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08.07.2016 | Ausgabe 6/2016

Journal of Coatings Technology and Research 6/2016

Repeatability and reproducibility of specular gloss meters in theory and practice

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Coatings Technology and Research > Ausgabe 6/2016
Autoren:
Frédéric Bernard Leloup, Jan Audenaert, Gaël Obein, Guillaume Ged, Peter Hanselaer

Abstract

In order to numerically quantify and to ensure consistency of the visual appearance of the end product, many industries perform color and gloss measurements, through the results of which they define maximum tolerances during quality control. For this, they may primarily rely on precision data for repeatability and reproducibility as reported by instrument manufacturers, who develop their instruments according to standardized measurement geometries defined in international standards. This paper reports on an investigation of the inter-instrument agreement between specular gloss meters which conform to universally adopted gloss standards. Six commercially available instruments, manufactured by three different companies, and twenty-five gloss artifacts, with specular gloss values ranging between 2 and 110 gloss units (60° geometry), were selected for use in the study. The repeatability and reproducibility of the instruments were assessed according to the criteria described in ASTM D523-14 and ISO 2813:2014, and to the specifications reported by the instrument manufacturers. Ray tracing simulations were performed by use of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function measurement data of two samples, and based on the standardized optical design of the specular gloss meter, in order to get a better insight on the expected tolerances of the gloss readings from a theoretical point of view. On average, the practical results indicate that both the repeatability and reproducibility values are higher than those specified in the recommendations and by the manufacturers. Ray tracing simulations confirm this finding. While specified repeatability and reproducibility thresholds are based on ideal standards, in practice, there are parameters that can lead to significant higher deviations. Care should therefore be taken when analyzing measurement results obtained from different instruments, and when defining tolerances for evaluation of gloss measurements.

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