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2022 | Buch

Resilient Smart Cities

Theoretical and Empirical Insights


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This book provides a thorough guide to building resilient cities, through the use of smart solutions enabled by information and communication technologies. It introduces innovative approaches for integrating smart solutions into urban resilience planning and offers numerous global case studies to illustrate the benefits of the theories discussed.

Against a background of increased natural disasters, pandemics, and climate change, this book answers research questions such as:

• Do smart city projects contribute to urban climate resilience?

• What are the indicators of smart city resilience?

• What procedures should be taken to improve efficacy of smart city solutions?

• What are the opportunities and challenges for promoting smart city resilience and for integrating resilience thinking into smart city planning?

Including contributions from international experts, explanatory illustrations, and data-driven tables, this book is of interest to researchers, policymakers, and graduate students focused on developing more sustainable, smart, and resilient cities.


21. Correction to: Digital Solutions for Resilient Cities: A Critical Assessment of Resilience in Smart City Initiatives in Melbourne, Victoria
Leila Irajifar, Khanh N. Vu

Theoretical Insights

Chapter 1. Cities in the Context of Global Change: Challenges and the Need for Smart and Resilient Cities
Cities are now home to over 4.3 billion people, more than 56% of world population, and further growth in urbanization trends is projected for the coming decades. According to United Nations, 68% of world population is projected to live in urban areas by 2050. Traditionally, people have migrated to cities in search for better livelihood opportunities, better access to services and amenities, and enhanced quality of life. These aspirations may not always be fully realized due to various factors such as ineffective urban development and management policies and practices. As a result, externalities and problems such as social inequality, crime, environmental pollution, and traffic jam are common in many urban areas, especially those in developing countries. Climate change and the recent COVID-19 pandemic have reignited the debates over cities and their future. On the one hand, there are many concerns over the vulnerability of cities to the impacts of climate change and other stressors and extreme events such as pandemics. On the other hand, it is argued that effective urban management policies and practices can provide solutions for addressing the increasing challenges that cities are facing and contribute to mitigating global climate change. Reliance on conventional approaches and strategies may, however, not be sufficient if cities want to be part of the solution to climate change and other challenges. Therefore, there has been increasing emphasis on adopting innovative and disruptive solutions that are transformative and can accelerate transition toward creating cities that are more resilient and sustainable. This has led to growing interest and investment in smart solutions and technologies enabled by advances in information and communication technologies. Based on an overview of the existing literature, in this chapter, I first discuss some of the major challenges that cities are now facing. Results show that major challenges are related to ecological degradation, unregulated urban expansion, climate change adaptation and mitigation, resource management, fragmented urban management, air pollution, housing, and transportation. Next, I briefly discuss potential contributions of smart city solutions and technologies to overcoming these challenges. Finally, I provide a summary of this edited volume and its contributions to advancing knowledge on smart and resilient cities.
Ayyoob Sharifi
Chapter 2. Recent Advances in Smart Cities and Urban Resilience and the Need for Resilient Smart Cities
Cities around the world have traditionally dealt with a wide array of natural and human-made risks and hazards. Annually, this results in significant human and economic losses in urban areas. As climate change is expected to further increase the frequency and intensity of adverse events, and other adverse events such as the recent COVID-19 pandemic may also hit cities again in the future, cities around the world increasingly recognize the importance of building on urban resilience to minimize vulnerabilities and enhance resistance, absorption, recovery and adaptation capacities. The rapid advances in smart city solutions enabled by information and communication technologies have also provided cities with more tools and opportunities to deal with adverse events. There is a vast body of literature on both smart city and urban resilience. However, the concept of smart city resilience has received limited attention in the literature. To fill this gap, in this chapter, we first provide overviews of the underlying principles of the smart city and urban resilience concepts. Next, we explain how adopting integrated approaches that simultaneously consider both smartness and resilience can help cities take more effective and efficient efforts toward dealing with adverse events, enhancing quality of life and ensuring transition toward sustainable development.
Ayyoob Sharifi, Rhea Srivastava, Nehmat Singh, Ruchi Tomar, Mustapha A. Raji
Chapter 3. Smart Cities: Concepts and Underlying Principles
The concept of smart cities has been gaining importance in the academic and policy fields as a means to provide innovative solutions to tackle the rapid urbanization, globalization and climate change challenges faced by cities. However, the concept is still contested and is continually evolving with numerous debates on what it entails altogether. Therefore, this chapter aims at providing a comprehensive understanding of the smart city concept by elaborating on its roots and discussing the major themes, dichotomies and gaps in its definitions across contemporary literature. It also identifies and studies the main dimensions of smart cities that may be pertinent in the identification and evaluation of smart cities. The in-depth literature review intends on acting as a reference point for scholars to get a clearer picture of the smart city research landscape and enable policy makers to develop, implement and monitor smart city solutions for a sustainable future.
