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The book focuses more on the study of cruise economy industry chain based on the previous editions and the latest trend of China’s cruise economy. It includes the Special Topic: Cruise Economic Reform and Innovation in the New Era, explores Asia cruise economic prosperity index, China’s cruise economy whole-industry-chain strategy in the new era, and the development of cruise destinations in the context of the Yangtze River Delta integration. The volume provides a good reference for better promoting the high-quality development of China’s cruise market.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

General Report

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Research on Developments in Global Cruise Industry in 2018–2019: Size Beyond Expectation, Industry Reconstruction, and Enhanced Economic Contributions

Abstract
In 2019, despite the significant increase in the risks and uncertainties of the world economy, the global cruise tourism market keeps a steady growth. According to the forecast of the CLIA, the global cruise passenger throughput is expected to reach 30 million in 2019, up 5.19% year-on-year. This will be the first time for passenger throughput to exceed 30 million and it is expected to reach 37.6 million in 2025, indicating that the international cruise market enjoys good projects and potential. North America is still the world’s largest cruise market. In 2018, its passenger throughput reached 14.2 million, up 9% year-on-year. The cruise passenger throughput in Caribbean reached 11.3 million, up 6% year-on-year, continuing to be the world’s No. 1 cruise destination. The cruise passenger throughput in Alaska exceeded 1 million, up 13% year-on-year. The cruise passenger throughput in Euro-Mediterranean Area exceeded 4 million, up 8% year-on-year. Asia has become the fastest growing region in the global economy, providing a more solid foundation and development potential for the cruise economy. In 2018, the cruise passenger throughput in Asia reached 4.2 million, up 5% year-on-year, and there is a large room for growth in the future. It is becoming the most promising important part of the global cruise market. There is an increasing demand for cruise construction market. By 2027, there will be 114 new cruise ships ordered worldwide, with 247,600 new seats available, most of which are cruise ships with a tonnage above 130,000. As China become more engaged in the whole industry chain of cruise economy such as cruise design and construction, cruise operation and cruise industry supporting services, the world cruise industry is gradually adjusting its development pattern to further boost the sustained prosperity of the global cruise economy and enhance the status and influence of Asia-Pacific in the global cruise market.
Hong Wang, Jianyong Shi, Junqing Mei

Chapter 2. Research on the Developments in China’s Cruise Industry in 2018–2019: The Development of Whole Industry Chain of the Cruise Economy Has Substantially Taken Off

Abstract
The cruise industry has entered the second decade of development in China, with both opportunities and challenges coexisted. Under the new round of reform and opening up, China’s cruise economy has entered a critical period of transition from “high-speed growth” to “high-quality and high-grade development.”In 2019, China’s cruise market experienced a volatile adjustment, with decreased supply. However, the improvement of “quality” continued. New cruise ships such as the “Spectrum of the Seas” of Royal Caribbean International and “Costa Venezia” will enter the Chinese market this year, followed by larger, newer cruise ships, which will provide a valuable time window for promoting functional construction and system improvement. At the same time, the effort of domestic-made large cruises was officially launched, the local cruise fleet was gradually organized, the supporting industrial clusters for cruise business were gradually formed, the cruise port reception level continued to improve, and the cruise policy environment continued to be optimized, marking China’s cruise tourism has entered the key year for developing the whole industry chain of cruise economy. As the cruise market reaches a certain scale, the demand for relevant industrial factors gradually emerges, which has laid down the basis for the transformation of cruise economy. In November 2018, CSSC, Carnival Corporation & PLC and Fincantieri S.p.A. officially signed a construction contract for 2 + 4135,000-tonVista-class large cruise ships at the first China International Import Expo, marking the official implementation of design and construction of China’s first large cruise ship and relevant supporting industrial clusters, with the industrial scale expected to reach tens of billions of yuan and even hundreds of billions of yuan. According to the estimate of the international cruise industry authority, Chinawill need 80–100 cruise ships by 2030. Calculated based on the cost of CNY 5 billion per cruise ship, the market size will be about CNY 300–400 billion.
Hong Wang, Ping Su, Xinliang Ye, Junqing Mei

Chapter 3. Top 10 Hot Topics in the Development of China’s Cruise Industry in 2018–2019

