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2022 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

3. Resilience in Dutch and Taiwanese Regions: High-Tech and Beyond

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Zusammenfassung

In this chapter, I will bring you to the high-tech region Eindhoven in the Netherlands and the high-tech region Hsinchu in Taiwan and also travel to the past. I will share with you some of the most remarkable aspects of the resilience of the two high-tech regions. The developments in both regions show that resilience started with understanding the challenges ahead. Both cases clearly illustrate how these worries led to government plans to, amongst others, build and strengthen the knowledge structure, stimulate regional cooperation, and boost new activities. When building on past experiences was possible, government involvement became less important and vice versa. Moreover, government policy became relevant only if local actors came into action. Both cases show that for regional cooperation sharing more than geographical proximity was of prime importance and that local embeddedness was paired to global connectivity. On the one hand both high-tech clusters faced economic and technical challenges, which were intertwined with global developments. On the other hand global connections played a crucial role in the adaptive capability of these high-tech regions.
Fußnoten
1
Evenhuis, Institutional Change; idem/S. Dawley, Evolutionary Perspectives, pp. 192 f.; Martin and Sunley identify four main types of resilience: Martin/Sunly, Regional Economic Resilience, p. 13; Molema/Ramon-Muñoz, Introduction to Special Issue.
 
2
Boschma, Towards an Evolutionary Perspective, p. 735. See also footnote 5.
 
3
They do not consider “The immediate alterations caused by the change in circumstances … as part of this process, neither are alterations that occur autonomously within the region, and which are hence independent of changes in the broader environment”; Evenhuis/Dawley, Evolutionary Perspectives, pp. 192 f.
 
4
Ibid.
 
5
The engineering and ecological conceptions are primarily concerned with the dimensions of resistance (depth of the initial reaction), recovery (speed and degree of rebound) and renewal (shift to new equilibrium/development path). The evolutionary approach uses the terms ‘adaptive capacity’ or long–term adaptability to capture the potential to develop new pathways, whereas adaptation describes the ability to change only the existing pathway; Boschma, Regional Resilience, p. 735. See also Christopherson/Michie/Tyler, Regional Resilience; Evenhuis, The Political Economy, p. 15; Martin, Regional Economic Resilience; Pike/Dawley/Tomaney, Resilience, Adaptation and Adaptability; Simmie/Martin, The Economic Resilience; Cooke/Rehfeld, Path Dependence.
 
6
Boschma, Towards an Evolutionary Perspective, pp. 736, 741.
 
7
Wink/Kirchner/Koch/Speda, There are Many Roads.
 
8
Bristow/Healy, Crisis Response; David, Agency and Resilience.
 
9
Bristow/Healy, Introduction, p. 5.
 
10
Ibid.
 
11
Boschma/Frenken, Technological Relatedness.
 
12
Martin/Sunley/Gardiner/Tyler, How Regions React to Recessions; Martin/Sunly, Regional Economic Resilience.
 
13
Bristow/Healy, Regional Resiliance, p. 931.
 
14
Amdam/Bjarnar/Berge, Resilience and Related Variety.
 
15
Martin and Sunly mentioned this already in 2006. Boschma, Relatedness as Driver of Regional Diversification; Hassink/Isaksen/Trippl, Towards a Comprehensive Understanding; MacKinnon/Dawley/Pike/Cumbers, Rethinking Path Creation; Neffke/Hartog/Boschma/Henning, Agents of Structural Change; Martin/Sunley, Path Dependence; Trippl/Grillitsch/Isaksen, Exogenous Sources; Yeung, Regional Development.
 
16
Evenhuis, Institutional Change; Hassink/Isaksen/Trippl, Towards a Comprehensive Understanding, p. 1640; MacKinnon, Beyond Strategic Coupling, p. 227.
 
17
Dawley, Creating New Paths? MacKinnon/Dawley/Steen et al., Path Creation.
 
18
Evenhuis, The Political Economy; Bristow/Healy, Supranational Policy.
 
19
Davids, The Transformation of an Old Industrial District´, pp. 556, 577; Boschma, Towards an Evolutionary Perspective, pp. 736, 741.
 