Rhea Srivastava, Ayyoob Sharifi
Chapter 4. Resilient Cities: Concepts and Underlying Principles
In the era of increasing risks and uncertainties induced by various stressors such as climate change and social and geopolitical conflicts, resilience is high on the agenda of planners, policy makers, and researchers. This is manifested in the increasing number of plans, programs, policies, and frameworks that are developed annually to enhance urban resilience. One potential impediment to the proper design and implementation of resilience plans, programs, policies, and frameworks is the incomplete understanding of the resilience concept itself. This issue becomes even more complicated when considering the fact that resilience is a contested notion and various definitions exist for it depending on the background, field, context, and objectives of the stakeholders. In an effort to better understand different conceptualizations of resilience in the context of urban planning, this chapter elaborates on the genealogy of the resilience concept and its underlying principles and characteristics. It is argued that resilience as a concept has an old history in fields such as physics and psychology but has been introduced to and used in urban studies only since a few decades ago. Urban scholars and practitioners have relied on the vast body of literature from other fields to conceptualize resilience depending on their specific purposes. Three dominant approaches that guide such conceptualizations are, namely, engineering, socio-ecological, and adaptive. The latter one has gained more momentum in the recent years considering the increasing recognition of the concept of living with risk and the need for continuous improvement and evolvement. This chapter concludes by elaborating on various underlying resilience characteristics such as Robustness, redundancy, flexibility, agility, adaptive capacity, modularity, resourcefulness, creativity, equity, foresight capacity, diversity, inclusiveness, connectivity, and efficiency. These characteristics are essential for developing more objective resilience plans, programs, policies, and frameworks. They could also contribute to making the resilience concept more tangible to various stakeholders.
Nehmat Singh, Ayyoob Sharifi
Chapter 5. Resilient-Smart Cities: Theoretical Insights
Cities, the main settlements of human beings, are facing mega challenges of climate change, urbanization, population increase, economic growth, and environmental deterioration. To address such challenges, the goal of sustainable cities and communities has been advocated by the United Nations. In particular, smart city has been applied to integrate digital technologies and sensors to improve the efficiency of assets, resources, and services in urban operations. In comparison, the resilient city is expected to improve urban resilience (e.g., prevention, impact reduction, recovery, adaptation) to disasters and emergencies. However, limited studies have analyzed how to ensure a normal condition for smart city under extreme conditions and how to ensure a resilient city can efficiently respond to disasters and extreme events. Therefore, this chapter aims to address such research gaps for the integration of smart city and resilient city, namely resilient-smart city, in order to better ensure sustainable urban development under various mega challenges. This chapter discusses how six components of smart city (i.e., governance, people, life, mobility, economy, and environment) contribute the resilient city in four aspects of health and well-being, economy and society, urban systems and services, and leadership and strategy to indicate the possibilities of the integration of smart city and resilient city. Moreover, this chapter points out challenges hindering resilient-smart city development and provides corresponding suggestions to overcome such challenges. Overall, this chapter is expected to open a vision for further development of resilient-smart cities that can contribute to the achievement of sustainable urban development goals.
Ke Xiong, Ayyoob Sharifi, Bao-Jie He
Chapter 6. Smart Cities and Urban Resilience: Insights from a Delphi Survey
Cities worldwide are exposed to an expansive range of climate-related disasters, and thus, enhancing urban resilience is increasingly critical and has become a major goal of city authorities. With the rapid development of technology, the concept of a “smart city” is also becoming popular. A vast body of research has been published on urban resilience as well as smart city. There are also many tools and indicator sets for their assessment. However, there have been limited efforts to synchronously study these two concepts. Urban resilience and smart city have the potential to be merged, which is what this research calls “smart city resilience” and implies deploying “smart solutions” for urban resilience and sustainable city management. However, this trend is still in its infancy worldwide, and further exploration is needed. Additionally, assessment methods and approaches, such as a toolkit for assessing the current situation and making cross-city comparisons, also need to be developed. Hence, the purpose of this research was to investigate the indicators that should be included in an assessment toolkit. A panel of 13 experts participated in the Delphi survey, and the analytic hierarchy process was used to find the relative weight of each indicator. Finally, the opinions toward the assessment toolkit from the experts were discussed further. Results can inform future efforts toward developing toolkits for assessing smart city resilience.
Nae-Wen Kuo, Ayyoob Sharifi, Chong-En Li