Abstract
The hot topics in the development of China’s cruise industry in 2018–2019 involve cruise economy policies, building of domestic large cruise ships, local cruise fleets, China Cruise Tourism Development Demonstration Zone, cruise port entry duty-free shop, and pilot program for cruise port marine tourism route, specifically including: cruise economy policies are introduced by governments at different levels to solve the cruise economy development difficulties; the whole industry chain of the cruise economy is fully activated as the building of domestic large cruise ships enters the substantial phase; central enterprises build local cruise fleets to build China’s national cruise brands; cruise flagships lay out the Chinese market to promote the high-quality development of the cruise economy; Shanghai is approved to construct China Cruise Tourism Development Demonstration Zone to continue to lead the innovation and development of China’s cruise economy; the reception capacity of cruise ports is significantly enhanced to lay a solid foundation for the cruise economy development; the first cruise port entry duty-free shop is approved in China to foster new highlights of cruise shopping; the first cruise ship refurbishment turkey project is contracted to improve the cruise shipbuilding and repair industry chain; the pilot program for cruise port marine tourism route is introduced to promote development of the destinationless cruise routes; cruise lines announce strategic layouts for 2020 to boost the flourishing of China’s cruise economy.
Xinliang Ye, Hong Wang, Jianyong Shi, Younong Wang

Special Articles on Cruise Economic Reform and Innovation in the New Era

Frontmatter

Chapter 4. Research on Cruise Economy Prosperity Index of Asia

Abstract
The world cruise tourism has broad development prospects and huge potential of market growth. With the development of leisure tourism in the world, especially the rapid development of economic and social development in developing countries, cruise tourism will become more popular with mass tourists. The cruise industry involves multiple factors: collective economic elements, networked tourism products, global customers and diversified cultures. The cruise industry is not only a high-growth industry, but also a high-volatility industry. The Asian cruise economy plays a key and central role in the regional economy and even the world economy. Therefore, the unhealthy development or the wide-ranging and large-scale fluctuations of the Asian cruise economy will cause huge losses to the global cruise economy. In such case, it is particularly necessary and important to analyze and evaluate the prosperity fluctuations of the Asian cruise economy using rigorous and scientific methods. This study aims to establish a scientific and effective prosperity evaluation and monitoring system of Asian cruise economy based on the understanding of the formation mechanism of prosperity fluctuations, analyze the operational situation, and play a warning role.
Jianyong Shi, Ling Qiu, Linkai Qi

Chapter 5. Research on Full Industry Chain Strategy of China’s Cruise Economy in the New Era

Abstract
Year 2019 marks the important transformation from cruise tourism to cruise economy in China, crucial for the development of whole industrial chain of cruise tourism. The design and construction of domestic large-sized cruise ships are started substantially, the development of local cruise ships is accelerated, the new driving force for the cruise economy is fostered, the factors of cruise industry are greatly agglomerated, and the industrial cluster of cruise ship supporting industry is gradually formed, the reception of cruise ports is continuously improved, the urban renewal in HKSAR is accelerated, and the leading role of the industry is continuously enhanced. The policies from central government to local government are focusing on the cruise industry, which continuously improves the policy environment for cruise industry, breaks through the bottleneck restricting the high-quality development of cruise economy, and creates a better innovation space and development potential for the cruise economy. The level and core competitiveness of China’s cruise economy have been continuously strengthened, the strategic positioning and functional layout of the whole industry chain of the cruise economy have been gradually clarified, and the cruise economy has advanced to a new era of high-quality development. In-depth analysis was carried out on the connotation, status quo and problems of the development of the whole industrial chain of cruise economy, puts forward the strategic path and mode of the whole industrial chain development of cruise economy in the new era, and consolidates and expands the advantages of China’s cruise economy, improves the energy level of the cruise industry, and puts forward the corresponding safeguard measures.
Hong Wang, Ruiqin Jiang, Junqing Mei

Chapter 6. Research on the Development of Cruise Tourism Under the Background of Tourism Integration in the Yangtze River Delta

