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Über dieses Buch

This book addresses reliability, maintenance, risk, and safety issues of industrial systems with applications of the latest decision-making techniques. Thus, this book presents chapters that apply advanced tools, techniques, and computing models for optimizing the performance of industrial and manufacturing systems, along with other complex engineering equipment. Computing techniques like data analytics, failure mode and effects analysis, fuzzy set theory, petri-net, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM), and soft computing are used for solving problems of reliability, risk, and safety related issues.



Chapter 1. Behavior Analysis of Polytube Industry Using Fuzzy Set Theory and Particle Swarm Optimization

This chapter deals with the structured framework to examine the complex industrial system. Availability of Polytube industry has been analyzed and optimized by particle swarm optimization. Here, fuzzy set theory has been used to tackle the uncertainties in the data. To analyze the complex industrial system, a set of fuzzy differential equations has been formulated and solved with the help of Runge-Kutta fourth-order method. Obtained solution has been optimized by particle swarm optimization. For different times, fuzzy availability of the system has been evaluated in this chapter.
Neha Singhal, S. P. Sharma

Chapter 2. RAM Analysis of Industrial System of a Chemical Industry

The aim of this chapter is to study the failure behavior of a real operating system in a urea fertilizer industry located in the northern part of India. For the considered real operating system, series-parallel arrangement has been represented using Petri Net (PN) modeling. Fuzzy Lambda–Tau (λ–τ) approach was executed for tabulating Reliability, Availability, Maintainability (RAM) parameters under uncertain environment. The trend of computed RAM parameters was studied and analyzed for evaluating the failure behavior of the considered real operating system. The analysis results clearly show a decreasing trend for system’s availability, that is, with the increase in spread from ±15% to ± 25% availability decreases by 0.03259% and with ± 25% to ±60% availability further decreases by 0.37472%. Further findings of the work would be highly useful for the reliability engineer of the plant in framing an optimal time interval-based maintenance policy for the considered real operating system in order to maintain system’s availability in upstage over long duration.
Nand Gopal, Dilbagh Panchal, Mohit Tyagi

Chapter 3. Signature Reliability of Consecutive k-out-of-n: F System using Universal Generating Function

This chapter deals with a consecutive sliding window system consisting of generalized form of linear multistate sliding window system having m consecutive, independent, and identically distributed components. Every component has two states: complete functioning and total failure. The system will not work if functioning rate is less than the allowable weight w. In the present study, we have calculated system signature, cost, mean time to failure, sensitivity, and Barlow-Proschan index using reliability function and an algorithm to calculate the reliability on the bases of universal generating function and Owen’s method. An illustrative example is also given at the end of the chapter.
Akshay Kumar, S. B. Singh

Chapter 4. Integrating Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability Issues for Analyzing Failures in Fuel Injection Pump

The main aim of this chapter is to enable system reliability analysts to provide a correct and timely diagnosis of reliability, availability, and maintenance requirements of their systems. Embarking upon the fundamental strength of failure analysis methods such as failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), root cause analysis (RCA), and reliability block diagrams (RBD), the chapter provides Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) analysis of pump failures. The pump system has been decomposed into a number of subsystems based on the components/parts. Failure and repair statistics of subsystems components have been used to model the reliability and maintainability of whole system. For ascertaining the maintenance priorities, FMEA has been used to spot out various possible failure modes, find out their effect on the operation of the pump, and to discover actions to alleviate the failures. The results of RAM analysis not only helps to identify the reliability and availability issues which may limit the production throughput but also helps to propose improvement in the design or selection of effective maintenance strategies.
Rajiv Kumar Sharma

Chapter 5. Multi-State Reconfigurable Manufacturing System Configuration Design with Availability Consideration

The capability of a reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS) configuration depends upon its availability to meet demands. This chapter presented a multi-objective and multi-state reconfigurable manufacturing systems model for optimal configuration selection. Two objectives were considered, namely, total cost and availability for optimal configuration selection. The availability of RMS was estimated using the modified universal generating function (UGF). An integrated objective function is formulated in this chapter considering total cost and availability of system. The decision makers considered various scenarios for configuration selection, such as no weight, 50–50% weight and 40–60% weight for total cost objective and availability objective. According to weights, Option-1 was found optimal for scenario with no weight and 50–50% weight for total cost objective and availability objective. Option-2 was found optimal for scenario with 44–60% weight for total cost objective and availability objective.
Lokesh Kumar Saxena, Pramod Kumar Jain

Chapter 6. Reliability and Availability Analysis of a Standby System of PCB Manufacturing Unit

This chapter aims to produce the results for reliability and availability for a two identical unit cold standby PCB manufacturing system consisting of three subsystems: Stencil Printer (PT), Pick and Place (P&P), Reflow Oven (RO). It is considered that the operative unit may fail due to different kinds of faults in its subsystems, and when it fails the standby unit is switched in so that system remains operative or in production mode. State transition diagram has been constructed and various recursive relations have been written. The availability and reliability analysis of the unit is carried out using the SMP (Semi-Markov Process) and RT (Regenerative Techniques), taking into account the failure and the repair rates of its subsystems. Various conclusions regarding the reliability and availability have been evaluated numerically and interpreted graphically in steady state.
Shefali Batra, Reetu Malhotra