Empirical Insights from Case Studies

Chapter 7. Resilient Smart Cities: Contributions to Pandemic Control and Other Co-benefits
The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted daily lives and operations in many parts of the world. Being home to more than half of the world’s population, cities were particularly hit hard by the pandemic. Different socioeconomic, institutional, and technological measures and policies have been adopted by cities in their efforts to control the pandemic. This chapter is focused on those measures and policies enabled by smart technologies and solutions. COVID-19 was the first global pandemic that occurred after digital revolution. It was, therefore, no surprise that smart technologies and solutions have been deployed at a large scale to deal with it. It is argued that this has even accelerated adoption of such technologies and solutions. By focusing on the planning, absorption, recovery, and adaptation capacities, this chapter discusses how smart solutions and technologies have contributed to resilience against the pandemic. In terms of planning, it is discussed that planning and existence of smart city infrastructure have enhanced different resilience characteristics such as connectivity, innovation, and resourcefulness that have helped some cities be less affected by the pandemic. These characteristics and availability and deployment of smart infrastructure have also enabled cities to absorb the initial shocks through, among other things, better tracing and tracking. Smart solutions and technologies have also enhanced resilience characteristics such as connectivity, creativity, agility, flexibility, and inclusion, thereby helping cities to resume their functionalities in a more timely manner. This, for instance, has been achieved through teleworking, telemedicine, automatic operations, etc. Lastly, contributions to adaptation had fostered connectivity, learning capacity, and flexibility. It is expected that the use of technology will lead to positive behavioral changes that may last even after the pandemic. Despite all these positive contributions, there are concerns about privacy and digital divide that need to be duly considered and addressed for more effective uptake and implementation of smart city solutions and technologies.
Maria Rebecca Quintero, Ayyoob Sharifi
Chapter 8. Contributions of Smart City Projects to Resilience: Lessons Learned from Case Studies
Smart cities are often characterized by using ICT-enabled solutions in various socio-economic, institutional, and environmental fields to enhance quality of life, sustainability, and resilience and to preserve the competitive potential of cities in an increasingly interconnected network of cities. While the concept of “smart city” has been around for a while, recently there is a growing interest in using smart city solutions and technologies for enhancing resilience worldwide. It is vital to recognize the effect of smart cities on improving urban resilience, especially with regard to climate adaptation and mitigation. As a preliminary step toward this goal, we have created a database of smart city projects and initiatives with actual and/or potential contributions to resilience. Our database of approximately 300 case studies tries to investigate the resilience steps and smart solutions taken by smart cities around the world under categorized indicator sets. Results show that most of the smart city projects are mainly aimed at the reduction of CO2 emission. Regarding the resilience stage, we considered four stages, namely, planning, absorption, recovery, and adaptation. It was found that the projects are related to different stages, particularly, adaptation and absorption. In terms of sectoral focus, energy sector has received the most attention by the smart city planners and policymakers. Concerning smart city dimensions, “living” has received the utmost attention, followed by “mobility” and “data” that have also received considerable attention. Much of the projects are owned by the government and are participatory in terms of governance. It is important to note that most of the projects have paid attention to multiple smart city “dimensions” and can contribute to different “resilience characteristics.” This evidence-based quantitative analysis of global smart city projects could be used to highlight the success factors, trends, and gaps. The results can be used to develop more effective future pathways that could contribute to achieving sustainable development goals.
Hasan Masrur, Ayyoob Sharifi
Chapter 9. Do Smart Cities Projects Contribute to Urban Resilience? A Case Study Based in Taipei City, Taiwan
