Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Our understanding of the relationships between research and innovation has radically changed over the last 25 years. The implications for development are striking. They bring to the forefront the importance of endogenous innovation processes in both developed and developing country situations. In the old industrial Science and Technology (S&T) model, the focus in the context of development was on technology transfer and imitation—imitation to some extent as the opposite of innovation. In the new model, every innovation now appears unique with respect to its application. The re-use and re-combinations of sometimes routine, sometimes novel pieces of knowledge are important, but their successful application involve more engineering expertise and design capabilities. The feedback from users and design developers upstream towards more applied research assistance is an interesting example of reverse transfer of technology, from the South to the North, re-invigorating the research community in the developed world increasingly ‘in search of relevance’.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
David, P. A. & Foray, D. (2002). An introduction to the economy of the knowledge society. International Social Science Journal, (54), 9–23. doi: 10.1111/1468-2451.00355
Ghosh, R., & Soete, L. (2006). Information and intellectual property: The global challenges. Industrial and Corporate Change, 15(6), 919–935. CrossRef
Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P., & Trow, M. (1994). The new production of knowledge: The dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies. London: Sage Publications.
McDonough, W., & Braungart, M. (2011). Cradle to cradle products innovation institute. Retrieved Feb 14, 2012, from http://www.c2ccertified.org/
McDonough, W., & Braungart, M. (2002). Cradle to cradle: Remaking the way we make things. New York: North Point Press.
Nowotny, H., Scott, P., & Gibbons, M. (2001). Re-thinking science: Knowledge and the public in an age of uncertainty. London: Polity Press.
Pasinetti, L. L. (1981). Structural change and economic growth: A theoretical essay on the dynamics of the wealth of nations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Prahalad, C. K. (2005). The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Ramani, S. (2008). Breaking the guardian knot in sanitation—development of new technology & business models to create a market for toilets for India’s poorest, UNU-MERIT Working Papers 2008–12.
Rothwell, R., Freeman, C., Horsley, A., Jervis, V. T. P., Robertson, A. B., & Townsend, J. (1993). SAPPHO updated—project SAPPHO Phase II. Research Policy, 22(2). doi: 10.1016/0048-7333(93)90057-O
Sen, A. (1968). Choice of techniques. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Von Hippel, E. (2005). Democratizing innovation. Cambridge: MIT Press.
- Research and Innovation for Sustainable Development
- Chapter 20