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2023 | Buch

Resources, Environment and Regional Sustainable Development in Northeast Asia

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Über dieses Buch

This book highlights the environmental issues, an assessment of environmental risks within the borders of Northeast Asia and neighboring territories. This book pays special attention to the transboundary factor as the main factor in international and interregional cooperation. This book develops methods of complex, thematic, interpretative mapping, geoinformation modeling, processing of remote sensing data for geographical and environmental studies, models for the analysis of spatial and temporal geographic data, and their long series.

The book is planned to widely cover economic, physical–geographical and environmental studies, including the analysis of natural resources from the state of the natural environment and resource potential to its change under the influence of various factors.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter
Assessment of the Relationship Between the Current Economic Development State and Environmental Pollution in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia
Abstract
The transition to green economic development is one of the priorities for the environmental-socio-economic development of the Baikal Natural Territory regions, including the Republic of Buryatia. Considering the special characteristics of the regional policy regarding Lake Baikal conservation, protecting the lake's ecosystem while maintaining sustainable economic development is one of the most important tasks at present. This study considers international experience in the green economic development transition, the relationship between economic growth rates and environmental pollution, and the decoupling of economic development and environmental pollution. In the example of the Republic of Buryatia, we assessed the relationship between the current state of economic development and environmental pollution using indicators of environmental intensity and the presence of the decoupling effect. The study's results made it possible to determine the current trend and prospects for the region's development. We gave recommendations on regional environmental policy improvement, as well as environmental measures in order to green production.
Alexey Bilgaev, Suocheng Dong, Erzhena Sadykova, Fujia Li, Cheng Hao
New Guidelines and Risks for Asian Russia in the Implementation of the “One Belt – One Road” Project Under Current Geopolitical and Global Climate Changes
Abstract
The life of modern society of Asian Russia is governed by the political processes occurring on the western borders of Russia as well as by global warming which together create new vectors of economic development throughout the entire territory of North Asia. With the imposition of Western sanctions, however, there is taking place a reorientation of the export-import relations of Russia with a focus on the development of contacts with countries of the Asia-Pacific region. In these conditions, the program of development of international transport corridors entitled “One Belt – One Road” is gaining new momentum; it has a direct bearing on the prospects of the economic growth of Russia, North China, Mongolia and other countries located in the zone of influence of historical civilizational roads, such as the “Great Silk Road” and “Great Tea Road”. This article considers the present situation from the perspective of both economic and physical geography as well as the possible problems associated with eastward reorientation of the main economic flows and the possible ways out of this situation. Economic factors are considered, such as energy flows and commodity-money relations, as well as ecological factors: climatic changes, the influence on agriculture and tourist flows that have shaped themselves in the modern realities.
Tamir A. Boldanov, S. Dong S, Fujia Li, Hao Cheng, Tsogto Zh. Bazarzhapov
Placer Gold Mining in the Zabaikalskii Krai and Its Role in the Development of Municipal Districts
Abstract
The article deals with studying the impact of placer gold mining on socio-economic processes in the east of Russia on the example of the Zabaikalskii Krai. The quantitative assessment of the development of the Zabaikalskii Krai found that there are short-term benefits from the placer gold mining during the mining season in the municipalities of excavating sites. However, there is no reason to say that it has a positive impact on socio-economic and demographic processes over the medium term. The author arrived at the conclusion, that the role of placer gold mining in improving the quality of life of the local population and demographic stabilization in the transboundary regions is great and revealed the need to carry out a number of institutional changes. They are: a radical redistribution of income within the budget system in this segment of subsurface management; an increase in payment rates within the limits of maximum permissible, temporarily agreed and excess discharges to aquatic biological resources for damage, since the existing payment system has almost completely lost its regulatory functions and is now frankly imitative; a change in the procedures for commercial access to resources so that the local community can really participate and play a significant role in decision-making.
