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Leading experts present methodologies for basinwide approaches to water quality restoration. In 15 chapters the identification of pollution sources, definition of standards and their attainability, surface and groundwater modeling, remediation of contaminated soils and sediments, development and implementation of low cost treatment technologies, basinwide water quality management and remediation, and economic and institutional issues are covered. The book focuses on the situation in central and eastern European countries; however, the topics and solutions are of general interest and have worldwide applications.



Chapter 1. Water Quality Management: Western Experiences and Challenges for Central and Eastern European Countries

Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries are undergoing fundamental political, economic, and social changes. The outcome of this transition is not yet known, and it will take two to three decades to fully realize in which direction individual CEE countries will go. As far as the situation of the environmental “degradation” in general, and water pollution in the CEE countries in particular, is concerned the heritage of the past is serious. The situation in the mid 1990s is characterized by a high level of contamination and by a multiplicity of problems caused by traditional and toxic pollutants originating from both point and nonpoint sources. The problems are both local and regional, the latter including high level of pollution of the Black Triangle, Black and Baltic Seas, and of several international rivers such as the Danube, Odra, Elbe and others. Additional problems are caused by past contamination of soils, sediments, and groundwater which may be difficult to remedy.
Vladimir Novotny, László Somlyódy

Chapter 2. Use of Water Quality Models

The use of dual standards in water quality management, i.e., the effluent and water body limitations, leads to two different water quality management situations. In the first scenario the mandatory effluent limitations will be sufficient to achieve the water quality goals, in the second they are not. The former situation is characterized as effluent limited. The latter situation in which further actions beyond the mandatory effluent controls specified by the effluent limits are needed to achieve the water quality goals, is called water quality limited control. The economic mechanisms and incentives in either case are different. The effluent limited controls rely heavily and often exclusively on the “discharger pays” funding mechanisms while the water quality limited controls may require incentives, benefits transfers and some public financing.
Vladimir Novotny, Andrea Capodaglio

Chapter 3. Models For Reservoirs, Lakes and Wetlands

Management of reservoirs, lakes and wetlands is closely coupled with management of respective watersheds; however, some watershed/water quality problems might become serious only for watersheds that include a lake or a reservoir. The problem of phosphorus and eutrophication serves as an example inasmuch as excessive amounts of this critical nutrient creates far more serious problems in standing than in flowing waters. As far as water quality is concerned very often only one side of the problem is considered, i.e., how to remedy, how to clean our waters, how to control the pollution. The other side, the one that is much less costly and more farsighted, i.e., how to prevent pollution, is usually neglected.
Milan Straškraba

Chapter 4. Modeling Toxic Contaminants in an Aquatic Environment

Models are increasingly used to overview complex problems, and all problems related to the environment are complex problems due to the enormous number of many interacting components. Consequently, models attempt to capture the most essential components and processes related to a specific problem in a specific environment. Of course the model cannot contain all components and processes involved in a problem, but only the most important ones for the focal problem may be considered. If all processes were to be included the model would not meet the required simplification it would become the system itself.
S. E. Jørgensen

Chapter 5. Sediment Toxicity and Equilibrium Partitioning Development of Sediment Quality Criteria for Toxic Substances

The toxicity of chemicals in sediments is strongly influenced by the extent to which the chemicals bind to the sediment. This modifies the chemical potential to which the organisms are subjected. As a consequence, different sediments will exhibit different degrees of toxicity for the same total quantity of chemical. These differences have been reconciled by relating organism response to the chemical concentration in the interstitial water of the sediments (Adams et al., 1985; Swartz, et al., 1985; Muir et al., 1985; Adams, 1987; Kemp and Swartz, 1988; Nebeker and Schuytema, 1988). The relevant sediment properties, therefore, are those which influence the distribution of chemical between the solid and aqueous phases.
Dominic M. DiToro, Laura D. De Rosa

Chapter 6. Contaminated Sediments and Remediation-Geochemical Perspective

Sediments are both carriers and potential sources of contaminants in aquatic systems and these materials may also affect groundwater quality and agricultural products when disposed on land. Contaminants are not necessarily fixed permanently by sediment, but may be recycled via biological and chemical agents both within the sediment compartments (pore water) and water column. Bioaccumulation and food chain transfers may be strongly affected by sediment associated pollutants. Benthic organisms in particular, have direct contact with sediment and the contaminant level in the sediment may have greater impact on their survival than that in aqueous solution.
Ulrich Förstner

Chapter 7. Assessment and Impact of Large Scale Metal Polluted Sites

In the US, Western, Central and Eastern Europe there are many large scale polluted sites that are simply too large to be cleaned up with available technologies. They are polluted by mining activities and smelters, and consist of large industrial sites, polluted sediments in water ways and impoundments and polluted soils. In addition new large scale polluted sites are being created under conditions of no or little environmental control. Since these large scale polluted areas are expected to be present for many years, it is necessary to take a long term view of the metal mobility and of the capacity of these areas to retain contaminants.
W. Salomons