The trend of urbanization has increased the urban density of cities, resulting in larger populations facing greater disaster-related threats and risks. Furthermore, climate change is expected to increase the frequency, intensity, and effects of specific types of extreme weather events, thus raising disaster risk. Increasing urban resilience is a key challenge of urban governance and is essential to the development of forward-looking plans for reducing vulnerability and disaster threats. Furthermore, the rapid advancement of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and the Internet of things (IoT) has led to the increasing application of technologies from these fields in urban governance. The implementation of ICTs- and IoT-based smart city projects is becoming increasingly common worldwide. Nevertheless, the following questions require exploration: Do those smart city projects contribute significantly to urban resilience significantly? How should the performance of such projects be evaluated with respect to the dimensions of urban resilience? Accordingly, the main purpose of the present study was to develop an assessment toolkit and evaluate the contribution of smart city projects implemented in Taipei City. Two evaluation systems were developed, and eight experts were invited to participate in the evaluations. The first evaluation system involved “design principles for creating more resilient cities” developed by The second system involved the “City Resilience Index” established by Arup Group Limited. After a screening was conducted, 10 Taipei-based smart city projects were selected as study cases, and the evaluation results for these projects with respect to multiple dimensions were discussed. The assessment toolkit introduced in the present study can be used by the city government to formulate strategies for addressing multiple problems. For example, future smart city projects should emphasize the design principles of redundancy and diversity. Furthermore, current ICTs- or IoT-based smart city projects overemphasized the characteristics of new technology and sometimes neglected key issues such as empowering stakeholders, which may result in challenges related to urban resilience enhancement and sustainable urban management.
Nae-Wen Kuo, Chong-En Li
Chapter 10. Envisioning Sustainable and Resilient Petaling Jaya Through Low-Carbon and Smart City Framework
The Malaysia Smart City Framework (MSCF) launched in September 2019 serves as a national guideline for cities and their local governments, as well as for other relevant agencies and stakeholders, in developing and implementing smart city initiatives. The involvement of national, state, and local authority agencies, along with the private sector, has coordinated and streamlined the efforts of developing smart cities across Malaysia. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA), the Ministry of Energy, Science, Technology, Environment and Climate Change (MESTECC), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF) (for financial support) have deployed a project that highlights cities with low-carbon entitled ‘Green Technology Application for the Development of Low-Carbon Cities’ (GTALCC) (Lee, N. (2019). Low-Carbon cities—Malaysia’s response to global climate emergency. UNDP). This project is imminent to generate an ideal urban infrastructure that meets the demands of citizens seeking better quality of life. As such, this case study looked into the Petaling Jaya City Council (PJCC) Smart City initiatives based on various low-carbon projects for urban planning, as well as their attainment thus far. This study sheds light on the initiatives taken by PJCC that emphasise on low-carbon approach with a touch of modern intelligent technology to formulate a smart city that is resilient to climate change. The presented discussion is beneficial in terms of policy knowledge for other local authorities who wish to mimic such initiatives.
Melasutra Md Dali, Ayyoob Sharifi, Yasmin Mohd Adnan
Chapter 11. Digital Solutions for Resilient Cities: A Critical Assessment of Resilience in Smart City Initiatives in Melbourne, Victoria
Urban resilience and smart cities have emerged as a critical agenda for urban development in the twenty-first century. The growing emphasis on smart and resilience concepts is mostly due to increasing shocks and stresses related to the environmental, economic, social, and technological pressures which is also exacerbated by the uncertainty associated with rapid urbanisation, climate change, and resource limitations. While digital smart solutions are becoming increasingly critical in addressing these challenges, it is essential to consider its broadest systemic impacts to ensure that new vulnerabilities are not created, and resilience compromised by adopting and using digital technologies in urban systems (Kupers, R., & Foden, M. (2017). Learning for resilience and complex systems thinking. Agenda setting scoping studies summary report. The Resilience Shift.) note “no complexity, no resilience” but conversely, it is also important to recognise that “systems can fail, even if everything works as it is supposed to”. The aim of this paper is to investigate if the complexity drawn by introducing smart digital technologies in urban systems enhance resilience or create vulnerabilities? For this purpose, a deep case study analysis is conducted in Melbourne, Australia investigating the extent to which the current smart city initiatives contribute to the urban resilience attributes or have the potential to do so. Melbourne has dubbed as the most livable city in the world in several years and leads the nation as the most innovative city in Australia. Yet, despite its many efforts and relative wealth overall, the city faces risks and stresses that weaken the fabric of the society, which entrench disadvantage and may trigger the shocks of the future. Melbourne is exposed to natural disasters such as extreme heat, bushfires and floods, extremist acts, and of course the pandemics. There is an increasing number of smart city initiatives taking place in Melbourne, however, the extent to which these initiatives are aligned with the overall strategic plan of the city for resilience and sustainability objectives or just ad-hoc projects for testing new exciting technologies, is what we have investigated in this chapter.