Irina P. Glazyrina, Irina S. Kalgina
Ecological and Economic Assessment of the Use of Wood Fuel for Heat Supply Purposes
Abstract
Enterprises of the timber industry lose a large amount of wood in the form of waste, which is advisable to use for energy purposes. A comprehensive ecological and economic assessment of the efficiency of its use is necessary to justify the introduction of wood fuel. A method of ecological and economic assessment of the cost of reduced emissions for energy facilities is proposed. It is based on the ratio of the costs of implementing environmental technology and the environmental effects of its implementation. The proposed method makes it possible to estimate the environmental effect, namely, the amount of reduced or prevented emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere in value terms. The method was tested on the example of replacing coal with wood fuel (fuel pellets and wood chips) in the boiler houses of the coastal areas of Lake Baikal. The study showed that wood fuel is environmentally attractive and economically promising. The efficiency of its use depends on a number of factors: the prices of coal and wood fuel, the remoteness of the boiler house from the place of fuel production, the transport infrastructure of the area, the power of the heat source. A significant environmental effect was revealed: a reduction in pollutant emissions by 94%, a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere by 99.9% and a reduction in the formation of ash and slag waste by 92–91%.
Elena Gubiy, Elena Maysyuk
Demographic Potential of Agglomerations of Siberia: Influence of the Factor of Population Density
Abstract
We examine the main factors influencing the dynamics of population density in urban agglomerations of the Siberian Federal District, based on a case study of the Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk agglomerations, among which there are the processes of natural and migration movement of population. It is shown that the contribution of migration to an increase in the population size prevails over the natural population increase in all regions of agglomerations. However, there occurs an intra-agglomeration differentiation with respect to the demographic potential. The Krasnoyarsk agglomeration shows a more stable natural population increase. On the other hand, Irkutsk exhibits a less favorable tendency; a stable increase in population size is characteristic for the nearest suburban zone only. This paper considers different effects from the factor of high and low population size on the population growth rates for different structural elements of urban agglomerations of Siberia: center cities, satellite cities, and the suburban zone. It is shown that more compact urbanized territories, such as center cities of agglomerations, the rates of population increase are limited to crowding, unlike the suburban zone where the population increase is directly proportional to the population size. The population increase of satellite cities is more dependent on the distance to large center cities of Siberian agglomerations and is less dependent on population density.
Natalia V. Emelianova, Yulia V. Antipina, Olga V. Valeeva
Landscape-Ecological Zoning of a Territory as the Basis for Identifying Lands of the Ecological Framework of an Administrative District
Abstract
A landscape and ecological zoning is carried out for the preservation of geosystems of high ecological value and for substantiating of their inclusion in ecological frameworks of territories of a different rank. This type of zoning is regarded as a combination of territorialy interconnected groups of geosystems in terms of the set of physical-geographical factors, and structural and functional features. For the Vaninskii and Sovetsko-Gavanskii municipal districts of Khabarovsk krai we identified geosystems of high ecological value at the regional level. The specially protected areas now make up a mere 26.8% of their total area, and this is inadequate to ensure their conservation. It is therefore worthwhile to include in the recommended ecological framework of municipal districts this category of geosystems with the necessary regulations of the modalities of nature management. As a special element of the ecological framework of the territory, the area of the conventionally unchanged and slightly modified geosystems with ecological functions of regional significance will additionally make up 26.3% (taking into consideration their inclusion in a number of other elements of the framework). As a result, the total proportion of lands in the ecological framework of the districts will be increased to 58.6% of their area, which corresponds to the optimal indicators of rational nature management in the subzone of the middle and southern taiga.