Abstract
Yangtze River Delta is one of the most dynamic and innovative area with best development foundation, optimal institutional environment, greatest comprehensive strength and highest degree of openness. Yangtze River Delta, boasting rich cruise port resources and tourism resources, is an important tourist generating region and destination in China with the inherent advantages of cruise tourism destination. The international brand attractiveness of Yangtze River Delta as a cruise tourism destination may be developed by giving full play to the advantages of characteristic tourism resources, developing featured cruise products centering on the “world-class city cluster” in the Yangtze River Delta, promote the innovation of “cruise+” products, and intensify the promotion of the Yangtze River Delta as a cruise tourism destination. The wide range of cruise tourism may be deeply integrated into the tourism ecosystem of Yangtze River Delta by giving full play to the transportation advantages, promoting the one-city effect of cruise tourism and establishing combined home port for cruise ships at Yangtze River Delta. The paper deeply and comprehensively analyzes the destination development and international marketing strategic path of cruise tourism in the context of integration of Yangtze River Delta with a purpose of improving the international competitiveness of cruise economy in Yangtze River Delta.
Wenyu Hou

Chapter 7. Environmental Change of Cruise Industry in Northeast Asia and Challenges Facing the Korean Cruise Industry—Development Strategy Centered on North Busan Port

Abstract
Based on the main content of the results of the ‘Busan Port Ocean Tourism and Leisure Development Strategy Research Subject’ conducted by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (MOF) under the leadership of Korea International Cruise Research Institute in the second half of 2018, and the solutions of the Korean cruise industry facing the environmental change of the cruise in Northeast Asia, the cruise development strategy and future promotion plan for the redevelopment of Busan Port and north Busan Port in ROK are proposed in this article. In Chap. 2 of this research subject, based on the analysis and future change trend of the cruise environment in Northeast Asia centered on the situations before and after the THAAD incident, we propose the concept of a multi-turnaround cruise homeport chain cruising in Northeast Asia for dealing with the Korea cruise in advance. In Chap. 3, we describe the development strategy and detailed plan of north Busan Port, which is the hub port of cruise in Northeast Asia. The final conclusions will include the abstract of the study and the basic directions and recommendations needed for further advancement. The recent important topic ‘multi-turnaround cruise homeport chain cruising’ of cruise environment change in Northeast Asia is the opportunity for the development of cruise industry, which is expected to play a catalytic role in the realization of cruise homeport of Busan Port. The important opportunity for the expansion of the total number of cruises shall be achieved through the alliance between the cruise port cities in Northeast Asia. In the future promotion strategy and policy implementation, if we can make a more pre-emptive response to internal and external environmental changes and improve the feasibility of policy realization, it will become an important driving force for the stability of the cruise in Northeast Asia and the real realization of the multi-turnaround system.
Fushun Lin

Chapter 8. Developments in Japan’s Cruise Industry in 2018–2019: Efforts Toincrease Cruise Passengers Visiting Japan to 5 Million by 2020

Abstract
In 2006, Costa Cruises (Italy) started a homeport cruises in Shanghai with Costa Allegra (30,000 tons) This was followed by a rapid expansion of the Chinese cruise market as bigger and newer casual cruise ships were successively introduced. Conducting homeport in Shanghai, these cruise ships belonged to multiple companies, such as major cruise companies from the West, China-funded companies and joint venture shipping enterprises formed between Chinese and Western cruise companies. As a result, cruise ships from China began to make port calls in Japan, particularly at western ports of the country. This led to a rapid increase in the number of cruise passengers to Japan in conjunction with the expansion of the Chinese cruise market. Now, with the Japanese government’s inbound policy starting to bear fruit, there is a steady rise in passengers who visit Japan on homeport cruises not only in Shanghai but also in Tianjin, Keelung and other ports. Taking advantage of the Japan tourism boom, Princess Cruise (USA) and Costa Cruises (Italy) have steadily increased calls by homeport cruises in Japan, and other companies too have started homeport in Japan. In March 2016, the Japanese government set the target of increasing the number of cruise passengers visiting Japan to five million people by 2020 and making Japan a cruise destination capable of accepting a wide range of ships, from casual to luxury, at any port in the country. To achieve this target, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transportation and Tourism (MLIT) has taken the lead to develop an environment capable of accepting cruise ships in terms of infrastructure and hold business meetings between cruises companies and ports. In this paper, the current status and future outlook of cruise ships from the perspective of Japan, the measures being taken to respond to the rapidly growing cruise demands and the direction in which Japan’s cruise industry should move are reported on.
Ishihara Hiroshi

