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2023 | Buch

Remodelling Businesses for Sustainable Development

2nd International Conference on Modern Trends in Business, Hospitality, and Tourism, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 2022


Über dieses Buch

This book discusses current trends, challenges, and opportunities in the fields of business, hospitality, and tourism, particularly in Eastern Europe. Featuring selected papers presented at the second annual Modern Trends in Business Hospitality and Tourism International Conference held in Cluj-Napoca, Romania in 2022, this book explores sustainable business (re)modelling in various fields including hospitality and tourism from managerial, marketing, financial, and information technology & communications (IT&C) points of view. Topics include changing dimensions of modern business and hospitality post-COVID; business challenges and opportunities during crises; modern customer experiences; human capital leadership & organizational behavior, and investment financing in post-COVID-19 recovery.


Chapter 1. Responsive Design Thinking: Transitioning from Human-Centered to a Planetary-Centric Approach to Innovation. Principles and Perspectives
The number of methodologies and tools to deliver sustainability goals is growing at high speed. However, for the past two decades, design thinking has consistently helped businesses reshape the experience of innovating. Today, organizations are integrating and acquiring more designers to work together with developers and engineers and generate more value for the business. The designers’ approach to problem-solving is a non-linear process that optimizes performance and drives innovation. Thinking like a designer is a necessary skill when we confront massive disruption due to the current global pandemic, unexpected climate changes, and exponential technological advances. According to Tim Brown, Executive Chair of IDEO, “thinking like a designer can shift the way organizations deliver products, processes, services and strategy” (Brown, Harvard Business Rev, 86(84):141, 2008). Through immersive consumer research, ideation, prototyping, and iteration, companies like Apple, Airbnb, Netflix or Uber came up with innovative solutions to complex business challenges. As the world is undergoing great changes due to the rapid adoption of new technologies, and the humanitarian and planetary crisis we experience, the role of designers evolves every day. So is the level of awareness of the potential long-term and unintended consequences of what they design. Planetary-centric innovation is a disruptive shift in perspective since we used to design products and services with people at the core. This paper proposes a new framework for innovation to help businesses design better products and services without sacrificing their responsibility to the environment.
Dalia Poleac
Chapter 2. Digital Nomad Tourism: The Experience of Living at the Destination
The negative impact of COVID-19 on international tourism mobility generated two opposite types of discussion: one focusing on how to return to “normality,” and another on how to transform this crisis into an opportunity for redesigning tourism. Mobility restrictions have created a test scenario for teleworking, which has led to the consolidation of the number of digital nomads, describing the professional who uses digital technology and needs a high-quality Internet connection to be able to develop both a professional and a social online and offline lifestyle, while travelling. Digital nomadism represents an increasing tendency worldwide, questioning the existing forms of combining work and leisure and blurring the boundaries between mobility for work and for tourism. As a consequence of the rapid growth of digital nomadism, various destinations have refocused their marketing strategy and present themselves as “digital nomad-friendly” destinations, with ideal conditions to live and work. Urban spaces were the first to react to this new demand due to existing infrastructure standards, whereas rural territories entered the game without much preparation due to the need for escaping the pandemic’s effects, considered as isolated and safe areas.
Through a theoretical perspective, this paper investigates innovation in the tourism sector in general, as it focuses on the analysis of not only a new segment of tourism but also the analysis of a new concept of mobility that challenges the conventional profile of a tourist and offers new opportunities both for rural and urban destinations. A number of emerging concepts of analysis associate coworking spaces with tourist attractions and the gender perspective within this type of mobility.
Konstantina Zerva, Raquel Huete, Mónica Segovia-Pérez
Chapter 3. Linking Destination Competitiveness to Performance. An Analytical Perspective
Destination competitiveness and performance are among the most challenging areas of concern and analysis, key concepts of the tourism industry. Tourism destination is often associated in management discourse along with the terms competitiveness and performance and although they are used at a great extent, both in professional and academic environments, conceptualizing and measuring them raises a great interest, as the short and long-term success of destinations are dependant on their competitiveness and performance. Whereas for any Destination Management Organizations (DMO), it is of fundamental importance to be able to assess the linkage between competitiveness and performance and use it as a management tool in the development of tourism.
The concepts of destination competitiveness and destination performance have been discussed in management studies for a few decades already, but despite the numerous attempts, there is no general agreement about how they should be defined and linked. While the performance evaluation frameworks and methods are still debating, it should be noted that the tourism destination performance is a complex notion with puzzling elements and aspects that must be analysed thoroughly. Based on the literature review, there are three directions of analysis, but, regardless of the standpoint, researchers appreciate that performance is fundamentally linked to the competitiveness of tourism destinations, as a significant measurement of destination competitiveness is actually performance.