Elena M. Klimina, Andrey V. Ostroukhov
Ecological Approach to Assessing the Causes and Consequences of the Winter Landslide on the Bureya Reservoir
Abstract
The thawing of permafrost in the north of Siberia and the Far East is accompanied by hazardous geoogical phenomena (landslides, sink-holes, floods, etc.) which present a threat to the infrastructure of the region and lead to a change in the natural water quality. In December 2018, at the temperature of ‒32 ℃, a giant landslide occurred on the shore of the Bureya reservoir, which cut off access of water to the Bureya hydroelectric power station. To restore the hydrologial regime, explosives were used, which also affected consideraby the composition of water in its interaction with crushed rocks. Risk factors were represneted by toxic volatile compounds (benzene, methanol, toluene, and xylene). As a result of destruction of soil coverof the coastal zone and biochemical processes at the interaction of water with rocks, considerable changes were observed in the behavior of a number of elements (As, Pb, Fe and Co). Ecological risks of change in the water composition are associted with input of a large volume of crushed rocks, vegetable debris, detonation products of explosives, and with an intensification of biogeochemical processes. They are accompanied by input of toxic organic matter, gases and elements into the water. It is necessary to conduct a comprehensive survey of the steep shores of the Bureya reservoir and organize a monitoring of the potential emission of methane in order to prevent hazardous natural phenomena associated with the thawing of permafrost.
Lubov M. Kondratyeva, Zoya N. Litvinenko, Diana V. Andreeva, Evgenia M. Golubeva
Floro-Cenotic Features of Vegetation in the High Mountains of Northwestern Cisbaikalia
Abstract
Long-term investigations of vegetation in the high-mountains of Northeastern Cisbaikalia within the boundaries of the Baikal Mountains were carried out. Methods of geobotanical mapping were used to identify the structural organization of vegetation communities and their complexes within the goletz and subgoletz belts. Their distribution patterns are illustrated in a cartographic model at a scale of 1:500 000. Cenotic diversity of vegetation communities is represented in the map legend that was compiled on the principles of a multidimensional and multistep classification of vegetation as developed by V.B. Sochava. The legend includes six cenotic subdivisions integrating plant associations and their groups into complexes and combinatins. Each name in the legend number provdes Latin names of dominant species of plants and indicator plants listed the communities in decreasing order. A total of two types of vegetation communities of high mountains were identified: mountain-taiga communities, and communities of mountain tundras. To illustrate the smoothness of the transition of high-mounain vegetation to taiga vegetation the map also shows three epitaxa of taiga type occurring in the subgoletz belt.
Elena Korolkova
Sustainable Development of Resource Regions: Challenges for Remote Areas of Siberia
Abstract
The article presents the key issues and challenges relevant to remote areas of Siberia in the light of new economic development on the basis of a locally focused approach. The study is based on the results of field socio-geographical work carried out in February and March 2022 in three northern districts of Irkutsk Oblast, where a new oil and gas industry is actively developing. The findings are supplemented with data from the Federal State Statistics Service, documents of strategic planning at the regional and municipal levels, reports of heads of municipalities and other open sources concerning the issues of socio-economic development of the territories under study. The research results are systematized according to the main manifestations of the consequences of the new economic development: economy, society and ecology. The municipal settlements of the areas under study are grouped according to the degree and nature of the impact of the oil and gas industry on local socio-economic systems.
Natalia Krasnoshtanova
Problems of Population Reproduction in the Cities of Siberia
Abstract
The main problems of natural and mechanical reproduction of the population of the cities of the Siberian Federal District in the first twenty years of the 21st century are characterized. Insufficient (narrowed) natural reproduction of the population was revealed in large administrative centers - Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk and Irkutsk. There was a positive balance of migration during almost the entire observation period in Krasnoyarsk. In Irkutsk, a negative balance of migration was recorded between 2000 and 2007 and 2016 and 2020. In Novosibirsk, a negative balance of migration was registered between 2002 and 2005. The features of the demographic development of the industrial cities of Siberia are demonstrated on the example of the city of Angarsk. During the first twenty years of the 21st century, the processes of natural and mechanical reproduction of the population in large administrative and industrial cities of Siberia are unfavorable. Indicators of mechanical reproduction of the population are characterized either by the predominance of migration outflow (Irkutsk), or by a consistent decrease in migration inflow, started in 2015 (Krasnoyarsk and Novosibirsk). Ensuring an increase in the demographic potential of Siberian cities by increasing natural reproduction is not possible due to the small number of contingents of the population of reproductive age. The only possible way to solve this problem is migration policy. It is necessary to move from the compensatory model of the economy to the model of advanced development of human potential.
