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Über dieses Buch

This book discusses aspects of policy and techno-economic analysis of renewable energy in developing countries. Renewable energy technologies have been one of the most important strategies in addressing sustainable energy development and climate change. The roles of renewable energy in developing countries are vital, which include the accessibility of modern energy services in rural areas, climate change mitigation, energy security, green job creation and eventually improvement of quality of life. Part I of this book focuses on policy and strategy, while Part II focuses on technology development and feasibility. Chapters are contributed by leading experts from the ASEAN Center of Energy, government agencies, industries, and universities from five developing countries, including Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Brunei Darussalam and Bangladesh.



Policy and Strategy


Status on Renewable Energy Policy and Development in ASEAN

This chapter provides the updated renewable energy (RE) policy and development for ten ASEAN Member States (AMS). In 2015, ASEAN renewable energy’s share in total primary energy supply (TPES) has reached 13.6% (ASEAN Centre for Energy 2017). Specifically, on power sector, its share has amounted to 21.7% of total power generation, coming from 24.3% installed renewable-based power plant. Under the ASEAN Plan of Action for Energy Cooperation (APAEC) 2016–2025, ASEAN aspires to reach 23% of renewable energy (RE) share by 2025 on its TPES. To reach this target, AMS has embarked various policies at national level to support the development and deployment of renewable energy technology. As an addition, by 2025, ASEAN is expected to only increase around 17% of their RE share if the current existing policies are followed as identified in REmap study developed by IRENA and ACE. In fulfilling this six percentage-point gap, some advanced policies are recommended through this chapter, upon the reviews of ASEAN historical data and the updates of RE policies in all AMS.
Aloysius Damar Pranadi, Beni Suryadi, Badariah Yosiyana

Energy Sector in Malaysia: How Sustainable Are We?

Though energy has become essential for the socio-economic activities, the energy sector is also the highest contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this chapter is to review and assess the sustainability of the energy sector in Malaysia. Energy statistics from using the national energy balance and reports are analysed. Energy production and consumption are evaluated from the perspectives of socio-economics and how this sector contributes to the GHG emission. This chapter starts from accessibility of modern energy services throughout the nation, followed by assessing the energy subsidies that contribute to the affordability. Energy efficiency is evaluated for both supply and final consumption of the energy sector, whereas, the contribution of renewable energy in electricity supply is evaluated through the power generation mix. This chapter is then concluded with summary, highlights and recommendations from the aspects of subsidy, public awareness, technology and governance.
Hoy-Yen Chan

Renewable Energy in Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) of Vietnam

Vietnam is one of the countries that is having high potential for renewable energy (RE). The available renewable energy sources are small hydropower, wind, biomass, solar energy, geothermal, and tidal. The Government has introduced a National Action Plan for implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and it is expected that RE development will help to achieve the targets of the Action Plan. This chapter reviews the roles of RE in achieving the national goals of sustainable development and the targets of the nationally determined contribution (NDC) of Vietnam. It is found that although there are several legal policies on the development of RE in Vietnam, these policies are unsystematic, insufficient, and less supportive for promoting such development. Vietnam has not yet made any detailed assessment of the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of all RE sources, and the importance of the link between energy-environment and clean development has not been highlighted. Moreover, the overall technology infrastructure for RE development in Vietnam is still lacking. Thus, in order to achieve the goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the NDC, Vietnam will need to take strong actions in all aspects, in which RE is considered to be a “multi-target arrow,” which take into account the direct and indirect contributions from the RE.
Ha Ninh Tran

The Impact of Tenaga Suria Brunei Power Plant on Natural Gas Saving and CO2 Avoidance

Grid-connected renewable energy projects could yield various benefits to a country, which include, among others, significant savings to fossil fuels and the corresponding reduction in GHG emissions. In this chapter, a 1.2 megawatt-peak (MWp) Tenaga Suria Brunei (TSB) solar PV power plant in Brunei Darussalam was used as a case study to determine the cumulative natural gas savings and avoided CO2 emissions that have been achieved throughout its operation between January 2011 and August 2017. Based on a simple methodology adopted by the US Environmental Protection Agency and using historical TSB electricity production and other parameters, as of August 2017, the power plant has saved the government an estimated value of USD 1.730 million, corresponding to about 128,964 MMBtu of natural gas. Cumulatively about 7961 tonnes of CO2 also has been avoided. In addition, further analysis of the expansion of 27 MWp into the existing TSB plant by 2035 could potentially save the government an estimated 8.553 million MMBtu of natural gas, and that the monetary savings could reach approximately USD 69.421 million based on the forecast on the Asian LNG price (Japan). Environmentally, the plant could also potentially avoid approximately 530,887 tonnes of CO2 by 2035.
Muhammad Nabih Fakhri Matussin