The main purpose of this paper is to assess the linkage between destination competitiveness and destination performance and overcome the challenges related to their conceptualization and measurement. This article analyses the concept of performance arising from the mainstream approach of traditional goals orientation, efficiency and effectiveness, and the input and output perspective.
The paper concludes that performance can be seen as either result or an element of the competitiveness approach. The link between competitiveness and performance depends on the existence of a goal-driven strategy, where performance is the final result. More, the implementation of market performance indicators and the degree of economic efficiency contribute to the development of destination competitiveness as a whole.
Ioana Maria Dumitru
Chapter 4. Exploratory Research on Using NFT for Selling Digital Art
In recent years, a new typology of digital assets, namely NFTs, has started to take off. This name, very veritable on blockchain technology, is an abbreviation used for “Non-fungible token”. Not being fungible basically means that it cannot be replaced with another NFT, because each one is unique and is found in a digital form as a work of art, an image, music, lyrics and even vouchers. They have been present on the market since 2014 but have gained popularity especially in terms of investments in 2021. The benefit and innovation that this type of token brings is that it encodes ownership rights to a buyer, rights which cannot disappear or falsify, as is usually the case in the physical world today. Especially on the art and music market. These non-fungible tokens can also be purchased and distributed online on various specific platforms such as OpenSea.
The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of this technology in the sale of digital art and how it influences both the process itself and what are the challenges and risks of using it today. Moreover, for data collection, exploratory research was conducted. A literature review was done, to be able to identify and analyse papers on topics and to understand this type of digital asset. As well as to better understand the applicability of this technology, a comparative analysis has been made, on several case studies and actions already existed in digital world and for primary data collection an in-depth interview was implemented to better highlight the if the phenomenon’s characteristics and trends are known to the general public of artist in Romania.
Florina-Gabriela Mitu, Marius Bota
Chapter 5. Top Three Negotiation Tactics. Does Gender or Workplace Influence the Preference for Negotiation Tactics?
Most of the people assume that prices, conditions, and offers are firm and final. But that’s not necessarily true. In fact, many are actually flexible. Negotiating can be a way to come to agreements in a variety of areas: to reduce debts, to lower the sale price of a house, to improve the conditions of a contract, or to get a better deal on a car. “Reaching an agreement through negotiation is not just a matter of applying a repertoire of tactics and techniques, regardless of the nature of the conflict.… Negotiation is more like a trip - you can’t predict the outcome before you make the trip”.
This paper uses findings from research journals and a statistical study, and it is performed mainly through a survey which identified which are the top three most used tactics amongst negotiators in the Cluj County and examined the way in which these tactics are used depending on two criteria, the workplace and the gender of negotiators.
The main stages of the negotiation process were first analysed. The purpose of this part is to highlight the importance of organizing and preparing each stage of the negotiation process. The second part of the research identifies and describes the top three negotiation tactics and explores a potential correlation of two variables, gender, and workplace, with the usage and preference for the negotiation tactics.
The results showed that the Specific Argumentation Tactic, followed by the Alternatives Tactic and the Common Points Tactic are the top three most used negotiation tactics. Overall, there was a slight discrepancy between the percentage of women and men who used these negotiation tactics. In all three cases, the percentage of men exceeded the percentage of women. As regards the influence of the workplace on the usage of negotiation tactics, a significant relationship between the field of activity and the predilection for using the negotiation tactics was validated.
Although only one of the two variables (i.e. workplace) has been confirmed as significantly correlated with the usage of the negotiation tactics, both the gender and workplace may partly influence the way in which the negotiation tactics are used. Other factors such as education history or personality may play a more significant role in using the negotiation tactics more frequently.
Daniel Măluțan
Chapter 6. Income Inequality and Human Capital Acquisition. What Is the Role of Educational Institutions?
The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between income inequalities and human capital accumulation in OECD countries. In regards to capture the endogeneity of the variables employed we use the system generalized method of moments supported by the Sargan-Hansen test for instruments validity. Furthermore, we attempted to assess if the impact of income inequalities on the development of human capital is conditioned by the inclusivity of educational institutions. The results indicate that income inequality negatively affects human capital accumulation in countries with exclusive educational institutions. In countries where institutions are conducive to the inclusion in the process of human capital accumulation of non-privileged social groups, the investigated relationship takes the form of inverted-U.