Ya. A. Leshchenko, A. A. Lisovtsov
Evaluation of the Transportation in Investment Environment from Land-Sea-Air Coordination: A Case Study of Northeast China
Abstract
Transportation network is an important link for economic cooperation between cities. It is of great significance to build a coordinated transportation network of land, sea and air to improve the service level of the international logistics supply chain and promote the coordinated development of land, sea and air economy. This paper takes northeast China as the research area, from the perspective of Land-Sea-Air Coordination. We consider comprehensive traffic accessibility in the evaluation of transportation in the investment environment. Qualitative indicators relating to convenience, construction scale and service level were selected to build a transportation evaluation index system in the investment environment using the entropy model. And then, we measure transportation in the investment environment and regional differences in northeast China. The results can deepen the scientific understanding of transportation in the investment environment in northeast China. The sea, land, and air resources can flow smoothly and complementary. Based on it, we can realize high-quality and efficient transportation in the investment environment construction. This study is of great significance to reveal the role of comprehensive transportation accessibility in the investment environment of transportation and improve the evaluation system of the investment environment.
Li Fujia, Guo Kexin, Cheng Hao
New Physical and Geographical Regionalization of the South of Central Siberia
Abstract
The article considers methodological aspects and results of physical and geographical regionalization of the Republics of Tuva, Khakassia, and southern and central regions of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Regional geosystems of the lower levels merged into geosystems of a higher rank. This process was based on the experimental data, generalization and regional-typological interpretation of the typological landscape map of the south of Central Siberia M 1:1,000,000 compiled by the author. Based on long-term studies of geosystems, we have identified the typological composition and hierarchy of geomers, established the factors and basic patterns of differentiation of the landscape structure, identified the geomers that are the cores of the corresponding geochoras, identified the hierarchy and justified the boundaries of geochoras. The regionalization scheme was constructed by synthesizing a grid of contours of a typological map of geosystems. At the lowest level of integration, the divisions of facies groups displayed on the typological map were combined into territorial integrity of the rank of macrogeochora according to the principle of neighborhood and proximity of environmental conditions. The main criteria for the synthesis were the relative unity of the geological and geomorphological structure and genesis of the territory and the uniformity of bioclimatic indicators or local variants of the structure of the altitude zone. Neighboring macrogeochoras differ in the composition of geomers, having completely different sets of geomes. Further integration of geosystems of lower levels into regional geosystems of higher rank was carried out on the basis of zonal or altitude-zone criteria.
Galina I. Lysanova
Dynamic Monitoring of Ecological Environment Quality Based on Landsat-7 SLC-OFF ETM Image
Abstract
Using remote sensing technology to evaluate the ecological environment quality is of great significance to the sustainable development of the monitoring area. Tomsk district of the Tomsk region was taken as the study area, and Landsat-7 SLC-OFF images were selected as the source data to study the restoration of data “missing” areas such as strip missing area, cloud cover area, and shadow area. The remote sensing ecological index (RSEI) integrated with four indicators of greenness, humidity, heat, and dryness were constructed using principal component analysis to study the spatiotemporal dynamics of the Tomsk ecological environment. The results show that the RSEI index can better indicate the regional ecological environment. In 2005, 2009, 2014, and 2020, the average RSEI of Tomsk district is 0.77, 0.73, 0.81, and 0.72. The ecological environment quality showed a relatively stable fluctuation. From 2005 to 2020, the annual average RSEI is 0.76, and the ecological environment quality was in a good state (0.6–0.8). The ecological environment quality in 2005 is relatively lower than in other years due to temperature factors. The overall ecological environment quality of the Tomsk district is good, and the southwest corner is the best.