20
Popp/Wilson, Life Cycles; Wilson/Popp (eds.), Industrial Clusters.
 
21
Ibid.
 
22
Scranton, Endless Novelty.
 
23
In contrast, Martin and Sunley stressed recently that “we should not confuse the continually evolving determinants of regional economic resilience, which may well include slowly-unfolding structural changes and adaptation – such as the product, technological and market reorientation of existing activities, the emergence of new dynamic sectors, upgrading of the local skill base, and the like – with the actual reaction or resilience outcomes of the region’s economy if and when a shock or disruption occurs.” Martin/Sunly, Regional Economic Resilience, p. 19.
 
24
These case studies that have an explorative character are based on extensive document and literature research.
 
25
Huang, Spatial Planning.
 
26
Boschma, Towards an Evolutionary Perspective.
 
27
This was in 1939. Taiwan Hong Kong Glass Exhibition, Mayor Lin, Promote Hsinchu Made Glass.
 
28
Taiwan Glass Industry Corp. Ltd.
 
29
HSIP was established in 1979 and opened in 1980.
 
30
Hsu, Hsinchu Technopolis, working paper 2, p. 3; idem, Hsinchu Technopolis.
 
31
Later followed EPZs in Taichung and Nantze.
 
32
van Hoesel, Taiwan, p. 292.
 
33
Wai Yip So, Reassessment of the State Role; van Hoesel, New Multinational Enterprises, pp. 160–162; Hsu, Hsinchu Technopolis, working paper 2, p. 3.
 
34
Chang/Tsai, Evolution, p. 186.
 
35
Saxenian, The Silicon Valley-Hsinchu Connection.
 
36
Matthews, A Silicon Valley.
 
37
Chang/Tsai, Evolution, pp. 185–187; Matthews, A Silicon Valley; Saxenian, The Silicon Valley-Hsinchu Connection.
 
38
Hsu, Hsinchu Technopolis, working paper 2, p. 10.
 
39
Wai Yip So, Reassessment of the State Role, p. xx.
 
40
Tsai/Chang, Evaluation of Critital Factors, p. 702.
 
41
Chen, The Emergence of Hsinchu Science Park; Hsu, Hsinchu Technopolis; Wai Yip So, Reassessment of the State Role, p. 70; Hsu, Hsinchu Technopolis, working paper 2, p. 2.
 
42
9% in the 1950s and 5,5% in the 1960s.
 
43
Lin/Rasia, Human Capital Flows.
 
44
Hsu/Saxenian, The Limits of Guanxi Capitalism, p. 1998; Wai Yip So, Reassessment of the State Role, pp. 69–71.
 
45
Yu/Shih, Taiwan’s PC Industry.
 
46
Chen, The Emergence of Hsinchu Science Park, p. 69.
 
47
Wai Yip So, Reassessment of the State Role, p. 72.
 
48
Chen, The Emergence of Hsinchu Science Park, p. 74; Wai Yip So, Reassessment of the State Role, p. 72.
 
49
Chen/Jan, A Variety-increasing View; Chen/Sewell, Strategies for Technological Development; Breznitz, Innovation and the State, p. 108; Chang/Tsai, Finding the Niche Position.
 
50
Chen/Jan, A Variety-increasing View. This was not unimaginable, as the ‘Vitelic case’ proved. In one attempt to acquire VLSI technology, ERSO turned for assistance to Vitelic – a small Silicon Valley firm founded by Hong Kong Chinese in 1983. The R&D phase was successful, and they jointly developed a DRAM chip. In the absence of a fabrication facility in Taiwan, Vitelic sold the technology to a Korean company; Meany, State Policy, p. 182.
 
51
Breznitz, Innovation and the State, pp. 108 f.; Lin/Rasia, Human Capital Flows; Saxenian, The Silicon Valley-Hsinchu Connection, p. xx. In 1983, US $72.5 million were allocated for this 5-year program.
 
52
Matthews, A Silicon Valley, pp. 36.
 
53
Saxenian, The Silicon Valley-Hsinchu Connection; Interview with Mr. Y.C. Lo, former vice president NXP, Taipei 2014.
 
54
Matthews, A Silicon Valley; Interview with Mike Ye, Taipei 2014.
 
55
Liu/Hung/Wu/Chu, Technology Entrepreneurial Styles.
 
56
Tung, Taiwan’s Integrated Circuit Industry.
 
57
Hsu, Hsinchu Technopolis, working paper 2, p. 6.
 
58
Tung/Wan jr, Industrial Policy.
 
59
Chen, The Emergence of Hsinchu Science Park, p. 75.
 
60
Taisal was a joint venture of the US based MEMC and government owned China Steel Corporation; ibid., p. 76; Hu, Evolution of Knowledge Creation, pp. 967 f.
 
