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Tropical cyclones (TCs) are one of the most devastating weather phenomena that cause large number of human casualties and loss of property. It is well known that the TCs over North Indian Ocean (NIO) have caused the maximum loss of human lives. The death toll in Bangladesh cyclone of November 1970 has been estimated to be about 300,000. The tropical depression (Maximum Sustained Surface Wind Speed (MSSWS) 17–33 knots or more) and TCs MSSWS 34 knots or more form over warm ocean surfaces, with SST more than 26.0 °C, low magnitudes of vertical wind shear and large magnitudes of low-level relative vorticity, coriolis force and mid-tropospheric level relative humidity (Gray, Mon Weather Rev 96:669–700, 1968). Gray (Hurricanes: their formation, structure and likely role in the tropical circulation. In: Shaw DB (ed) Meteorology over the tropical oceans. Royal Meteorological Society, James Glaisher House, Gvenville Place, Bracknell, Berkshire, RG 121 BX, pp 155–218, 1979), using 20 years of data has shown that the global tropics produce about 80 TCs in a year out of which only 6 form over NIO. Most of the TCs form over NIO during October–December (primary peak season) and March–May (secondary peak season). The period of May-November is the peak season for tropical depressions (TDs) over the NorthWest Pacific Ocean (NWPO).
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- Relation of Frequency of Tropical Cyclones Over North Indian Ocean and North West Pacific Ocean with Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly Over Nino 3.4 Region and Indian Ocean Dipole