Jun Ma, Khromykh Vadim Valerievich, Mingkai Sun
Heavy Metals Concentration Mechanisms in the Ice of the Amur River
Abstract
The stratigraphic inhomogeneity of the ice layer, content of heavy metals and their distribution in ice cores have been analyzed for the first time in the channel of the lower reaches of the Amur river. The braiding of the channel promotes formation of three varieties of ice in the ice sheet: frozen (built-up), aufeis and hummocked. The component composition of the ice sheet corresponds with that of the water under the ice. A layer-by-layer investigation of ice cores provided a means of analyzing the water quality dynamics in the period of ice setting, and the degree of pollution of the ice sheet by toxic substances. The transition of water from a liquid state to a solid state promotes its supersaturation with chemical compounds. It is found that in a supersaturated solution there occurs a crystallization of crystalline hydrates and/or salts of the elements, the temperature point of the eutectic of which is reached. It is established that the Ni and Fe concentrations have a ∧-shaped distribution with maximum values in the deepwater segment of the channel. The highest contents of Cu – 22.62 and Zn – 66.20 µgr/dm3 are observed in the upper sheet of aufeis ice, and higher concentrations of Ni – 2.91 are characteristic for the hummocked ice. Along the right bank we observed higher indicators of Pb – 5.49 µg/dm3 and relatively low indicators of Ni – 1.72, Cu ‒ 17.50 and Zn – 27.66 µg/dm3 respectively. The color gamut of the core reflects selectivity and multitemporal crystallization of chemical compounds.
Aleksandra F. Makhinova, Alexey N. Makhinov
On the Possibility of Forecasting Abrupt Differences in Average Daily Air Temperature (a Case Study of Irkutsk)
Abstract
This paper presents the technique for forecasting abrupt warmings and coolings during a month, based on the model developed in the Department of Meteorology and Climatology of Saratov State University. The model is built upon the principle of “floating analog” as suggested by V.F. Martazinova on the basis of the quasi-bimonthly rhythmicity of atmospheric processes substantiated by her. The Euclidean distance formula was used to determine the most typical situations in which there occur abrupt warmings and abrupt coolings. Such situations are referred to as reference situations, and when making a forecast, they serve as predictors. The identification correctness of reference fields is confirmed by synoptic analysis. It was found that winter coolings in Southern Siberia are governed by two types of processes: a radiation cooling in the central region of the winter Asian anticyclone, and advection of cold air masses along the eastern periphery of the winter Asian anticyclone. The warmings in the winter in the south of Siberia are associated with warm advection across the southern part of an extensive depression adjacent to the northern periphery of the region of high pressure located further to the south. The correctness of dates of differences in average daily air temperature according to an independent sample made up 71% for heat waves, and 69% for cold waves. Such a correctness can be considered highly successful in view of the rather rigid criterion of wave correctness and the monthly forecast lead time.
S. V. Morozova, E. A. Polyanskaya, K. E. Denisov, K. S. Kondakov, V. A. Gusev, M. A. Alimpieva
On the History and Prospects of the Westernist Idea in Russia
Abstract
This article addresses the issues of cultural-historical identify of Russia and, specifically, Westerism, one of the geopolitical concepts. Accordwing to it, Russia is a part of the European civilization. The significance of these issues in the history of Russian political thought is traditionally great, which is due to the special features of the geographical location of the country, and to its common features with countries of Eastern and Western Europe and Central Asia. An analysis is made of the historical aspect of the development of the ideas of Westernism and its relation to other concepts of the civilizatonal position of Russia. The borrowing of Western technologies entailed assimilation of many elements of the lifestyle and influenced the world outlook sphere. The emergence of the concept of Slavophilism became the response to the negative sides of these changes. Over the course of its hstorical development and infeluence of the political realities upon it, the Westernism separated into the conservative, left revolutionary and liberal direcions. In the latter half of the 20th century, the liberal direction acquired colonial features. In the 19th century there emerged another concept alternative to the Westernism: Eurasianism; in the late 20th century, the isolationism shaped itself conceptually. At present, the world outlook of the political elites of Russia is characterized by a combination of the elements of the Westernism and isolationism.