61
Rasiah/Lin, Innovation and Learning; Saxenian, The Silicon Valley-Hsinchu Connection; Interview with Mr. Y.C. Lo, Taipei 2014.
 
62
Hu/Lin/Chang, Technology-based Regional Development Strategies.
 
63
Hsu/Saxenian, The Limits of Guanxi Capitalism.
 
64
Ibid.
 
65
Hu/Lin/Chang, Technology-based Regional Development Strategies.
 
66
While the sales of the IC sector was NT$14.6 billion that of computers and peripherals was NT$54.3 billion. Chen, Hsinchu Science Park, pp. 71–73.
 
67
Website Taiwan Glass Group, http://​www.​taiwanglass.​com/​about.​php?​langeno=​en, visited 01–04–2021.
 
68
The festival was held every 2 year until 2003 and was organized again in 2006 when it resumed its biennial schedule.
 
69
Her, Culturally Connected.
 
70
Chung City of Glass.
 
71
NV Philips Gloelampen fabrieken was renamed Philips Electronics NV in 1991. In this paper we will use the term Philips. Davids/Lintsen, The Dutch Knowledge Infrastructure, pp. 134–141.
 
72
While in 1947 it offered work to 18% of the labor force in 1960 this was only 10% (whole North–Brabant); Adang/van Oorschot, Regio in bedrijf, p. 31.
 
73
Bouwens/Dankers, Competition and Varieties, p. 105; Lintsen, Brainport de toekomst.
 
74
According to T. Hurks, chair of the Eindhoven Chamber of Commerce, in: Lintsen/Korsten, De veerkracht, p. 102.
 
75
The Circle of Manufacturers was involved by the establishment of the Second and Third Technical School and by the UTS (Uitgebreid Technisch Onderwijs), that became later the MTS; Adang, Vijftig jaar Eindhovensche Fabrikantenkring, p. 67.
 
76
Blanken, Geschiedenis van Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; Stille Krachten.
 
77
Davids, Industriele productie, p. 363.
 
78
Conijn, Wim van der Leegte, pp. 15 f., 24 f.
 
79
The company was named Elektrotechnisch Projecten Bureau Meulensteen; http://​neways.​acc.​2binteractive.​nl/​Technologie.​aspx, retrieved June 2019.
 
80
Adang/van Oorschot, Regio in bedrijf, p. 80.
 
81
Ibid., p. 19.
 
82
Ibid., p. 80.
 
83
Ibid., pp. 80 f.
 
84
Adang, Eindhovensche Fabrikantenkring.
 
85
At that time DAF/Volvo Trucks.
 
86
Frits Conijn, Wim van der Leegte. Hoe een Brabantse familieman Nederland aan werk hielp, Amsterdam 2018, p. 52.
 
87
Adang/Van Oorschot, Regio in bedrijf, p. 19.
 
88
Lintsen/Korsten, De veerkracht, pp. 94, 103.
 
89
Lintsen, Brainport de toekomst, pp. 205–217.
 
90
According to T. Hurks, in: Lintsen/Korsten, De veerkracht, p. 102.
 
91
Ibid., p. 102.
 
92
Adang, Eindhovensche Fabrikantenkring.
 
93
van den Berg/Braun/van Winden, Growth Clusters.
 
94
The decision to focus on process technology, however, gave Philips a leading role in the components industry, that was much more mature. Philips had decades of experience in this field and formed the background of its position in the semiconductor industry; van den Ende/Wijnberg/Meijer, Public Policy.
 
95
In 1990 a loss of NLG 200 million arose. In 1991, a financial consortium led by the ABN–AMRO bank guaranteed the share issue of NLG 250 million, but the loss has increased to NLG 400 million. In 1992 the banks made use of their right to call in their security. An attempt at a restructuring plan with Mercedes failed, and in February 1993, the bankruptcy was announced.
 
96
Conijn, Wim van der Leegte, p. 83; Stille Krachten, 2 parts.
 
97
Ibid.
 
98
Conijn, Wim van der Leegte, p. 80.
 
99
47 of the 160 employees could not return.
 
100
This after the acquisition of various bus manufacturers in the region and in the Netherlands.
 
101
Conijn, Wim van der Leegte; Stille Krachten, 2 parts.
 
102
Ibid.; van den Berg/Braun/van Winden, Growth Clusters; Lintsen, Brainport de toekomst.
 
103
Ibid.
 
104
van den Berg/Braun/van Winden, Growth Clusters; Horlings, Leadership, p. 160.
 
