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Über dieses Buch

This book presents peer-reviewed texts from the International Peace Research Association’s Ecology and Peace Commission: M.I. Abazie-Humphrey (Nigeria) reviews “Nigeria’s Home-Grown DDR Programme”; C. Christian and H. Speight (USA) analyse “Water, Cooperation, and Peace in the Palestinian West Bank”; T. Galaviz (Mexico) discusses “The Peace Process Mediation Network between the Colombian Government and the April 19th Movement”; S.E. Serrano Oswald (Mexico) examines “Social Resilience and Intangible Cultural Heritage: Case Study in Mexico”; A. F. Rashid (Pakistan) and F. Feng (China) focus on “Community Perceptions of Ecological Disturbances Caused During Terrorists Invasion and Counter-insurgency Operations in Swat, Pakistan”; M. Yoshii (Japan) examines “Structure of Discrimination in Japan’s Nuclear Export” and finally, S. Takemine (Japan) discusses “‘Global Hibakusha’ and the Invisible Victims of US Nuclear Testing in the Marshall Islands”.



Chapter 1. Introduction: Regional Ecological Challenges for Peace in Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and Asia Pacific

The processes of globalization and global environmental change have created increasing socioeconomic imbalances among continents, nations and social classes within the countries. Twenty-five years ago, with the end of the Cold War, the bipolar division of the world has been overcome and in several parts of the world regional cooperation among developing countries has intensified. Multiple mechanisms are still subordinating developing countries (hinterlands) and social groups to the hegemonic necessities of corporate capitalism, and its dominant countries.
Úrsula Oswald Spring, Hans Günter Brauch, Serena Eréndira Serrano Oswald, Juliet Bennett

Chapter 2. Water, Cooperation, and Peace in the Palestinian West Bank

This chapter tests the conflict transformation potential of environmental peacebuilding, exploring the possibility for engagement between conflicting parties over shared natural resources in building trust and fostering cooperation in other areas, positively influencing wider conflict dynamics. Nested conflict theory (NCT) serves as a conflictual roadmap for judging transformative potential as it conceptualizes a single conflict at four discrete yet interacting levels: issues-specific, relational, structural, and cultural. A critical examination of a joint Israeli-Palestinian greywater reuse system is employed as a case study to run the model. Our examination finds the environmental peacebuilding case study fails to show progress at the structural level. The initiative’s efforts are stuck within a “peacebuilding purgatory.” The authors believe this indicates a need for environmental peacebuilding initiatives to consciously develop mechanisms that can leverage gains at the issue-specific and relational levels into counter-normative institutions and behaviours.
Charles Christian, Heather Speight

Chapter 3. The Peace Process Mediation Network Between the Colombian Government and the April 19th Movement

This chapter explores the role of mediation networks in the peace process. It considers the case of negotiations between the Colombian government and the April 19th Movement (also referred to as M-19), and the effectiveness of mediation networks in creating a successful environment to demobilize the movement. Systems Theory is used to study the peace processes, along with conceptual models for analysing mediated conflict management by John Paul Lederach and Thania Paffenholz. Mediations are considered as dynamic elements that help and support efforts to consolidate peace in societies incurring conflict. This perspective allows the chapter to transform the traditional concept of mediators to one of mediations, which is more dynamic and inclusive. This concept provides a basis for exploring the presence of citizen movements during M-19, and the absence of traditional high-level mediation during this particular peace process.
Tania Galaviz

Chapter 4. Social Resilience and Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Mutually Fertilizing Potential Seen in a Case Study in Mexico

This chapter looks at the relationship between social resilience and Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) in a local setting, positing that each nurtures the other and that they constitute important pillars for sustainable, long-term, and context-coherent peace. Specifically, the chapter seeks to explore the way in which cultural heritage renews itself through the centrality of social resilience, which is conceptualized systemically as a process and explored in a case study of the Mojiganga festival in the state of Morelos in Mexico. A significant ICH practice becomes a social resilience pillar of the social system, as it enables the system to reconfigure its internal coherence and sense of identity (to be), mediate change (to continue), and develop (to grow) with endless potential. At the same time, however, this process of social resilience provides feedback and reconfigures ICH.
Serena Eréndira Serrano Oswald

Chapter 5. Community Perceptions of Ecological Disturbances Caused During Terrorists Invasion and Counter-Insurgency Operations in Swat, Pakistan

This chapter presents primary research that investigates the ecological impact of the counter-insurgency operation in Swat, Pakistan, and the perception among local community of its lasting effects. People in Pakistan have been witnessing violence directed against defenceless civilians in the name of religion. In particular, the Swat district in the north-western part of the country has faced unprecedented terrorism, with militant extremists asserting their dogmatic beliefs stubbornly and with excessive force. The unrest in Swat has not only cost hundreds of innocent lives but also brought destructive consequences for the ecology and environment of the region upon which the local economy was based. Ecological integrity of Swat region was further violated when government launched a military operation in 2009 to counter insurgency and terrorism, which eventually eliminated militants and restored the writ of government. Lasting effects including localized poverty, demographic changes, travel insecurity, damage to schools, health concerns, loss to the landscape and amenity values are comprehensively analysed. In-depth interviews and surveys using structured questionnaires were conducted to gather data. Perceiving their vulnerability in the hands of extremists or ineffective government, respondents displayed a decreased sense of belonging and an increased desire to migrate. The results depicted the possibility of a short-term gain in peace, provided that the local people endorse the options suggested to improve human security in Swat. Imposing alien solutions without considering ecological and geographical norms would prove detrimental to peace efforts. Incongruity between counter-insurgency actions and community’s ideology predicted greater failure in peace efforts based on past experiences.
Fakhra Rashid, Feng Feng, Audil Rashid

