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Infrastructure that manages our water resources (such as, dams and reservoirs, irrigation systems, channels, navigation waterways, water and wastewater treatment facilities, storm drainage systems, urban water distribution and sanitation systems), are critical to all sectors of an economy. Realizing the importance of water infrastructures, efforts have already begun on understanding the sustainability and resilience of such systems under changing conditions expected in the future.
The goal of this collected work is to raise awareness among civil engineers of the various implications of landscape change and non-climate drivers on the resilience of water management infrastructure. It identifies the knowledge gaps and then provides effective and complementary approaches to assimilate knowledge discovery on local (mesoscale)-to-regional landscape drivers to improve practices on design, operations and preservation of large water infrastructure systems.



Chapter 1. Resilience of Water Management Infrastructure

This chapter presents a compilation of work conducted by the ASCE Task Committee ‘Infrastructure Impacts of Landscape-driven Weather Change’ under the ASCE Watershed Management Technical Committee and the ASCE Hydroclimate Technical Committee. The chapter argues for explicitly considering the well-established feedbacks triggered by infrastructure systems to the land-atmosphere system via landscape change. A definition for Infrastructure Resilience (IR) at the intersection of extreme weather and climate is provided for the engineering community. The broader range of views and issues than what is currently in the front view of engineering practice is expected to ensure more robust approaches for resilience assessment by the engineering community by affording a greater number of ‘scenarios’ in its decision-making. The engineering community needs to understand the predictive uncertainty of changes to extreme weather and climate and how it can be addressed to improve infrastructure design and operations.
Faisal Hossain, Jeffrey Arnold, Dev Niyogi, Roger A. Pielke, Ji Chen, Dave Wegner, Anindita Mitra, Steve Burian, Shahrbanou Madadgar, Ed Beighley, Casey Brown, Vincent Tidwell

Chapter 2. Survey of Water Managers for Twenty-First Century Challenges

This chapter presents the survey results from a cross section of experienced water managers using a set of carefully crafted questions. These questions covered water resources management, infrastructure resiliency, and recommendations for inclusion in education and curriculum. The chapter describes the specifics of the survey and the results obtained in the form of statistical averages on the ‘perception’ of these managers. Finally, these ‘perception’ averages may help focus the ASCE community on issues required for stewardship of the civil engineering profession. The survey and the responses gathered are not exhaustive nor do they represent the ASCE-endorsed viewpoint. However, the survey provides a critical first step in developing the framework of a research and education plan for ASCE. Given the Water Resources Reform and Development Act passed in 2014, the engineering community should now take into account the perceived concerns of the water management community.
Faisal Hossain, Jeffrey Arnold, Dev Niyogi, Roger A. Pielke, Ji Chen, Dave Wegner, Anindita Mitra, Steve Burian, Ed Beighley, Casey Brown, Vincent Tidwell

Chapter 3. Current Approaches for Resilience Assessment

This chapter provides a brief overview of some of the more established approaches to resilience and risk assessment as practiced in other fields of engineering that may be pertinent to water management infrastructures. It also traces ASCE’s historical role in addressing risks to large infrastructure for water management. Finally, the chapter makes some recommendations as a way forward for improving resilience assessment involving greater use of numerical models.
Faisal Hossain, Dev Niyogi, Roger A. Pielke, Ji Chen, Dave Wegner, Anindita Mitra, Steve Burian, Ed Beighley, Casey Brown, Vincent Tidwell

Chapter 4. Application of Numerical Atmospheric Models

Intense storms, or extreme rainfall events as they shall be called in this chapter hereafter, pose challenges to infrastructure management and design, and trigger other catastrophic events such as floods, landslides, and dam failures. They are also the cornerstone of engineering design and risk assessment of large infrastructures such as dams, levees, and power plants (Stratz and Hossain 2014). Therefore, it is of great societal interest to physically predict and understand the occurrence and magnitude of such extreme events for both design and operation of engineering infrastructures, and testing their resilience
Xiaodong Chen, Faisal Hossain, Lai-Yung Leung

Chapter 5. Infrastructure-Relevant Storms of the Last Century

Over the past 100 years, numerous water management infrastructures have been constructed to serve the water-related needs of people worldwide (Mitchell 1990). The larger ones are typically reservoirs with a dam and are often built for multiple purposes (e.g., water supply, disaster control, energy production, recreation, and navigation). These large water management infrastructures are the center of local and regional water resources management (Grigg 1996; Asmal et al. 2000). With the projected increase of water usage in the coming decades due to population growth and economic development, dams and reservoirs will remain one of the most ubiquitous and centralized solutions to satisfy water demands (Graf et al. 2010; Schlosser et al. 2014).
Xiaodong Chen, Faisal Hossain

Chapter 6. Sensitivity of Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP)

The vital question that motivated this chapter is to what extent are universally accepted, stationary Probable Maximum Precipitation values as published in Hydrometeorological Reports, representative of current and future climate behavior given our current understanding of changes to climate? To the best of our knowledge, none have explored the extent to which PMP values are altered using a replication of the procedures outlined in the Hydrometeorological Reports coupled with future climate data from numerical modeling tools or observational analyses of climatic trends.
Steven Adam Stratz, Faisal Hossain

Chapter 7. A Recommended Paradigm Shift in the Approach to Risks to Large Water Infrastructure in the Coming Decades

We propose the adoption of a bottom-up, resource-based vulnerability approach in evaluating the effect of climate and other environmental and societal threats to large water management infrastructure. To effectively reduce risk and increase resiliency requires as a prerequisite the determination of the major threats to local and regional water supplies and quality from weather including those from extreme flood and drought events, but also from other social and environmental issues. After these threats are identified, the relative risks can be compared in order to adopt optimal preferred mitigation/adaptation strategies. This is a more inclusive way of assessing risks, including from climate variability and human and natural climate change, than using the outcome vulnerability approach adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This “contextual vulnerability” assessment using the bottom-up, resource-based framework is a more inclusive approach for policymakers dealing with water management infrastructure to adopt effective mitigation and adaptation methodologies to deal with the complexity of the spectrum of social and environmental events that will occur in the coming decades.
Roger A. Pielke, Faisal Hossain

Chapter 8. Safety Design of Water Infrastructures in a Modern Era

Over the past century, numerous water infrastructures have been built to serve the water-related need of people worldwide (Mitchell, 1990). Those larger ones often serve multiple purposes, such as agriculture, navigation, hydropower, and flooding control. Failure of such high-hazard dams, especially those with flooding control purposes, would bring catastrophic ecological and societal loss.
Xiaodong Chen
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