Pyotr L. Popov, Alexey A. Cherenev
Industrial Production Potential and Foreign Economic Relations of Eastern Siberia
Abstract
The author calculated the production potential for the regions of Eastern Siberia between 2010 and 2018. Three groups of indices reflecting the level of industrial development in the territories under consideration were identified on this basis. It has been found that the potential decreases mainly from west to east, and its fluctuations reflect investment activity in the macroregion over the period of observations. The exception is Krasnoyarsk Krai, which is strengthening its position in all respects. It has the greatest potential for industrial diversification. The remaining subjects are characterized by the volatility of their values in relation to the leader. Of particular importance is the indicator characterizing manufacturing industries. In Buryatia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, and Irkutsk Oblast, there is a high proportion of high-added value products due to mechanical engineering. The assessment of foreign trade relations of the subjects under study was carried out taking into account the regional economic indicators. It was revealed that the internal regions are more successful in foreign economic activity than the border ones. An analysis of the markets showed that Krasnoyarsk Krai, Irkutsk Oblast and the Republic of Khakassia are focused on the export of low-added value products, while the border regions supply goods from industries based on the exploitation of natural resource rent. Mostly Asian countries purchase raw materials and products of primary processing. The import structure is similar to the all-Russian one and is aimed at the purchase of high-tech goods. In Eastern Siberia, there is a large proportion of founders from China, not only in industry, but also in other sectors (especially in Zabaikalskii Krai). The eastern vector of Russia’s economic development makes the area under study one of the key actors in strengthening foreign non-economic activities with the Asia-Pacific countries.
Vera A. Rudneva
Formation of Dark-Coniferous Forests Under the Canopy of Light-Coniferous Taiga in Different Conditions of Cisbaikalia
Abstract
Identification of the structural-dynamic organization of forests of different physical-geographical conditions and characteristics of their formation makes it possible to forecast the possible development trend of forest ecosystems across vast territories. Emphasis is placed on the encroachment of dark-coniferous tree species onto the zone of light-coniferous forests in the form of undergrowth, in the early stages of formation of a forest stand with its encroacvhment on the second growth, which indicates a spatial expansion of the dark-coniferous component of the taiga structure against a background of the climate dynamics over the last several decades in the region. Determination of the trends in forest formation at the regional topological level of organization of the natural environment contributes to determining the genesis of vegetation in general against a background of the modern vector of climate variability. Every so often the undergrowth of trees comprising a dark-coniferous taiga (Siberian stone pine, spruce, and fir) occurs under the canopy of a small-leaved forest stand. Successions of forest-forming species of trees in taiga geosystems from light-coniferou and dark-coniferous components provide express information on the development of forests across time and space. In many respects, such forests can serve as indicators of variability in natural environment at the regional topological level of its organization, which, in turn, is a stabilizing factor for stability of the functioning of forest vegetation in different areas of Cisbaikalia and the Baikal region as a whole.
Aleksey I. Shekhovtsov, Aleksander P. Sizykh, Aleksander P. Gritsenyuk, Vicktor I. Voronin
Interannual Variability of Intrusions and Their Association with Changes in Atmospheric Circulation During 1993‒2021
Abstract
Water temperature measurements throughout Baikal from the period 1993‒2021 were used in investigating interannual variability in characteristics of surface water intrusions and their relationshp with separate mechanisms of atmospheric circulation. The study revealed the spatial nonuniformity of generation of intrusions whose generation frequency decreases from south to north of the lake. The “heat deficit” and the thickness of the renewed layer are comparable in their values in the southern and middle basins and are twice as small in the northern basin of Baikal. Intrusion is most often generated above the western, steeper underwater slope in all basins. Singly occurring intrusions were observed in areas along the eastern shore of South and North Baikal where the gradients of the underwater slope are comparable with the gradients of the western underwater slope. It was found that intrusions in South Baikal in the pre-freezing period are generated with an enhancement of the meridional transfer of air masses and blocking of their zonal transfer. In middle Baikal, owing to its geographical location, May-June intrusions are generated both with an enhancement of the zonal transfer and with an enhancement of the meridional transfer. No significant correlatons with circulation indices were detected for North Baikal.