The Cruise Industry

Frontmatter

Chapter 9. A Study on the Globalization Strategies of China’s Cruise Tourism Market Under the “Belt and Road” Initiative

Abstract
As an emerging industry, the cruise industry has great potential for market development. In particular, the “Belt and Road” Initiative has also brought new development opportunities for it. In recent years, China’s position in the global cruise economy has gradually become prominent. Meanwhile, the development level of cruise tourism economy has also become an important indicator to measure the level of social and economic development of a country or region. The cruise economy consists of many factors, including concentrated economic factors, networked tourism products, glob service targets and diverse cultures. Although the cruise economy prospers internationally, its advancement has mostly been realized through cooperation between neighboring countries. However, the “Belt and Road” developing strategy has promoted cooperation between international cruise port cities and regions. Based on this background and from the perspective of cooperation between cruise-port cities, this paper proposes to explore the ways to: rich products along cruise ship routes, expand the inbound and outbound tourist markets of cruise ships, improve the level of cruise-port service, and improve the performance of cruise ship economy. It starts from discussing the status quo, problems and their causes of this topic, then seek ways to make break through on the approaches and policies of cooperation between international cruise-port cities.
Ping Su, Linkai Qi

Chapter 10. Research on Comprehensive Evaluation and Improvement Approaches of Cruise Industry Performance

Abstract
As a high value-added marine economic industry with strong relatedness and influence, the cruise industry has gradually become an important driving force for the transformation and upgrading of the regional economy. The expansion of the Chinese cruise market sees the growing economic influence of the cruise industry and its impetus to the regional economy across the country. The first step among all methods to sharpen the competitiveness of the cruise industry lies in the objective evaluation of the development and performance of the industry. This paper applies theories in such areas as industrial economics, value chain, cruise industry and competitive advantage, drawing on the existing comprehensive evaluation system and method of competitiveness within the cruise industry. It adopts TOPSIS method to construct comprehensive evaluation index system and evaluation model of cruise industry performance. Empirical analysis on the development and performance of the cruise industry in the objects—six major cruise port cities of Shanghai, Xiamen, Sanya, Dalian, Tianjin and Qingdao, was carried out, thereby finding out the specific reasons and short-term factors affecting the performance of the cruise city industry in the port city, and hence an approach to improve the performance and a reference for the decision-making departments in charge of the cruise industry.
Ling Qiu, Qiuxia Dong

Chapter 11. A Study on the Strategies for the Diversified Development of Cruise Products and Routes in China’s Home Port

Abstract
With the rapid development of China’s cruise industry, the number of cruise ships and tourists has increased by leaps and bounds, but 2018 saw the first decline in the past decade, indicating that China’s cruise industry has encountered difficulties. Therefore, in order to maintain the steady growth of China’s cruise industry and improve the overall quality of the cruise tourism market, beginning with the characteristics and policy bottlenecks of China’s home port cruise products, and drawing on the development experience of the international mature cruise market, this paper proposes the development strategies for the diversification of cruise route themes and the differentiation of cruise port circles as well as the differentiation of onboard services. On the basis of these, the development plan of Shanghai cruise products is proposed, such as the route “T-type” strategy, the destinationless route strategy, the comfortable route strategy for the young and old, and the multi-point tourism shopping strategy. It is conducive to the development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, and can also boost the consumption capacity of mainland tourists in the home ports and improve the economic benefits of the port city. Therefore, it is of great significance to the sustainable, healthy and rapid development of China’s cruise market.
Ling Sun

Chapter 12. A Study on the Development Path of Supporting Industrial Park of Cruise Shipbuilding and Repair Industry in Shanghai