Chapter 7. Risk Mitigation of SGU in Sugar Plant Using Fuzzy Digraph and Matrix Approach

The objective of this chapter is to apply risk management framework for risk identification and analysis of steam generating unit (SGU) in sugar plant. Only internal operational risks were considered for analysis. The expert discussion and fish bone diagram were used for identification and presentation of operational risk, and in the second phase risk analysis was done for the failure causes identified. The conventional failure and mode and effect analysis (FMEA) was used for risk analysis. The uncertainties arising from biased and faulty judgements were removed by integrating fuzzy methodology in the analysis process. Fuzzy multi-attribute decision-making method (MADM)-based risk analysis was carried out to eliminate discrepancies. The fuzzy digraph and matrix approach (FDMA) was used to evaluate the risk factors and its interdependencies. The results of the analysis were compared for getting insights into the process of analysis by conventional and fuzzy-based approach. A mitigation plan was also prepared for the assistance of concerned persons. The output was shared with the concerned authorities for managerial action and implementation. The results showed a different point of view and understanding on risk priorities.
Priyank Srivastava, Melfi Alrasheedi, M. Affan Badar, Ruchika Gupta

Chapter 8. An Integrated Fuzzy MCDM-Based FMEA Approach for Risk Prioritization of Casting Defects in Electro-Pneumatic Brake Units of EMU, MEMU, and DMU Coaches

In railways, electric multiple unit (EMU), mainline electric multiple unit (MEMU), and diesel multiple unit (DMU) coaches are extensively used in the transportation of passengers for short distances. These coaches require frequent stopping and starting, and thus a reliable and robust braking system is essential. The electro-pneumatic (EP) brake systems are installed in these coaches. The brake unit of this EP brake system is fitted under every coach, and upon receiving the signal from the brake controller from motorman’s cabin, this unit plays a major role for the application of brake. Most of the subassemblies of this brake unit is casted by sand-casting process. However, the success rate of the sand-casting process of these subassemblies is around 10–25%, which not only incurs a huge financial burden to the organization, but also responsible for delayed delivery of the brake units. In this work, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is performed to identify the most critical casting defect, their causes, and possible solutions to eliminate the defects. The traditional FMEA approach has been criticized due to its multiple drawbacks. Thus, to overcome those drawbacks, this study proposes an integrated fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making approach (fuzzy MCDM) for the risk ranking of the casting defects. Buckley’s fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP) is used for calculating the fuzzy relative importance of the risk factors. Then fuzzy technique for order of preferences by similarity to ideal solution (fuzzy TOPSIS) is used for risk ranking of the casting defects. The reason for incorporating the fuzzy numbers is that the experts linguistically evaluated the risk factors and the failure modes. Fuzzy number is considered as a potential approach to overcome the inherent vagueness and uncertainty associated with the linguistic judgments. Finally, the obtained risk ranking result is validated by performing a sensitivity analysis.
Soumava Boral, Prasenjit Chatterjee, Dragan Pamucar, Morteza Yazdani

Chapter 9. Dimensions Modelling for Reliable Indian Food Supply Chains

Due to surging population, increasing demand of food items has pushed food supply chains (FSC) to be more effective and efficient to ensure speedy product deliveries. Food items are highly affected by perishability, in which food quality deteriorates by itself with passage of time. Moreover, infrastructure issues are confronted by the Indian FSC, which poses many risks in the chain dynamics and hampers the reliability of chain operations. FSC operations are directly linked with the aspect of food safety and security, hence reliable and robust chain operations need to prioritized. There are various dimensions, which portray the characteristics of the reliable chain functioning which are identified from the core of research literature and developed a framework showcasing them in the form of relational hierarchical model. For the assessment of the developed model, multi-criteria decision-making technique (MCDM) involving the hybrid combination of analytical hierarchical process (AHP) and TODIM are used to outrank the alternatives showcasing the dimension of a reliable FSC. This chapter finds its implication to make FSC network and its operations more reliable and robust to fulfil the consumer demand and serve societal needs.
Janpriy Sharma, Mohit Tyagi, Dilbagh Panchal, Arvind Bhardwaj

Chapter 10. RAM Analysis for Improving Productivity in Process Industries: A Review

With the growing technology and complexity of engineering systems, the importance of reliability and maintainability has increased in multifarious ways. This is very important in the process industries that are characterized by the advanced and extortionate equipment along with the rigorous environmental constraints. In order to achieve the high system availability and to utilize maximum plant capacity, it is important that its various units should work effectively and efficiently for a longer period of time, and hence it becomes important to give proper care to all the operating equipment. Different approaches like genetic algorithm, fault tree analysis, failure mode and effect analysis, Petri nets, supplementary variable technique, fuzzy Lambda-Tau technique, reliability, availability, maintainability and dependability analysis, degradation modeling techniques etc. are concerned with the performance evaluation of various operating systems in process industries. In the present chapter, the review is done to analyze these approaches in different process industries like sugar, paper, dairy, thermal, chemical, food, etc.
Norma, Dinesh Khanduja, Dilbagh Panchal


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