The significance and innovation of this chapter lie in its systematic examination of the contradictory promises, perils, and tensions of smart city solutions. This will facilitate incorporating resilience thinking in the design of smart city projects -to be optimised alongside traditional criteria like quality, cost, and avoid the potential risks of the smart solutions on city resilience.
Leila Irajifar, Khanh N. Vu
Chapter 12. Climate (Un)smart? Case Study of Smart City Projects in Surat, India
Indian cities face critical challenges in urban infrastructures with the growing population. It has been reported that urban areas have significantly contributed to increased carbon emissions. India’s NDC goals are pursuing efforts to reduce carbon emission aligned to the Paris Agreement that includes the smart city as a mitigation initiative for achieving sustainable development and making climate-resilient cities. Surat city, Gujarat, India, has been selected as a case example to understand the interlinkages between climate resiliency and smart city action. Surat city is exposed to multiple climate risks: flood, heat, sea-level rise, erosion, and biodiversity, and about seventeen diverse organizations are working on adaptation and mitigation measures at the multilateral level. However, there have been limited studies available finding inter-relationship between smartness and resilience at the city level. This chapter explores the framework, methods, approaches, and model for finding solutions for making climate-resilient smart cities. The analysis is broadly undertaken into three steps: developing a conceptual smart city resilience framework, content analysis, and Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP).
The conceptual smart city resilience framework includes a) four dimensions (criteria) b) fifteen resilience indicators (sub-criteria). Based on content analysis, fifteen identified resilience indicators were mapped with four dimensions to assess city climate adaptation and mitigation policies. The key thrust areas were measured through the triangulation approach using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) to establish the weights among different indicators for the study. The assessment shows city-focused is more on economic and infrastructure measures. The city climate policy design was set back in terms of targets due to a lack of transparency and a structural review mechanism. The results show key concerns in Surat city are governance, institution, technical learning and information technology, planning system, funding and awareness, and community support system. The outcome suggests that Surat city requires a bottom-up approach in decision planning for addressing key concerns. The proposed research study briefly explained the approach/method/model: Transdisciplinary Approach, Carbon-Centered Comprehensive (3Cs), Knowledge-based solution, Carbon Removal (CR), and Carbon Banking System, Community Energy Systems for managing major concerns and critical challenges of the Indian smart city.
Shrutika Parihar
Chapter 13. The Contributions of Smart City Initiatives to Urban Resilience: The Case of San Francisco, California, United States
This chapter evaluates five smart technology projects that have been implemented in the City of San Francisco and the surrounding San Francisco Bay Area in California to assess the extent to which the projects support urban resilience. Increasingly, cities worldwide are transforming their systems through smart technologies. Emerging smart technologies are supporting efforts to reduce emissions, address social inequities, and build economic security. San Francisco leads US cities in its efforts adopt smart technologies for improving urban resilience. Major risks that immediately threaten San Francisco include earthquakes, fire, tsunamis, flooding, extreme heat, droughts, terrorism, cyber terrorism, and communicable diseases. As a result, San Francisco’s private and public sectors are funding smart technology in transportation, waste management, social, government, and economic realms to improve long-term resilience and sustainability. This study selected five key smart technology projects that seek to improve urban resilience including microgrids, connected and automated vehicles, earthquake alerts, digital platforms, and air quality monitoring. We evaluated these projects against fourteen principles for resilience developed by Sharifi and Yamagata (Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60:1654–1677, 2016). This chapter also examines San Francisco’s contribution to climate resilience planning and highlights the importance of innovation through collaboration with startups. Results will contribute to a smart city resilience assessment toolkit used to investigate actual and potential contributions of smart city initiatives to resilience in the United States.
