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## Über dieses Buch

The investigation of the interactions between human and physical systems poses unique conceptual, methodological, and practical challenges. This book establishes a spatial science framework for policymakers, social scientists, and environmental researchers as they explore and analyze complex problems. The authors provide guidance for scientists, writers, and students across a broad range of fields on how to tackle discipline-specific issues of space, place, and scale as they propose and conduct research in the spatial sciences. This practical textbook and overview blends plenty of concrete examples of spatial research and case studies to familiarize readers with the research process, demystifying and illustrating how it is actually done. The appendix contains both completed and in-progress proposals for MA and PhD theses and dissertations, as well as successful research grants. By emphasizing research as a learning and experiential process, while providing students with the encouragement and skills needed for success in proposal writing, "Research Design and Proposal Writing in Spatial Science" can serve as a textbook for research-design or project-based courses at the upper-division undergraduate and graduate level.

## Inhaltsverzeichnis

### Chapter 1. Spatial Science and Its Traditions

Abstract
Research design is the critical process that transforms an idea, interest, or question from “just a thought” into a meaningful and purposeful investigation of human or physical processes. The central emphasis of research design is the process itself.
Jay D. Gatrell, Gregory D. Bierly, Ryan R. Jensen, Rajiv R. Thakur

### Chapter 2. Literature Reviews

Abstract
Writing [the literature review] well is a sign of professional maturity; it indicates one’s grasp of the field, one’s methodological sophistication in critiquing others’ research, and the breadth and depth of one’s reading.
Jay D. Gatrell, Gregory D. Bierly, Ryan R. Jensen, Rajiv R. Thakur

### Chapter 3. Research Questions

Abstract
Spatial science research describes and explains the distribution of human and physical phenomena over the earth’s surface. Such research problems exist and may be analyzed across a vast spectrum of traditional scientific disciplines.
Jay D. Gatrell, Gregory D. Bierly, Ryan R. Jensen, Rajiv R. Thakur

### Chapter 4. Data and Methods in Spatial Science

Abstract
One of the core strengths of scientific analysis is that it relies upon a base of evidence to make decisions and correct errors in the development of theory. The evidence that is used to describe the operative processes in spatial science is assembled as data, derived through observation, measurement and experiment, directly and indirectly.
Jay D. Gatrell, Gregory D. Bierly, Ryan R. Jensen, Rajiv R. Thakur

### Chapter 5. Graduate Degree Proposals

Abstract
Graduate students are usually expected to write and defend a formal proposal of their thesis or dissertation project. While some students consider the proposal just another “hoop” in the graduate school process to jump through, this step is essential as they modify their research projects and define a clear path to graduation. Specifically, the proposal step should serve to.
Jay D. Gatrell, Gregory D. Bierly, Ryan R. Jensen, Rajiv R. Thakur

### Chapter 6. Grants and Grant Writing

Abstract
One of the many reasons that people enter into academia is for the opportunity to pursue their own research interests. The conduct of research often requires external funding, and obtaining support through submission of successful grant proposals is challenging.
Jay D. Gatrell, Gregory D. Bierly, Ryan R. Jensen, Rajiv R. Thakur

### Chapter 7. Disseminating Research

Abstract
Once the proposal has been approved or grant monies awarded and research completed, scholars are obliged to share their research with their colleagues and community.
Jay D. Gatrell, Gregory D. Bierly, Ryan R. Jensen, Rajiv R. Thakur

### Chapter 8. Reflections on Proposal Writing in Spatial Science

Abstract
The research process is just that, a process. In this book, we have examined the process of research design and proposal writing. Yet, the focus of this book—and the accompanying proposals—is how to “propose”, “do”, and “write” spatial science research.
Jay D. Gatrell, Gregory D. Bierly, Ryan R. Jensen, Rajiv R. Thakur

### Chapter 9. Model Proposals

Abstract
Proposal writing is a skill that a scholar develops throughout her/his career. Indeed, writing itself is a development process. As the following model proposals illustrate, the style and prose of scholarly writing is evolutionary and as you read the sample thesis, dissertation, and grant proposals this should be apparent. That is to say, the purpose and audience of each document determines the scale, scope, and structure of any proposal. For example, master’s theses demonstrate a student’s capacity to “do research.”
Jay D. Gatrell, Gregory D. Bierly, Ryan R. Jensen, Rajiv R. Thakur

### Chapter 10. Thesis I: Human Systems

Abstract
This proposal is an example of an integrated GIScience approach to investigating urban social issues. Additionally, the proposal demonstrates that a thesis proposal is just that—a proposal. Whereas some thesis proposals may appear to be nearly completed works, this proposal is an example of a common—but effective—research proposal.
Eric W. LaFary

### Chapter 11. Thesis II: Human Systems-Mixed Methods

Abstract
This is one of the few proposals that have been in all three editions of this book. It is included as it is an example of a post-structuralist research design that incorporates a mixed methodological approach that draws on both quantitative and qualitative data. Additionally, the interdisciplinary proposal is a policy-oriented case study that effectively integrates fieldwork, content analysis, and government documents to explain and compare historical and contemporary policies in Malaysia.
Robin A. Lewis

### Chapter 12. Dissertation I: Human–Environment Interactions

Abstract
This proposal focuses on human–environment interactions and the notion of environmental justice. The proposal develops a qualitative GIS methodology to investigate the relationship between place attachment and environmental activism in two study areas.
Trevor K. Fuller

### Chapter 13. Dissertation II: Geo-Techniques

Abstract
This proposal is an example of a technique driven proposal. The proposal is a fine example of the use of graphics to simplify complex methods of analysis and the effectiveness of graphics to convey such information. Additionally, the literature review clearly defines the contribution of the research and is presented in a straightforward fashion using a table structure.
Genong Yu

### Chapter 14. Dissertation III: Physical Systems

Abstract
This proposal has four unique features. First, the literature section distills complex research in geomorphology into easily understood concepts. Second, the author explicitly cites the works from which the hypotheses are derived. This technique serves to situate the proposed research squarely in the existing literature and by implication defines the “gap.”
Michael Jurmu

Abstract
James Speer

### Chapter 18. Extramural IV: Training and Development

Abstract
This proposal was funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in 2019 via USAID’s Protect Tanzania project (Promoting Tanzania’s Environment, Conservation, and Tourism.
Ryan R. Jensen, Emanuel H. Martin

### Chapter 19. Extramural V: Non-profit Organizations

Abstract
This project will produce the National Geographic World Atlas of Beer, which National Geographic Books and we envision being the “the most comprehensive atlas on beer”.
Mark Patterson, Nancy Hoalst-Pullen

### Chapter 20. Intramural Grants

Abstract
Internal grants are unique and the specific proposal requirements vary from institution to institution—as do the total monies available. However, the audience for internal grant proposals is often very similar.
Gregory D. Bierly, Jay D. Gatrell
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