Elena S. Troitskaya, Mikhail N. Shimaraev
Coordinated Degree Assessment on Transport Infrastructure Construction with Regional Economic-Socio-Ecological Development: A Study of the Areas Along the Main Traffic Line in Mongolia
Abstract
The China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor is a priority area of the six major economic corridors planned by “the Belt and Road”. As a bridge connecting China and Russia, Mongolia's transportation infrastructure construction (TIC) is the key issue to the transportation interconnection among China, Mongolia and Russia. However, the existing research is insufficient to support the actual construction needs. Therefore, this research set the regions along the main north-south traffic line of Mongolia as the study area. We established a regional economic-society-ecology-transportation assessment model (ESET model) to quantitatively assess the construction and development degree of the four subsystems. The results showed that from 2005 to 2015, the development level of the ESET systems gradually increased. The coordination degree between TIC and ESE development has been continuously improved, and most aimags have been optimized as primary coordination. The research results will provide a decision-making basis for the TIC in the China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor, as well as a scientific and technological support for the implementation of the “Belt and Road”.
Xu Shuangjie, Cheng Hao, Li Fujia, Zhang Menghan, Ayana Yangutova, Tcogto Bazarzhapov, GaoYuan
Spatial-Temporal Evolution of Land Surface Thermal Environment and Its Driving Factors in Baikal Rim Region
Abstract
The Baikal region and its surroundings are one of the most unique regions with high ecological conservation value. In recent years, the rapid development of industry and ecotourism, increasing transportation infrastructure, and urban expansion in this region are affecting the natural ecological conditions, including the land surface thermal environment (LSTE). The coordinated economic-social-ecological development in this region has become a hot scientific proposition of great interest to the international academia. In this study, Irkutsk Oblast and the Republic of Buryatia in the Baikal Rim region were selected as the study area, and based on MODIS data in 2011 and 2021, the Google Earth Engine platform was used to invert the land surface temperature (LST), analyses the and characteristics of the LSTE spatial-temporal evolution pattern, and reveal the main driving factors. The results show that the LST in the study area increased from 9.0 ℃ to 12.2 ℃ over the last 10 years, with the LST in Irkutsk Oblast increasing more significantly with an average annual growth rate of 2.45%. The spatial pattern of the LSTE shows a spreading pattern from the central city to the surrounding area and along the railway line to both sides. Urbanization development, economic improvement, and transportation infrastructure construction are important driving factors. The research results will provide scientific and technological support for the coordinated development of the ecological environment and economic society in the Baikal Rim region, and also provide a reference for the regional ecological environmental protection and green development in China-Mongolia-Russia Economic Corridor.
Zhang Menghan, Dong Suocheng, Cheng Hao, Li Fujia, Ayana Yangutova, Tcogto Bazarzhapov, Xu Shuangjie
Study on the Spatial and Temporal of Scientific and Technological Resource Input and Output in Countries Along the Belt and Road
Abstract
Building a scientific and technological community is an important part of “the Belt and Road” construction. Therefore, a reasonable and objective evaluation of the scientific and technological resources in countries along “the Belt and Road” is of great significance for promoting the interconnection of countries. The time series and Cold-hot spot distribution are used to measure and compare the level of scientific and technological resources in the countries along the “Belt and Road”. On this basis, the main input and output elements of the scientific and technological resources of the countries along the “Belt and Road” are analyzed and researched. The results showed that: (1) Different types of science and technology input elements presented different distribution patterns, resulting in spatial differences in the output of science and technology resources. (2) The construction of joint laboratories, cooperation in science and technology parks, and technology transfer would effectively narrow the gap between countries in the output of scientific and technological resources. This study will provide scientific support for promoting the establishment of “Science and Technology Innovation Alliances” in countries along the “Belt and Road”.
Yan Zhuang, Fujia Li, Suocheng Dong, Qian Liu, Shuangjie Xu, Menghan Zhang, Kexin Guo
Backmatter
Metadaten
Titel
Resources, Environment and Regional Sustainable Development in Northeast Asia
herausgegeben von
Igor N. Vladimirov
Ming Jiang
Peter Ya. Baklanov
Copyright-Jahr
2023
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-28978-1
Print ISBN
978-3-031-28977-4
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28978-1