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2019 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

4. Regulation of Genome Editing in Plant Biotechnology: Canada

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Abstract

Gene editing technologies are the latest to emerge from the broader field of agricultural biotechnology. Canada’s science-based regulatory system was adapted for genetically modified (GM) crops in the early 1990s and has proven sufficiently robust in responding to these new plant breeding techniques, having approved two varieties of gene edited canola. Canada does not have a mandatory labelling system and the products from these crops will have seamlessly entered the food supply system in Canada.
A 2017 industry organized workshop on the future of plant breeding regulations in Canada, acknowledged the excellence of Canada’s regulatory system for GM crops. However, it was noted that Canada cannot afford to be complacent when it comes to regulatory competitiveness as multinational technology development firms are making investment decisions based on regulatory efficiency. To ensure that Canada’s regulatory framework remains efficient, a two-tiered regulatory system has been suggested as a means of leveraging the 25 years of experience and knowledge gained through the safe regulation of GM crops. To date, no regulatory changes to move in this direction have been implemented by Canadian regulatory agencies.
Fußnoten
1
Canola Council of Canada (n.d.).
 
2
Soy Canada (2016).
 
3
Gusta et al. (2011), p. 11.
 
4
Smyth et al. (2011a), p. 407.
 
5
Smyth et al. (2011b), p. 499.
 
6
Smyth et al. (2011a), p. 407.
 
7
CFIA (2004).
 
8
Harrison (2001).
 
9
Smyth et al. (2004), pp. 70–73.
 
10
CFIA (2004).
 
11
Health Canada (2006).
 
12
ASSAf (2017).
 
13
CropLife (2017), p. 2.
 
14
Smyth et al. (2014), p. 1.
 
15
Little (2015).
 
16
AAFC (2012).
 
17
AAFC (2017).
 
18
Ryan and Smyth (2012), p. 21.
 
19
Government of Canada (2004).
 
20
CFIA (2016).
 
21
Hui (2016).
 
22
CFIA (2017).
 
23
Smyth and Phillips (2001), p. 51.
 
24
Hoffman v Monsanto (2005).
 
25
Khoury and Smyth (2007), p. 222.
 
26
Smyth (2005), pp. 53–68.
 
27
Panella et al. (2015).
 
28
Macdonald (2014), p. 63.
 
29
Qaim (2016), p. 27.
 
Literatur
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Zurück zum Zitat Smyth SJ (2005) A decade of regulating agricultural biotechnology liability in Canada: a case study from 1994–2004. Dissertation, University of Saskatchewan Smyth SJ (2005) A decade of regulating agricultural biotechnology liability in Canada: a case study from 1994–2004. Dissertation, University of Saskatchewan
Zurück zum Zitat Smyth SJ (2014) The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada. GM Crops Food 5(3):195–203 CrossRef Smyth SJ (2014) The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada. GM Crops Food 5(3):195–203 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Smyth SJ, Phillips PWB (2001) Competitors co-operating: establishing a supply chain to manage genetically modified canola. Int Food Agribusiness Manag Rev 4(1):51–66 CrossRef Smyth SJ, Phillips PWB (2001) Competitors co-operating: establishing a supply chain to manage genetically modified canola. Int Food Agribusiness Manag Rev 4(1):51–66 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Smyth SJ, Phillips PWB, Kerr WA, Khachatourians GG (2004) Regulating the liabilities of agricultural biotechnology. CABI Publishing, Wallingford CrossRef Smyth SJ, Phillips PWB, Kerr WA, Khachatourians GG (2004) Regulating the liabilities of agricultural biotechnology. CABI Publishing, Wallingford CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Smyth SJ, Gusta M, Belcher K, Phillips PWB, Castle D (2011a) Environmental impacts from herbicide tolerant canola production in Western Canada. Agric Syst 104(5):403–410 CrossRef Smyth SJ, Gusta M, Belcher K, Phillips PWB, Castle D (2011a) Environmental impacts from herbicide tolerant canola production in Western Canada. Agric Syst 104(5):403–410 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Smyth SJ, Gusta M, Belcher K, Phillips PWB, Castle D (2011b) Changes in herbicide use following the adoption of HR canola in Western Canada. Weed Technol 25(3):492–500 CrossRef Smyth SJ, Gusta M, Belcher K, Phillips PWB, Castle D (2011b) Changes in herbicide use following the adoption of HR canola in Western Canada. Weed Technol 25(3):492–500 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Smyth SJ, McDonald J, Falck-Zepeda J (2014) Investment, regulation and uncertainty: managing new plant breeding techniques. GM Crops Food 5(1):1–14 CrossRef Smyth SJ, McDonald J, Falck-Zepeda J (2014) Investment, regulation and uncertainty: managing new plant breeding techniques. GM Crops Food 5(1):1–14 CrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
Regulation of Genome Editing in Plant Biotechnology: Canada
verfasst von
Stuart J. Smyth
Copyright-Jahr
2019
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-17119-3_4

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