Abstract
As the Shanghai cruise market gradually reaches a certain scale, the demand for related industrial factors has gradually emerged, and it has the basis for the transition to the cruise economy. The design and construction of the first large-scale cruise ship entered the formal implementation stage. The cruise ship supporting industrial cluster was initially established, and the cruise policy environment continued to be optimized. The development of the cruise ship economic agglomeration has taken shape, marking the development of Shanghai’s cruise industry to the entire industry chain of the cruise economy. In the field of cruise construction and supporting industries, Shanghai is facing competition from other provinces and cities and surrounding areas. It must seize the important opportunities for the transformation and upgrading of the cruise economy, consolidate its leading edge, establish a sound ecosystem of cruise construction, and accelerate the introduction of the development of industrial clusters, such as cruise maintenance and construction, cruise operations and cruise services. thus forming a core supporting industrial cluster of Shanghai cruise economy, promoting the integration of innovations in cruise ship economic policies and regulations. By doing so, the cruise economy will truly become a powerful engine for promoting local economic development in Shanghai, which also constitutes an important foundation for promoting the high-quality development of Shanghai cruise economy. Based on the development opportunity of the official launch of home-made cruise ship construction in Shanghai, this paper analyzes the functional positioning of the development of supporting industrial park of cruise ship construction, and puts forward corresponding strategies and suggestions in terms of system mechanism and development mode, so as to better drive the development of supporting industrial park of cruise ship construction in Shanghai.
Shuguang Lei, Junqing Mei

Chapter 13. A Study on Consumer Perception of International Cruise Travel in China-Based on Web Text Data Analysis

Abstract
As a new special tourism activity in China, cruise tourism has shown a rapid development trend along with the promotion of the “Belt and Road” Initiative. However, the growth rate of China’s cruise tourism has slowed down in the past two years, and China’s cruise tourism is facing industrial transformation. This paper takes China’s cruise tourism consumers as the research object, and uses the review data of Ctrip.com and Tongcheng Tourism website as samples to conduct tourist product perception research. Based on the literature analysis at home and abroad, the “Octoparse” data crawler software is used to obtain 27126 comments and the jieba word segmentation function of Python is applied to analyze the high frequency words of the text, and the Python SnowNLP library is employed to make emotional judgment of the comment texts; ROST CM6 semantic analysis is applied to analyze the perception differences of tourists on different routes. The study found that tourists’ perception of cruise tourism mainly includes five aspects: cruise environment, cruise facilities, cruise services, cruise activities, and overall experience; time span and space span affect tourists’ perception of cruise products; there are perception differences between ocean route tourists, and Japan’s routes and Southeast Asia’s routes; tourists’ overall satisfaction with cruise products is good, and the sentiment values of Japanese and ocean routes are higher than those of Southeast Asia routes. Finally, based on the analysis results, the paper proposes suggestions for improving the perception of Chinese cruise consumers.
YanLing Huang

Policy Suggestions

Frontmatter

Chapter 14. A Study on Evaluation of Supportive Policy System of China’s Cruise Industry

Abstract
In recent years, with the constant expansion of the demand for China’s cruise tourism market, people have an increasingly in-depth understanding of the development of the cruise industry. Governments, from central to local, all adopt supportive policies for the development of the cruise economy, ranging from the cultivation of the cruise market, the construction of the home port, the extension of the cruise industry chain, the expansion of cruise service chain and innovation concerning cruise supportive policies, which improve the business environment of cruise economy development, largely break the bottleneck restricting the high-quality development of cruise economy, and significantly expand the potential of cruise industry innovation. In China, the cruise industry supportive policy system covers various types, such as cruise fund subsidies, cruise policy innovation cruise industry development and so on. Among them, the financial fund subsidies are the predominant method to promote the development of the cruise industry. Currently, China’s cruise economy has entered a new stage of development, in which the cruise economic policy has delivered dividends, which requires more in-depth research on the policy bottlenecks and innovation paths of the cruise industry development. This paper will conduct research on the domestic cruise industry supportive policy system, evaluate and analyze its role and impact, and propose solutions and suggestions to better promote the development of the cruise industry chain.
You Nong Wang, Yan Hui Gao, Jun Qing Mei

Chapter 15. A Study on the Admission Mechanism of International Cruises in China’s Home Ports

Abstract
International cruise ships have been operating in China’s home port for 13 years. China has become the number one market in Asia and the second largest cruise ship market in the world. The number of cruise voyages as well as the number of cruise passengers has risen far above the global average. At the same time, it also exposed 7 problems, namely the low-price competition under the charter mode, the deterioration of service quality, the single cruise tourism products, shopping tourism converted from the upstream and other tourism projects, the imbalance of supply and demand caused by the construction of domestic cruise ports, and the cruise port, lack of mature services and management mechanisms, fewer profit points in cruise ports and poor profitability. Starting from the perspective of the study of the access mechanism, the paper proposes the three principles of constructing the access mechanism based on the actual situation of China’s cruise tourism development, namely, the principle of phase, the principle of Chinese characteristics, and the principle of coordination by drawing on the international experience. The paper also proposes five access mechanisms: a security access mechanism, an environmental protection access mechanism, a cruise product access mechanism, a cruise service level access mechanism, and a cruise management access mechanism.
Zhanglin Lin

