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Über dieses Buch

This book focuses on deck bridges with encased steel beams. The chapters discuss the design process in deck bridges in the past and some current issues regarding the design and construction of this type of bridges, particularly in Slovakia. The theoretical part covers the latest achievements of international endeavours in composite bridge research. The authors provide results on research into structures with encased steel beams, based on experiments carried out solely by the Department of Structural Engineering of the Faculty of Civil Engineering at the Technical University in Kosice. The results obtained are compared with numerical simulations and analytical calculations. The book also contains some information on testing the materials of steel and concrete and their characteristics. Finally, a variety of types of composite action between steel and concrete have been examined and are discussed.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. The Current Situation in Bridge Construction

Abstract
Deck bridges with encased steel filler-beams have been utilised in bridge construction for many decades. Information on the history, design and construction of composite bridges made of steel and concrete is provided in this chapter. Some selected deck bridges with encased beams built in the Slovak Republic and worldwide are presented. The latest trends of the application of composite deck bridges with a specific type of encased filler-beam where composite action is ensured using a strip connector are reflected here as well.
Vincent Kvočák, Daniel Dubecký

Chapter 2. Proposed Designs of Deck Bridges

Abstract
Rolled and welded steel sections have been predominantly used in bridges with encased filler-beams. In an endeavour to better employ the steel section, several modified variants using a steel strip connector have been designed by the research team to provide effective composite action between concrete and steel and economise on steel consumption. The results of experimental measurements on beams with embedded steel I-sections and various modified sections providing continuous composite action are delivered in this chapter.
Vincent Kvočák, Daniel Dubecký

Chapter 3. The Tests of Deck Bridges with Encased Steel Beams

Abstract
Drawing on the knowledge gained in the previous research studies, a number of modified shapes of steel sections for composite members have been designed in the Institute of Structural Engineering at the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the Technical University of Kosice. Five different types of composite action using different strip connectors have been designed and manufactured for experimental investigations and are introduced in this chapter.
Vincent Kvočák, Daniel Dubecký

Chapter 4. Measurement of Material Properties of Concrete and Steel

Abstract
In order to specify the material properties of the concrete used in experimental members, several laboratory tests have been carried out, namely to test the values of the cube and cylindrical compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural tensile strength, and the modulus of elasticity of the concrete. Tensile tests have been used to determine the average value of the yield strength of the structural steel, and push-out tests have verified composite action. The results obtained in the individual material and push-out tests are presented, and then analysed and used for software modelling.
Vincent Kvočák, Daniel Dubecký

Chapter 5. Static Loading Tests of Composite Beams

Abstract
Short-term static loading tests of composite beams have been performed using a breaking machine in the Civil Engineering Faculty laboratories at the Technical University of Kosice. On the beams loaded with hydraulic presses, deflections and strains (relative deformations) in their steel and concrete regions have been measured, and the widths of cracks that appeared in the concrete section of the beams. All measurements are graphically and numerically displayed in this chapter. Resistances of the individual types of beams are compared, and the experimental measurements with the numerical models simulated by the ABAQUS software.
Vincent Kvočák, Daniel Dubecký

Chapter 6. Long-Term Tests of Composite Beams

Abstract
Long-term loading tests have been conducted to determine the material properties of shrinkage and creep of concrete in the beams. This chapter presents a long-term loading system using air-filled rubber pillows that can maintain the continuous application of load onto the whole area of the beams. The results of the loading tests lasting 420 days are provided.
Vincent Kvočák, Daniel Dubecký

Chapter 7. Fatigue Tests of Composite Beams

Abstract
Bridge structures are loaded variably; therefore, it is necessary to understand the behaviour of composite deck bridges with encased steel filler-beams under dynamic load. This chapter is devoted to fatigue experiments on five types of beams. All beam types meet the conditions for their use in bridge constructions.
Vincent Kvočák, Daniel Dubecký

Chapter 8. Modelling in the Abaqus Software Environment

Abstract
Models of experimental beams have been created using the SIMULIA ABAQUS program while considering their specific material properties. A numerical solution proposed for the modelled experimental specimens (considering the primary rigid steel reinforcement and secondary reinforcement bars and stirrups) has proved to correlate with the experimental results. Based on the close correspondence between the numerical and experimental results, SIMULIA ABAQUS modelling can be correctly used for designing parametric studies.
Vincent Kvočák, Daniel Dubecký

Chapter 9. Outlook in the Field of Deck Bridges

Abstract
The book in question pertains to some selected issues regarding composite steel and concrete structural members. It contains information on the state-of-the-art designs and constructional technologies in the field of composite structures in Slovakia and abroad. Particular attention is drawn to deck bridges with encased filler-beams to show some new possibilities and challenges in such structures. This type of construction is well-suited to bridge obstacles over short spans, and it is currently exploited to bridge sluices, culverts, rivers, roads, and other obstacles as wide as up to 18 m. Still, it is only the I-sections that are encased as the rigid reinforcement in most cases. Another purpose of this work was to bring a new progressive modified and experimentally verified shape of steel section into the civil engineering world. The steel box section provides an improved method of composite action/shear connection, ensured by the holes made both in the top flange and the webs of the steel beam. Another advantage of the steel box section rests in its exceptional flexural stiffness, which can guarantee that the beam will bear the dead weight of the fresh concrete in the construction process if necessary.
Vincent Kvočák, Daniel Dubecký
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