Alison Grovert, Carmela Sambo, Briana Meier, Yekang Ko
Chapter 14. Data-Sharing Approaches for Achieving Resilient Smart Cities: A Case of Smart City R&D Project in Daegu, South Korea
This study explores recent nationwide projects, including those related to smart cities, climate change, urban regeneration, and the K-New Deal, and in particular analyzes how the national smart city R&D project instills resilience in a smart city. This study analyzes a government-funded smart city R&D project in Daegu, South Korea with a focus on three main topics: the effects of the system, the main items that should be considered by planners and decision makers, and ways to ensure participation from diverse groups of citizens. Advanced smart city technologies and services are being adopted as part of the smart city R&D project, such as deep learning-based civil motion recognition, advanced technology for intelligent disaster prediction, and warning technologies for heatwaves, heavy rain, slope collapses, etc. Our analysis of the smart city R&D project according to the analytics framework shows that the Daegu smart city R&D project has sought to consider 15 indexes of resilience and include the three main topics mentioned above. The list of resilience indicators presented in this study can be used as an assessment toolkit that comprehensively considers various parts of the city, such as technology/services, planners/decision makers, and citizens, all of which make up a smart city. This checklist provides a means of evaluating various stages of smart city projects that aim to increase resilience.
Yesuel Kim, Sunghee Lee, Ayyoob Sharifi, Youngchul Kim
Chapter 15. Urban Resilience in the Fourth Industrial Revolution: Transformative Digitalization in European Smart Cities to Address Climate Change
Climate change has been and is still affecting every region in Europe, with varying impacts across the continent. While some cities are generally resilient to CC impacts, other cities are not necessarily as fortunate. Promoting policies that build resilience enhances cities’ capabilities to cope with acute shocks and chronic stresses, adapt well to changing climate conditions, and ultimately transform to resilient cities. Conversely, the weak or absence of urban resilience increases the vulnerability of the urban poor to risks. It is therefore imperative to rapidly enhance urban resilience practices. To date, only 26% of 885 cities in Europe have viable adaptation plans, highlighting an imbalance in the adaptation and resilience progression across countries. Although digital transformation through increased data availability and the use of digitalization instruments has the potential to improve the rate of achieving the adaptation strategies, not much has been documented in this regard. Thus, this chapter examines the potentials of digitalization in accelerating adaptation and boosting resilience in selected European cities. Case studies are analysed through a systematic literature search, and evidence of fruitful cases are presented. We conclude by discussing some challenges of digitalization and make recommendations for future works.
Abdul-Lateef Balogun, Himanshu Shekhar, Paulina Budryte, Olasunkanmi Habeeb Okunola, Teslim Abdul-Kareem, Ismaila Rimi Abubakar, Yusuf A. Aina, Abdulwaheed Tella, Shamsudeen T. Yekeen
Chapter 16. Wielding a Concept with Two Edges: How to Make Use of the Smart Cities Concept and Understanding Its Risks from the Resilient Cities Perspective
Smart Cities and Resilient Cities are two normative theoretical concepts within urban development research and practice. Using a dialectic approach, we take a closer look at both concepts, identify their core ideas and examine two opposing narratives about how they interact: the thesis of Smart Cities supporting Resilient Cities, and the antithesis that they clash and contradict each other. We examine practical examples for Smart City applications to improve resilience, including sensor networks in early warning systems in Japan, Blockchain applications for disaster relief fund distributions in Vanuatu and using Artificial Intelligence to better understand social resilience in Haiti. We also look at examples of new hazards and risks for cities such as cyber security, privacy issues and threats to economic and material resilience of a city coming from digitalization. As a synthesis, we propose that both concepts are used deliberately and consciously as conceptual lenses to guide urban development practice. We propose that Smart Cities are best to be used as a tool for urban development, not as a normative goal or vision. We suggest that the Resilient City concept provides a lens that can help set the goals and targets for Smart Cities, but also needs to consider new types of risks in what we call digital resilience.