105
van Duijn, Fortunes of High Tech.
 
106
Employment growth in Eindhoven was 2.8 and in the Netherlands 2.1; the turnover growth 4.2 in Eindhoven and 3.0 in the Netherlands, while export growth in Eindhoven was 7.9 and in the Netherlands 2.1; van den Berg/Braun/van Winden, Growth Clusters, pp. 41 f.
 
107
The total turnover of ASMLithography was 1,300 million Dutch guilders in 1997 and that of Stork 4,900; ibid., p. 43.
 
108
Celebrating 90 years of design at Philips, p. 7.
 
109
The human person – the user and designer – became central in the eight specializations. Well known experts were attracted as responsible teachers to develop the specialisations, which all started with the term ‘Man and …’ (Man and Identity, Man and Living, Man and Food, Man and Work, Man and Information, Man and Transport, Man and Environment, and Man and Leisure). Key was that students had to develop a concept in context and be able to cooperate, and to work and think interdisciplinary.
 
110
Miriam van der Lubbe graduated in 1995 and established, together with Van Eijk, the firm Van Eijk & Van der Lubbe in 1998. Yksi was founded by Eduard Sweep and Leonne Cuppen. They both followed the Design Academy Eindhoven from 1985 to 1990.
 
111
In the Vormgevers Overleg Eindhoven amongst others Miriam van de Lubbe, Eduard Sweep, Walter van Hulst, Han Leblanc, Simone de Waart, Leonne Cuppen played a role. Miriam van de Lubbe and Eduard Sweep initiated the idea of the Day of Design the forerunner of the DDW.
 
112
The Vormgevers Overleg Eindhoven was established in 1997.
 
113
Huang, Spatial Planning.
 
114
van Winden/de Carvalho/van Tuijl/van Haaren/van den Berg, Creating Knowledge Locations.
 
115
In the final plan made by Lucassen, arts and culture were less prominent than in Hermes’ original ideas; Verhoogt, De geschiedenis; Roos, De witte dame.
 
116
Huang, Spatial Planning.
 
117
van Winden/de Carvalho/van Tuijl/van Haaren/van den Berg, Creating Knowledge Locations.
 
118
van Winden, Knowledge.
 
119
van den Berg/Braun/van Winden, Growth Clusters, pp. 48–55. This were 1,244 R&D workers out of 5,055 total employees in 2006. Lammers/Eling/de Man/van Weele, Meeting Moore’s Law, p. 63.
 
120
The world chip lithography market grew from €463 million in 1984 to €4,800 million in 2006. ASML’s market share grew from less than 10% in 1990 to 14% by 1995, 30% in 2000 and more than 50% in 2002. Nikon’s market share dropped from 45% in 1995 to 21% in 2006 and Canon’s share from 29% to 16%. Lammers/Eling/de Man/van Weele, Meeting Moore’s Law, p. 56.
 
121
van den Berg/Braun/van Winden, Growth Clusters, p. 52; Horlings, Leadership, p. 166.
 
122
Also van der Leegte had to sell the 3.3 shares.
 
123
At 31–12–2007 the production plant in Eindhoven ad 5,947 employees, the one in Westerlo (Belgium, around 70 km from Eindhoven) 2,585 employees, and the plant in Leyland 508 employees; van Winden/van den Berg/Carvalho/van Tuijl, Manufacturing, p. 69.
 
124
Lintsen (red.), Tachtig jaar, p. 103.
 
125
Stille Krachten, part 2, p. 83.
 
126
Delta Electronics moved its office from Eindhoven to Helmond and decided to invest in a laboratory; Feestelijke ceremonie voor Delta Electronics. 06–09–2019 Website Automotive Campus, https://​www.​automotivecampus​.​com/​nl/​actueel/​nieuws/​artikel/​75/​Feestelijke–ceremonie–voor–Delta–Electronics, visited 24–02–2021.
 
127
van Winden/van den Berg/Carvalho/van Tuijl, Manufacturing, pp. 69 f.
 
128
Ibid., p. 71.
 
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Metadaten
Titel
Resilience in Dutch and Taiwanese Regions: High-Tech and Beyond
verfasst von
Mila Davids
Copyright-Jahr
2022
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-37302-3_3