Chapter 6. Structure of Discrimination in Japan’s Nuclear Export—A Case of Ninh Thuan Power Plant in Vietnam

Japan is preparing to export nuclear power plants to Vietnam from 2015 onwards, based on a deal between the Japanese and Vietnamese governments in 2010 that has remained unchanged even after the disaster in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011. This paper highlights the Vietnamese perspective on this project, evidence of discrimination involved in the export of nuclear power plants and the role of researchers studying this issue. This research is based on documentation on Vietnamese homepages and fieldwork undertaken in Vietnam. This study concludes that most Vietnamese have limited access to information on nuclear power plant projects and cannot evaluate such projects. In 2012, some intellectuals promoted the anti-nuclear movement with petitions to the Japanese Prime Minister. Through these exports, Japan has exported a discrimination between big cities and rural areas, between large companies and workers, and between present and future generations. For Vietnam, another structure of discrimination exists against the Cham people, an ethnic minority group in the Ninh Thuan Province. This paper reviews the discriminative structures resulting from the export of nuclear power plants, and places it in the historical context of structures of discrimination between the United States, Japan and Vietnam. The paper discusses the role of Japanese researchers in Vietnamese studies and emphasizes their important role in informing the Vietnamese and Japanese civil societies.
Michiko Yoshii

Chapter 7. ‘Global Hibakusha’ and the Invisible Victims of the U.S. Nuclear Testing in the Marshall Islands

Hibakusha is a Japanese term that refers to people who have been exposed to nuclear radiation. This chapter explores what a ‘Global Hibakusha’ might involve, through the example of invisible victims of United States’ testing of nuclear weapons conducted in the Pacific mid-last century. The chapter suggests that the native people’s exposure to radiation was fully predictable prior to the ‘Castle Bravo’ test, thus the effects cannot be considered ‘accidental’. The predictability of these effects are arguably the motivation behind the United States conducting the tests in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) rather than near to their homeland. The lingering effects of U.S. nuclear damages in the RMI drawing attention to the long-term effects of nuclear radiation that are often overlooked and which have important implications for ecology and peace. This chapter closes with a call for a new research field of ‘Global Hibakusha’ within the larger field of peace studies.
Seiichiro Takemine

Chapter 8. The Nigerian Home-Grown DDR Programme—Its Impacts on Empowering the Niger Delta Ex-Militants

On 25 June 2010 the Federal Government of Nigeria Niger Delta Amnesty Programme under the Office of the Special Adviser to the President on Niger Delta (OSAPND) was set up. The aim was to implement the Presidential Amnesty Programme (PAP) with a mandate to initiate, plan and implement the Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) programme. The DDR called for 30,000 ex-agitators (822 female) to handed in their weapons, sign up for the PAP, and in exchange they would receive a monthly stipend of N65,000 (US$400) and undergo vocational and academic training in Nigeria and abroad. Livelihood strengthening through training became an essential part of OSAPND’s strategy for economic empowerment, for job creation by supporting academic, vocational and entrepreneurial training, and for engaging in business set-ups. This chapter discusses the impact of the DDR programme on the economy and on peace in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, focusing on how vocational or academic training has improved individual performance and had a positive influence on economic development. Four key questions for assessing this programme are: How did it differ from donor and UN piloted DDR programmes? What did it add? Did it increase the global capacity for a national DDR programme? Has the increase in economic development in the Niger Delta become a transformative mechanism to respond to the long-term structural and historical social exclusion that triggered the conflict?
Margaret Ifeoma Abazie-Humphrey

Chapter 9. Reflections on Moving Toward Ecological Civilization and Positive Peace

This concluding chapter points to the alignment of positive peace with emerging ideas about ‘ecological civilization’, both which entail the aim of bringing about a more socially just and ecologically harmonious global society. It surveys initiatives that are working to bring about change on structural, cultural and direct levels, corresponding with Galtung’s (1996) notions of structural peace, cultural peace and direct peace. Under these headings, Bennett presents a small selection of initiatives that she personally finds hope for humanity. For example, she considers the research and action being done in the interdisciplinary fields of process philosophy and ecofeminism, to bring about deep cultural change toward a more peaceful and ecological civilization. On a structural level, the author considers changes in technology, business, laws and economic systems. She links these changes to direct changes that individuals can make within their realms of influence to encourage the broader structural and cultural change, for example, choosing to invest in renewal technologies and divest from fossil fuels, and building the political will to support governments to do the same. Within this framework one can consider how issues discussed in the other chapters of the two volumes fit into the matrix of structural, cultural and direct violence, and what kind of changes and actions at each of these levels can help contribute to positive peace. Overall this essay will leave readers with a sense of hope, that humanity can together work to change their habits and structural constrains and move toward a more peaceful and ecological civilization.
Juliet Bennett


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