Roman Serdar Mendle, Anina Hartung
Chapter 17. Resilient Smart Cities in South America: City Diplomacy for Sustainable Urban Development
The rapid process of urbanization on a global scale and the centrality of the sustainable development agenda in the international context constitute two important inflections in the contemporary world. As a result, the prominence of cities in current international debates has grown so that cities exercise their diplomacy and implement internationally aligned policies through global agreements. In this context, this chapter analyzes the phenomena of city diplomacy and resilience in the sustainable development agenda of South American municipalities. Resulting from the discussion on the smart cities approach in the context of the region, it recognizes the uncertainty, complexity, interdependence, and multidimensionality of contemporary phenomena from a resilience perspective. The exercise of international relations at the municipal level in South America also has the support of local government networks and associations, such as ICLEI—Local Governments for Sustainability, which with the Smart Cities for Climate Analytical Report, published in 2017, has enabled the materialization of the perspective of convergence between the climatic action of cities and the strengthening of their governance and institutional capacity, as well as their capacity for innovation. This convergence is illustrated by the case of the Metropolitan Region of Campinas, which combines a regional program to enhance biodiversity and its socioeconomic benefits, a long-term vision of resilience and sustainable development, and a municipal Smart City Strategic Plan.
Rodrigo Perpétuo, Mariana Nicolletti, Pedro Jacobi, Armelle Cibaka
Chapter 18. The Role of Smart Cities in Building the Resilience of Vulnerable Communities: Three Case Studies from Europe, Asia, and Africa
The smart city is an emerging dominant urban development paradigm worldwide. Many local governments are using technology solutions to address their challenges. The growing and disproportionate threat of climate-induced disasters is posing multiple risks to cities. Resilience building is a complex phenomenon and it has been increasingly featured in policy agenda, specifically for urban risk management. This paper explores the resilience strategy within the smart city paradigm. The focus is more on how cities can build the resilience of vulnerable communities using smart governance and digital innovations. The three different case studies from different geographies discussed in this paper highlight possible solutions with justification for linkage and integration of smart city approaches and urban resilience. However, each city is unique, requiring local innovation and appropriate technology solutions.
Prakash Kamtam, Pourya Salehi, Amy Jones, Asad Asadzadeh
Chapter 19. Advancing Community Resilience Through Smart Approaches: A Resource for Canadian Communities
In response to the severe climate change impacts faced by Canada, Open Smart Cities are increasing in number across the country. Open Smart Cities facilitate collaboration between different sectors and actors regarding the use of data and technology to address social, economic and environmental challenges in an equitable and just manner. This chapter rigorously examines how open smart approaches can increase urban resilience and draws upon initiatives implemented by the City of Surrey in British Colombia to contextualize the theoretical underpinnings of resilience and smart solutions, within a case study example.
Ewa Jackson, Amy Jones, Pourya Salehi
Chapter 20. Toward Integrating Resilience Thinking in Smart City Planning and Development
Along with sustainability, resilience and smartness have arguably been the most dominant terms in science and policy debates about cities in the past 2–3 decades. Much has been written on the integration of sustainability and smartness as well as sustainability and resilience. By comparison, integration of smartness and resilience has received limited attention. This is despite the fact that, on the one hand, smart city solutions and technologies can provide numerous benefits for enhancing urban resilience, and, on the other hand, resilience thinking can contribute to planning and implementation of more efficient smart city projects that are able to survive and thrive during different types of crises. Different theoretical and empirical issues related to the integration of resilience thinking into smart city planning were discussed in this book that has contributed to gaining a better understanding of the concept of resilient smart cities. In addition to a summary of the main issues discussed in the previous chapters, this concluding chapter provides recommendations for further integration of the concepts of smart city and urban resilience.
Pourya Salehi, Ayyoob Sharifi
Resilient Smart Cities
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Ayyoob Sharifi
Pourya Salehi
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