Chapter 8. Groundwater Remediation and Modeling

Because of the author’s vantage point, this chapter is necessarily based on experience in ground-water remediation in the United States. Much of that experience has been gained over the last fifteen years in responding to the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act or CERCLA, a law passed by the U.S. federal government in 1980. CERCLA is more commonly known as “Superrund,” although the prefix “Super” is an anachronism dating back to the time when $1.6 billion was thought to be a lot of money to complete a nationwide cleanup of the effects of hazardous waste disposal.
Peter Shanahan

Chapter 9. Wastewater Treatment Technology, Economy and Politics

Numerous system conditions are necessary for successful abatement of water pollution. Some are generally valid, others are country and/or region specific. The specific conditions include climate, hydro- morphology, the level of socio-economic and technological development, political factors, the state and efficiency of local administration, traditions, etc.
Petr Grau

Chapter 10. Wastewater Treatment Process Development in Central and Eastern Europe — Strategies for a Stepwise Development Involving Chemical and Biological Treatment

Wastewater management strategies are needed for Central and Eastern Europe. Economic limitations prohibit an immediate upgrading of all wastewater treatment to the standards of Western Europe and North America. Consequently, the choice of optimal wastewater management strategy then becomes very important. One can ask a question whether the historical development of wastewater treatment in Western Europe during the last 60 years is optimal for Eastern and Central Europe or whether other alternatives are feasible. Today a broad spectrum of wastewater treatment methods is available, which allows to remove pollutants to varying efficiencies. Treatment plants now being built in Western Europe are based on high removal efficiencies and have very high marginal costs per unit pollutant removed, as well as high overall costs per unit pollutant removed.
Mogens Henze, Hallvard Ødegaard

Chapter 11. Factors Affecting Water Quality of (Large) Rivers-Past Experiences and Future Outlook

Part I: Present Views and State-of-the-Art
Man tends to generalize specific and real time experience into abstract reports and formulae. One such instrument for generalization is the formulation of mathematical models to reproduce observations and to extrapolate such observations into other frames of time and location. Effects of pollution and other factors upon water quality of (large) rivers are such examples, i.e., observations are so numerous and, if not reported in a more generalized form, the information becomes so heterogeneous if not contradictory, that it might be difficult to formulate a consistent concept of quality changing factors and of the processes which they initiate. Therefore, even very early quantitative attempts of water quality assessment and control have used the instrument of mathematical modeling to describe dominant factors that control or change river water quality and to quantify their effects.
Hermann H. Hahn, Neithard Müller

Chapter 12. River Basin Water Quality Management Strategies in the Central European Region: An Example of the Nitra River (Slovakia)

Water quality management in most Western countries is based on the effluent quality standards, leading to uniform emission reductions at all sites. The development of such a policy is a simple task, and both the ambient water quality and the costs directly follow from these standards. Enforcement is also straightforward. This system is widely known as “end-of-pipe control”. In fact, the actual impacts and costs are often of little interest or unknown in advance. It is generally assumed that receiving water quality will be “good” if stringent effluent criteria were selected and money was available to realize the strategy (i.e., society is willing to pay for a safe environment). The choice of technology is also a side-effect of this system since standard values are most frequently set on the basis of a few (or one) well proven technologies (e.g., secondary activated sludge biological treatment in the U.S.).
L. Somlyódy, I. Masliev, M. Kularathna

Chapter 13. The State of the Art in Economic Instruments and Institutions for Water Quality Management

The United States and the Western European countries control water quality using a variety of instruments and institutions. These tools range from regulatory command and control (CAC) approaches of technological, emissions and ambient standards to economic or incentive-based approaches such as charges, subsidies and transferable discharge permits (TDPs). As the economies of the CEE countries move from central planning to the free market, it is appropriate to review both the literature on and experience with economic instruments for water quality management to understand how they might be applied in that setting. The Central and Eastern European countries face serious water quality problems and the resources needed to address these problems are large (Somlyódy, 1993). The challenge of improving water quality in CEE requires finding cost-effective approaches that are appropriate to the institutional context of individual CEE countries.
Mark Griffin Smith

Chapter 14. Use of Economic Instruments to Enhance CEE Water Quality: Institutional Changes and Research Challenges

The preceding chapter by Mark Smith amply demonstrates that much research has been directed at the “efficiency properties” of economic instruments for pollution control. Beginning in the early 1970’s, a large body of both theoretical and empirical research has demonstrated that the use of transferable discharge permits or uniform emission charges is the least expensive means to meet a limit on total discharges (c.f. Tietenberg, 1985). This work has been extended to deposition or ambient quality impact permits (for example, Spofford and Paulsen, 1988). One can show from theory that the least costly policy to meet limits on ambient quality is through the use or tradable permits in ambient impacts or ambient quality decrement charges (Tietenberg, 1985, among others).
Charles M. Paulsen

Chapter 15. Summary and Conclusions

The degradation and poor quality of surface and groundwater resources in the CEE countries has been extensively documented since the political changes that lead to restoration of democracy in the region. However, in most CEE countries, it has become clear that the cost of meeting the standards based on the European Community criteria may be beyond their economic means.
Vladimir Novotny, László Somlyódy


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