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Based on popular images and scientific literature discussing geographic information science (GIScience) approaches for hazard analysis, it might be assumed that GIScience is a core element in the response and recovery phases of the disaster cycle. Findings from our research suggest that the use of GIScience in disaster response/recovery is: (1) in an evolutionary phase and (2) timing and coordination are major impediments. In Spring 2005 (prior to Hurricane Katrina), a survey was conducted of all state-level emergency preparedness offices to determine geographic information system/remote sensing use (hereafter referred to as geographic information technologies, or GIT) and spatial data needs. While a few states had five to seven staff educated in GIT, 23% had no spatial analysts in early 2005. Thus, for many states the adoption of GIT is still in its infancy. This finding also indicates that many state emergency management agencies (EMAs) would benefit from external (e.g., state/local/federal agency, private, university) expertise in order to utilize GIT during a hazard event. With a focus on remote sensing, we use three hurricane events to illustrate the federal government’s work to change procedures associated with GIT during response/recovery efforts. Concrete and anecdotal information on the role of GIT in Hurricanes Andrew (1992), Floyd (1999), and Katrina (2005) are provided. Acceptance of GIT must be based on timeliness of data/information, awareness by the user community, and appropriate application to response/recovery endeavors.
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- Remote Sensing and GIS Data/Information in the Emergency Response/Recovery Phase
Michael E. Hodgson
Bruce A. Davis
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 16
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