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Über dieses Buch

This book explains reliability techniques with examples from electronics design for the benefit of engineers. It presents the application of de-rating, FMEA, overstress analyses and reliability improvement tests for designing reliable electronic equipment. Adequate information is provided for designing computerized reliability database system to support the application of the techniques by designers. Pedantic terms and the associated mathematics of reliability engineering discipline are excluded for the benefit of comprehensiveness and practical applications. This book offers excellent support for electrical and electronics engineering students and professionals, bridging academic curriculum with industrial expectations.



Chapter 1. Overview of Reliability Design

The design phase of electronic equipment has two distinct processes, namely design and development. Circuit design and selection of components are the engineering activities in the design process. The reliability techniques, de-rating, reliable application of components, and FMEA are integrated with the activities of design process. Testing of proto-models is the prime activity in the development process. Proto-models are subjected to overstress analyses, internal electrical, and environmental testing superimposed with reliability improvement tests, and qualification testing. Brief explanation for the reliability techniques and methods of integrating the techniques with the design and development of an electronic item are presented.
Dhanasekharan Natarajan

Chapter 2. Generic Stress Factors and De-rating

The data sheets of components specify maximum ratings and electrical characteristics. The parameters of maximum ratings are the reliability-related stress factors of electronic components. The generic stress factors, ambient temperature, surface temperature, and junction temperature that are common to most components are explained with examples. The basics of de-rating, applying de-rating for stress factors, and thermal resistance are also explained.
Dhanasekharan Natarajan

Chapter 3. Selection and Application of Components

High level of standardization in electronic components simplifies the process of selecting reliable components. The reliability needs of components could be summarized as applying de-rating to stress factors and ensuring proper application. The stress factors of ICs, semiconductor devices, and passive components are listed. Guidelines for deciding the quantum of de-rating for the stress factors are provided. Application information for the components is also presented and they are based on the application notes of manufacturers, literature, and root cause analysis on component failures.
Dhanasekharan Natarajan

Chapter 4. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, popularly known as FMEA, is a technique that compels designers to think on the possible failures of equipment and their consequences for achieving total reliability. All engineers without exception do apply FMEA in the design of electronic equipment to prevent obvious design errors, and examples are provided for the application. However, the detection of latent design errors requires applying FMEA systematically. The terms, the benefits, and the application of FMEA are explained with examples from electronic designs for the benefit of circuit designers. FMEA improves the competence of designers and enhances the reliability and maintainability (R&M) of equipment. The documentation of FMEA becomes an asset to organizations.
Dhanasekharan Natarajan

Chapter 5. Overstress Analysis

Overstress is defined as exceeding the maximum ratings of components in electronic circuits. Although it is common practice to apply de-rating to components during design, electrical, and thermal overstress analyses are always performed to measure and confirm that components are operating within their maximum ratings. Vibration resonance overstress analysis is also conducted to identify fatigue-related mechanical design defects. Low-cost methods of conducting overstress analyses are presented in tutorial form.
Dhanasekharan Natarajan

Chapter 6. Reliability Evaluation of Equipment

The proto-models of electronic equipment are subjected to electrical and environmental tests as per the contractual specification of the equipment. The tests are not adequate for providing high level of confidence in the reliability of equipment. An integrated test program is designed for evaluating electrical and environmental performance and the reliability of equipment. Reliability improvement tests are superimposed with the electrical and environmental tests to the extent feasible in the integrated test program. Subjecting proto-models to the integrated test program is defined as the reliability evaluation of equipment. Performance trend analysis, random vibration, thermal shock, and accelerated burn-in are the reliability improvement tests that are explained with examples. The pre-requisites that should be satisfied for ensuring the effectiveness of reliability evaluation program are listed.
Dhanasekharan Natarajan

Chapter 7. Failure Data Management

In spite of applying reliability techniques during the design and development of equipment, failure data could still arise in the life cycle of electronic equipment. The failures are categorized as electrical performance, component and mechanical failures. Organizing a failure data management system (FDMS) to handle the failure data is presented. Practical considerations for the root cause analysis of component failures and classifying the origin of the causes as design error, manufacturing process induced failure and defective component are explained.
Dhanasekharan Natarajan

Chapter 8. Reliability Database System for Design

Reliability database system (RDBS) provides assistance for integrating reliability and maintainability requirements concurrently with the design and development activities of electronic equipment. Designing the database system to provide support for the application of components, overstress analyses, FMEA, internal verification testing, qualification testing, and failure analysis reports is explained.
Dhanasekharan Natarajan

Chapter 9. Statistical Analysis of Field Failure Data

Cause analysis and implementing corrective actions for failures are fundamental requirements of analyzing field failure data. Additional engineering benefits could be realized by analyzing accumulated field failure data statistically. Analyzing the failure data of field replaceable electronic items using statistical probability distributions and predicting spares are illustrated with examples.
Dhanasekharan Natarajan


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