Jakub Bartak, Łukasz Jabłoński, Marius Dan Gavriletea
Chapter 7. Exploring Relevant Factors Influencing Guests’ Satisfaction: Case Study - 4* and 5* Hotels in Mamaia Resort
Guests’ satisfaction plays a significant role in the hospitality industry. It has a direct impact on the success of hotel service providers in this sector. Consequently, to the popularity increase of online platforms and social media in the tourism and hospitality sectors, the online guests’ reviews growth tremendous, and once with it their impact on the tourists’ attitudes and buying behaviour as well as on the service suppliers. Thus, the current study investigates the relevant factors influencing guests’ satisfaction accommodated in the four- and five-star hotels in the main seaside resort from Romania, Mamaia, using the online guest-generated overall satisfaction score. It is one of the first studies in Romania to investigate the elements influencing visitors’ perceptions of Black Sea coastal tourism. In this regard, over 4160 booking reviews were coded and analysed. The primary goal of the study was of determining the extent to which tourist typology, hotel classification, and nationality impact the overall satisfaction of visitors at full-service hotels in Mamaia resort. According to the data analysis, all criteria have a substantial impact on the total satisfaction score. Thus, in the case of 4 and 5 stars hotels, the overall satisfaction score varies in accordance with tourist typology and nationality. As a result, these findings should help the hoteliers from the seaside area, especially around the Black Sea, to understand better the upcoming demand particularities and formulate appropriate strategies to target different market segments. Furthermore, the second study’s goal was to evaluate the impact of each element analysed on the total score, allowing researchers to better grasp the significance of each aspect on the overall satisfaction score. The paper’s findings contribute to the literature on hospitality online reviews by clarifying how the investigated factors impact the overall satisfaction score and presenting key suggestions for practitioners to improve performance.
Adina Letiția Negrușa, Ioan Cristian Chifu, Oana Ruxandra Bode, Erika Kulcsár
Chapter 8. Pricing Approaches on Airbnb. The Case of 2020 New Listings in Porto
The COVID-19 pandemic had serious economic effects, forcing businesses to adjust their strategies to survive. The tourism sector was one of the most affected due to the imposed travel restrictions; both traditional units and people providing services to tourists through the sharing economy platforms had to adapt. The objective of this paper is to build a hedonic price model to identify the attributes that significantly influence the price of the room, using the WLS regression model. Despite the general negative trend, there were also hosts who considered that opening a new listing during these times may represent a business opportunity. Therefore, the focus of the article is on newly opened listings on the Airbnb platform during 2020. The approach used included the main categories of variables discussed previously in the literature: listing attributes, listing location, listing reputation, rental policies, and hosts characteristics/involvement. The maximum number of guests accepted in the property, the type of listing, and the availability of air conditioning (AC) and parking represent the main characteristics that influence the prices. Changes in travel behaviour due to increased health and safety concerns made hosts aware that guests are willing to pay more to stay in central locations or in places owned by Superhosts.
Fernanda Amélia Fernandes Ferreira, Valentin Toader, Rozalia Veronica Rus, Oana Ruxandra Bode
Chapter 9. The Use of Robotic Process Automation for Business Process Improvement
In this paper, we aim to analyse the stage of innovation in business processes, to highlight the major themes related to the Business Process Management, and to analyse which are the criteria that must be taken into account by companies that want to implement a program to improve the business processes they already use or by companies that are new to the market and want to start their activity using advanced technologies that allow them to be dynamic and flexible. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the business benefits of implementing Robotic Process Automation (RPA) and find the key factors that help such implementations succeed. The data sources are both primary and secondary and for the qualitative research, we mainly used primary data, collected through structured and semi-structured interviews with RPA specialists. The main characteristics associated with RPA projects and the typical phases that must be followed to implement a robot for a customer were discovered based on the interviews. The paper also presents the properties and attributes of processes that can have a positive impact on the successful implementation of RPA projects, focusing on how these properties should be used for the best results.
Cătălin Nicolae Cebuc, Rozalia Veronica Rus
Chapter 10. Social Enterprises Response to COVID-19 – The Case of Romania
SEs, which are found in various forms, are business models that have both social and financial purposes, in the way in which they operate on the market offering products and/or services. The added value of this paper is given by the presentation of the way in which the SEs in Romania reacted to the situation given by the COVID-19 pandemic, the method used to be multiple case study. The aim of the research is to identify how the SEs in Romania have worked during the COVID-19 pandemic, their reactions to the new situation and the organizational resilience strategies adopted. The research is a qualitative one, using the multiple case study, and analyses the activity of five SEs in Romania. The case studies are carried out following desk research, which includes the literature review, various reports, public documents, annual activity reports, websites, other published papers, and so on. A conclusion of this research is that at the level of the studied SEs, the reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic can fall into two main directions, one that assumes an immediate response, focused on the new needs arising on the market and the other one, which consists of continuing the activity, the target being to fulfill the assumed social mission, as well as the financial one. Another conclusion is that at the level of the organizational resilience strategies, two out of the five studied SEs were oriented towards the adoption of new products (to respond to new market needs) targeted to address the new market segments. The analysis carried out leads us to the conclusion that the five SEs studied can be seen as a good example of organizational resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic and that they managed to return to their plans (defined before March 2020) and to do important steps towards new directions.