Technology Development and the Feasibility


The Needs of Solar Energy Technology from the Perspective of Aboriginal People in Tasik Chini

Energy is vital to humankind. Limited access to modern electricity is a common problem for remote areas. Orang Asli – the aboriginals – are the major populations who live in the remote areas in Malaysia. This chapter investigates the contribution of electricity cost using conventional supply to their monthly income. Apart from that, solar energy is introduced as the alternative power source which eventually could reduce the burden on their daily expenses. There are five villages in the Tasik Chini. The research methodologies involved fieldwork activities and also literature surveys to study the profile, socio-economy conditions of the villages, the needs of electricity and the willingness to learn the solar energy. Results showed that all the villagers acknowledge the needs of electricity in order to have a better quality of life. The application of solar energy is highly appreciated because of its ability to provide electricity without compromising the natural environment. However, community that has been provided with grid-connected electricity has less interest to learn about the solar energy compared to community that has limited access to electricity. With 55% of monthly household income to buy the gasoline, 16.74% of the community has rated that solar energy technology is much needed, and hence they are willing to learn on how to operate, and the maintenance of technology.
Suhaila Abdul Hamid, Hoy-Yen Chan, Ah Choy Er, Wong Chin Yew, Kamaruzzaman Sopian

Feasibility Study of Solar-Powered Hydroponic Fodder Machine in Bangladesh

Farming is a traditional and the most common profession in Bangladesh. Most of the people of Bangladesh live in the villages, and most of the villagers are involved in farming. One of the main reasons of having common interest to farming is because the land is fertile and plain. Another interesting factor is almost all Bangladeshi people are born farmers. However, Bangladesh is among the most vulnerable countries to climate change, which poses a long-term threat to the country’s agricultural sector, particularly in areas affected by flooding, saline intrusion, and drought. Faster and more inclusive rural growth with job creation will require greater agricultural diversification together with more robust rural nonfarm enterprise development. Nonetheless, the present condition is the lack of adequate government support. For instance, land crisis and power generation are the critical challenges for agriculture in Bangladesh. So, solar-powered hydroponic fodder machine can play a game-changing role in rural areas. It will produce crops as well as grass for dairy farms without using grid power in rural areas. In this paper, we have gone through a feasibility study of solar-powered hydroponic machines in Bangladesh to find out a probable solution for land crisis, malnutrition problem, and power generation. It is found that the fodder machine which runs at low power at 1.5–2.0 kW and requires only 280 sq. of area to feed the 10–12 full-grown cows can be powered by the solar and installed in rural areas. Furthermore, the products from the fodder machine contain protein, vitamin B1, iron, potassium, magnesium, and zinc, which provide the cattle with proper nutrition.
Md. Tanvir Masud, Sajib Bhowmik

An Approach to Optimize Cultivable Land Use for Solar PV Installation

Unlike the traditional power plants where the efficiency of turbines and engines is relatively high, the current available technology of power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) cell is still very low. Hence, the amount of land required for large-scale solar PV power generation is very high compared to conventional power generation technologies. The proposed approach incorporates new ideas for dual usage of cultivable land for cultivation as well as for power generation. In addition to that, this paper establishes the new approach by analysis in RETScreen. During power generation period, PV plant will be operated at its maximum capacity for power generation. While during cultivation period, the plant will be operated at reduced capacity. The system will be a grid-tied system, and all the generated electricity will be exported to the grid. So, both electricity and crops will be produced from the same land, and thus the land usage will be maximized.
S. M. Sanzad Lumen, Md. Zakirul Islam Sarker