Chapter 16. Research on Environmental Monitoring and Supervision System in Cruise Port Area

Abstract
The “high pollution, energy consumption and emissions” of cruise ships have caused a series of problems for cruise ports. As the scale of China’s cruise economy grows, the negative impact of the cruise environment requires us to take emergency measures. However, the research on cruise pollution and the laws and regulations are relatively scarce, so a comprehensive and in-depth study on the pollution problem of cruise ships is urgently needed. This paper comprehensively summarizes and analyzes the environmental problems of cruise ships at home and abroad, demonstrates evidences about the environmental risks faced by China’s cruise port area in the future and proposes the construction scheme of the regional environmental monitoring system of China’s cruise ports. It also explores the regional environmental monitoring mechanism of China’s cruise port, and provides countermeasures for promoting the construction of the cruise port environmental monitoring system. Suggestions and implementation plans can provide reference for the establishment and improvement of the top-level design of regional environmental supervision system of cruise ports in China.
Ruihong Sun, Qingqing Zhang, Huiyu Hong, Yuanqin He, Xinliang Ye

Chapter 17. Strategic Research on Profoundly Promoting Single Window in Cruise Ports

Abstract
Since launching the cruise route of home port in 2006, Shanghai Cruise Port has become the home port ranking the first in Asia and the fourth worldwide. The cruise industry has emerged as an important part in constructing the international shipping center of Shanghai and a new growth point for Shanghai’s economy. The increasing number of cruise ships and tourists in the cruise port imposes higher requirements on the various services of the cruise port. More convenient and efficient inspection and clearance processes in the aspects of entry and exit information declaration and customs clearance efficiency of the frontier inspection window are especially demanded. Based on the existing research results, this paper studies the strategy of promoting the single window of cruise ports in an all-round way, so as to better promote the construction of the “single window” cruise project and the development of the “convenient customs clearance bar code for cruise ships”, mixed inspection and release mode of cruise ports and credit management of cruise ports. “Single window”” can also be applied to more development systems of the cruise industry. In that way, the function system and application of the single window of the cruise can be improved, innovating the implementation path of the single window application of the cruise, constructing a more perfect policy system of single window security, maintaining the development order of the cruise economy, and boosting sustainable and healthy development of the cruise industry, which contributes to the growth of the economy of Shanghai, even of the country.
Jingjun Gu

Chapter 18. Research on Optimal Route of Material Distribution Center of Asia Pacific Cruise Ships

Abstract
The cruise economy of China has accelerated into a new era, the scale of the global cruise market continues to expand and the gravity of market center has significant transfer trend to the east. The “One Belt and Road” initiative provides new ideas and models for cruise economy of China, brings new impetus and space for a better life, and accelerates it into a new era. The cruise economy of China is undergoing four changes, namely, from “high-speed growth” to “stable development”; from “extensive development” to “fine upgrading”; from “quantity” to “quality”; and from “ship attraction” to “brand attraction”. Currently, the global market share of cruise ship supply industry in China is about 10%, with huge potential. The next few years will be the key stage for the rapid development, construction, supporting and operation of cruise industry of China to mature, and the key period for modernization and internationalization, will be also the key period for the Wusongkou International Cruise Terminal to build itself into the cruise tourism hub port ranking top three in the world and with the most core competitive in the Asia-Pacific region. Due to the characteristics of “global procurement and global distribution”, under the background of accelerating the construction of international shipping center, if Shanghai can build an international cruise material distribution center with the function of “global procurement and global distribution”, it will speed up the improvement of specialized cruise material supporting system in China, accelerate the construction of Shanghai international shipping center and accelerate the development of Chinese products in the global purchasing market of cruise ships, which will bring new development momentum and opportunities for development of Asia-Pacific cruise economy and cooperation of cruise port cities.
Guodong Yan, Jinlin Zhao, Jing Shen, Wenlu Shen, Wei Wang
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