Nicoleta Dorina Racolţa-Paina, Ana Monica Pop
Chapter 11. Managing Careers. Meanings and Trends for Business Administration Students
Career is diversifying its meanings continuously. Being able to understand the main trends allows students looking for a job to develop a better professional identity and companies to adjust their practices and culture to the new context. The paper is a descriptive one, looking to see the perception of business administration bachelor students in relation to core theories and ideas regarding career. Survey and focus-group are used as research methods. The research questions are looking into conceptual positioning of the students (they favour the learning and development approach to career and dislike political perspective to career); locus of their career initiative (they assume career initiative and rely less on employers or public institutions); balance of career capitals according to Bourdieu (there is a perceived lack of economic capital first, social capital second, and cultural capital third); vocational preferences (social and entrepreneurial are slightly ahead the other ones, and conventional is the least preferred one); career stages (the majority of the students placed themselves in growth - surprising result that leads to further research) and concern regarding discrimination forms than might affect the students (age and disability being their main concern).
Aurelian Sofică, Iuliana-Maria Levinschi
Chapter 12. Smart City, Smart Tourism
Destinations fiercely compete against each other to attract investments, to maintain and attract a highly qualified labour force, and, also, to be attractive and popular tourism destinations. In this context, it is essential for destinations to be innovative. Technological developments and their adoption have impacted the development of tourism destinations. Economic growth, technological advancement, and the orientation towards sustainability contribute to the enhancement of the local economies’ development and to the provision of jobs for well-prepared and skilled employees, respectively, to develop smartly and to attract smart tourists. Once the concepts of smart destinations and smart tourism were clarified, the authors focused on evaluating the smart development of Romanian cities. Mixed methods were used to collect data (desk research and website analyses) and to verify the existence of an impact of smart transformation on Romania’s tourist activity (one-way two-tailed ANOVA). The main findings led to the conclusion that the growing number of arrivals positively impacts the smart development of Romanian destinations. At the same time, smart development increases overnight stays. Arrivals are stimulated by the existence of tourism apps. The formulation of strategic plans and their implementation have proven a strong positive impact on both tourist arrivals and overnight stays in the 41 researched cities. Furthermore, urban destinations are trendsetters in the case of Romanian tourism and those destinations that have put more effort into smart development begin to harvest the first positive results but, at the same time, significant back-lags and disparities have been noticed when comparing the performance of Romanian cities to that of other EU smart cities.
Monica Maria Coroș, Delia Popescu, Iuliana Pop, Georgică Gheorghe
Chapter 13. The Relationship Between Tourism Destination Image and Loyalty: A Multidimensional Approach
Destination loyalty represents an important pillar of any tourism destination’s sustainable economic development. To effectively cultivate and secure destination loyalty, hospitality businesses, as well as tourism destination management organizations need to identify and understand the factors that impact visitors’ loyalty. The current paper investigates the impact of destination image on destination loyalty, within the 4 A’s theorical framework of tourism destination, emphasizing the differential impact of each image dimension on visitors’ loyalty. For that, a self-administered paper and pencil survey was conducted among a sample of 1047 Romanians who had recently spent at least three days in a tourism destination. Overall, the results of the current study reinforce the findings of previous research, emphasizing a significant impact of tourism destination image on destination loyalty. Additionally, the current research brings new insights on this relationship, depicting the specific influence of accessibility, amenities, attractions, and ancillaries on visitors’ loyalty. Thus, the results point out that destinations’ amenities and attractions, as well as their ancillaries have significant impacts on visitors’ loyalty, with the highest impact outlined in the case of ancillaries. However, accessibility, even though considered one of the pillars of a tourism destination, is not statistically relevant for nurturing and developing destination loyalty. The results have both theoretical and practical implications. From a theoretical perspective, the current research is among the very few which clearly point out the impact of each specific dimension of tourism destination image on destination loyalty. From a practical perspective, the results emphasize the specific dimensions of visitor experience on which tourism destinations need to focus in order to develop and nurture destination loyalty.
Ovidiu I. Moisescu
Remodelling Businesses for Sustainable Development
herausgegeben von
Adina Letiția Negrușa
Monica Maria Coroş
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