Large-Scale Solar-Assisted Water Heater for a Green Hospital

Concerns over the environmental impact of the high usage of fossil fuels to heat water in public, residential, commercial, and industrial sectors have triggered increased interest in solar energy. Hospitals and hotels utilize large amounts of energy in water heating. A case study of one such facility was conducted at the National University of Malaysia Hospital (HUKM). At the hospital, large amounts of LPG were consumed by two boilers resulting in the release of considerable amounts of greenhouse gases. A solar water heater (SWH) was designed and integrated with existing LPG burners to develop a hybrid SWH system. The SWH system is composed of 144 U-type pipe evacuated solar panels divided into three blocks. Each block consists of 12 strings of panels connected in parallel, with each string comprising 4 panels. In 2012, the annual average solar irradiation in Kuala Lumpur was 4.5 kW/m2/day. TRNSYS simulation software was used to predict the SWH performance before the design was finalized. Energy savings were expected to reach 60% based on the results of a simulation. However, 51% of LPG was saved according to data recorded throughout 2012. Solar water heating has promising industrial applications such as heat processing in textile factories, food processing, animal husbandry, dairy processing, aquaculture, swimming pool heating, and industrial and manufacturing facilities, with 59.9% annual average energy efficiency and 5.0% annual average exergy efficiency.
Poorya Ooshaksaraei, Khalid Mokhtar, Syed Zulkifli Syed Zakaria, Kamaruzzaman Sopian

Enhancement of Biogas Production from Anaerobic Digestion of Disintegrated Sludge: A Techno-Economic Assessment for Sludge Management of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Vietnam

Currently, in Vietnam 35 urban WWTPs had been constructed with a total capacity of 850,000 m3/day. Some 40 new WWTPs are in the design or construction phase with a capacity of 1,600,000 m3/day. During operation, a lot of excess sludge must be wasted out of the system. It is well recognized that sludge disposal is one of the most critical issues for WWTPs as the cost of the excess sludge treatment and disposal can account for 50–60% of the operating cost. In Vietnam, sludge discharged from wastewater treatment plants were mostly disposed by the conventional method such as landfill. Therefore, reduction of sludge volume before disposal is very important for sludge transportation and management. In this study, the sludge was disintegrated by alkalis to enhance the sludge biodegradability before adding to the anaerobic digestion. As a result, MLSS reduced from 6600 mg/L down to about 4800 mg/L when alkalis dosage was increased from 1 to 1.8 g/L. Soluble COD was increased from less than 100 mg/L to over 1800 mg/L. The sludge biodegradability enhancement is linearly correlated to COD solubilization. The biogas production of the disintegrated sludge was higher compared to the sludge without the alkali disintegration (358 and 245 mL biogas/g sludge added), representing a 46% increase in the biogas production. The cost of chemical consumption for sludge disintegration was about 0.36 US $/kg TSS. The alkali sludge disintegration combined with anaerobic digestion process could be considered as a potential approach for sludge management of wastewater treatment plants in Vietnam.
Khac-Uan Do, Hidenori Harada, Izuru Saizen

Development of an Iron-Based Adsorption System to Purify Biogas for Small Electricity Generation Station in Vietnam: A Case Study

In Vietnam, there are about 17,000 pig farms with over 500 pigs, and less than 0.3% of them have a biogas facility. Biogas production from this size is about 50,000 m3/year. This biogas is methane-rich, based on a typical composition of 60–70% methane. However, trace amounts of H2S are also present, which hinder their use as it is very toxic and corrodes the equipment. In this study, an adsorption system using iron-based adsorbent (FeOOH) was developed to remove hydrogen sulfide from biogas at the Thanh Hung pig farm (Thanh Oai District, Hanoi, Vietnam). The initial biogas contained high CH4 concentration of 72%, and the H2S was at the rage of 1995 to about 4000 ppm. Based on the results obtained from the study, it could be seen that FeOOH has high capacity for H2S purification from biogas. The adsorption capacity of the FeOOH was estimated to be up to 0.18 g H2S/g FeOOH. The H2S concentration in the effluent was almost lower than 5 ppm which was suitable for electric generators. In this study, the purified biogas was used for a small electricity generator of 3.5 KVA. As a result, the biogas consumed was about 0.64 m3 per 1 kWh of electricity produced. This amount could fully meet the demand of electricity of a farm. In conclusion, the potential of market for biogas production and consumption in Vietnam is huge. Biogas purification technology for electricity generation, therefore, plays an important role in the biogas market of Vietnam.
Khac-Uan Do, Trung-Dung Nghiem, Shin Dong Kim, Thi-Thu-Hien Nguyen, Bich-Thuy Ly, Dac-Chi Tran, Duc-Ho Vu, Jun Woo Park


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