-hacking-sim-card/#20ac28ea503e
MYICT. Smart Rwanda Master Plan 2020. Ministry of Youth and ICT, Government of Rwanda, Kigali: Rwanda; 2015.
World Bank. Rankings. Retrieved from doing business: measuring business regulations [IBRD/IDA]:Washington, D.C.; 2016. http://www.doingbusiness.org/rankings.
World Economic Forum. The global information technology report 2016. Geneva: World Economic Forum; 2016.
Commission, European. Regulation “on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data” etc., European Commission. 2016 . Retrieved from Official Journal of the European Union: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-protection/reform/files/regulation_oj_en.pdf.
Manyika J, Lund S, Bughun J, Woetzel J, Kalin S, Dhingra D. Digital globalization: the new era of global flows. New York: McKinsey Global Institute; 2016.
Law N° 44 GO. Relating to the governing of telecommunications, laws and orders. Rwanda utilities regulatory authority, government of Rwanda, Kigali:Rwanda; 2001. http://www.rura.rw/fileadmin/laws/TelecomLaw.pdf.
Smart Africa Secretariat. The smart Africa manifesto. Kigali:Rwanda; 2016. http://www.smartafrica.org/IMG/pdf/smart_africa_manifesto_2013_-_english_version.pdf.
AU. Assembly of the Union — Twenty-Second Ordinary Session 30–31 January 2014 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2014. Transform Africa: www.smartafrica.org/IMG/pdf/9659-assembly_au_dec_490-516_xxii_e.pdf.
Graylish G. Africa’s chance to lead the next digital revolution. New York: The New Times; 2016. http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2016-06-18/200910/
UNDESA. Innovation for Sustanable Development. New York: United Nations Publications; 2008.
United Nations. Universal declaration of human rights. New York: United Nations; 1948. http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/
UN Office of the High Commissioner-Human Rights. UN General Assembly (GA) Resolution 2200A (XXI). “International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights”. Geneva: OHCHR; 1966. www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx
Reid-Cunningham AR. Rape as a weapon of genocide. Genocide studies and prevention: Vol.3, No: 3, University of Toronto Press; 2008. http://www.utpjournals.press/doi/abs/10.3138/gsp.3.3.279.
DesForges A. Leave None to tell the story. New York: Human Right Watch; 1999.
United Nations Development Program. Human development report 2015. New York: United Nations Development Program; 2015.
Worley H. Rwanda’s success in improving maternal health. Washington D.C.: Population Reference Bureau; 2016. http://www.prb.org/Publications/Articles/2015/rwanda-maternal-health.aspx
- Reflections upon periclitations in privacy: perspectives from Rwanda’s digital transformation
Jean Philbert Nsengimana
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA, Product Lifecycle Management/© Eisenhans | vege | Fotolia