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Über dieses Buch

This book gathers original, empirical and conceptual papers that address the complex challenges of conducting responsible research in the business and management professions. It includes contributions related to, and reflecting on, the vision of the Responsible Research in Business and Management (RRBM) network, which proposes that business can help provide a better world if it is informed by responsible research. The responsible research agenda requires new methods of scholarly assessment that include criteria for measuring impact, systemic solutions and practitioner relevance. Theories greatly influence business and management practices, and as the late Sumantra Ghoshal warned, bad management theories are destroying good management practices. The authors of this book believe that good management theories can help to create new and better business practices.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

Frontmatter

The Call for Responsible Research in Business and Management

Abstract
It is a serious failure of business and management researchers when they solve the wrong problem precisely. This means that their problem formulation is inadequate which may lead to disastrous consequences for the well-being of the stakeholders. To avoid substantive failures in problem-solving business and management scholars should reconsider the basic assumptions of the system under their study and include as many stakeholders’ views as possible. Appropriate problem solutions should address all the important dimensions of the problem in question (the scientific-technical, the interpersonal-social, the systemic-ecological, and the existential-spiritual) and create some optimal balance among them. The job of responsible business and management research is identifying the right problems and producing solutions for them that are substantively adequate and ethically acceptable in broad socio-economic context.
László Zsolnai, Mike J. Thompson

Methodologies for Responsible Business Research

Frontmatter

Critical Realism: A Philosophy of Science for Responsible Business and Management Research

Abstract
This chapter argues that the human sciences are not just value-impregnated but value impregnating, that theory and practice are necessarily united, and that axiological imperatives that spring from this theory/practice nexus are essentially scientific hypotheses. We begin by describing some of the fundamental concepts of the critical realist position within the philosophy of science, then show how these concepts are translated in the social realm as a critical naturalism. This sets the ontological background for our description of the critical realist explanatory critique, and we argue for its unique contribution as an underlabourer for a theoretical-practical nexus that has an essential (yet scientific) emancipatory impulse that inherently fosters responsible research.
Tim Rogers, Benito Teehankee

Identifying and Solving the Right Problem by Using Multidimensional Systems Thinking

Abstract
It is a serious failure of business and management researchers when they solve the wrong problem precisely. This means that their problem formulation is inadequate which may lead to disastrous consequences for the well-being of the stakeholders. To avoid substantive failures in problem solving business and management scholars should reconsider the basic assumptions of the system under their study and include as many stakeholders’ views as possible. Appropriate problem solutions should address all the important dimensions of the problem in question (the scientific-technical, the interpersonal-social, the systemic-ecological, and the existential-spiritual), and create some optimal balance among them. The job of responsible business and management research is identifying the right problems and producing solutions for them that are substantively adequate and ethically acceptable in a broad socioeconomic context.
László Zsolnai

Relational Objectivity as Responsibility in Management Research

Abstract
This chapter is located in social science research that conceives social life, especially inquiry, as a fundamentally relational activity. A relational perspective facilitates greater receptivity to meaningful stakeholder involvement in scientific inquiry. It also questions the traditional conception of objectivity grounded in researcher separation and independence. Drawing on a relational perspective and to a considerable extent on the scholarship of American philosopher Lisa Heldke, we address this issue and assert that a transformed understanding of the role of objectivity in inquiry is required for researchers to conduct responsible research in business and management. After a brief discussion of the traditional conception of objectivity, we develop a relational conception of objectivity as responsibility and illuminate its relevance for inquiry within management research. We draw on Heldke’s (in Engendering rationalities: 81–97, SUNY Press, Albany, 2001; Heldke and Kellert in Metaphilosophy 26:360–378, 1995) notions of responsibility to and responsibility for, two central implications of conceiving relational objectivity as responsibility, and connect and elaborate them with published examples in management research. The existence of models and practices emphasizing the importance of mutual relationships in research gives us hope that it is possible to move management research more toward the ideal Heldke elaborates.
Karen Golden-Biddle, Jean M. Bartunek

Reflections on Standards for Responsible—and High-Quality—Research: A Call for Peace

Abstract
The essay explores the concept of responsible research and its principles vis-à-vis standards of high-quality research. Responsible research fulfills standards of high-quality academic research and, at the same time, contributes positively to society. Standards of high-quality research include the definition of a relevant research problem, scientific due diligence, rigor, coherence, validity and soundness, contribution, and readability and style. As for positive contributions to society, I argue that any positive impact, or service, to society can have, in substance, the meaning of contributing to one or more aspects of peace. The expanded concept of peace outlined in the essay offers a transrational consolidation of epistemic and social values. It is, therefore, at the heart of responsible research.
Tilman Bauer

Responsible Research and Diversity in Methods: Contributions of Mixed Methods Research for Better Business and a Better World

Abstract
The aim of this chapter is to examine the important role that mixed methods research may play as an appropriate methodology to develop responsible research. Mixed methods can produce credible and useful knowledge for business and for society. In this chapter, we indicate the foundations of mixed methods research. Next, we examine two examples of research projects that use mixed methods and that promote better business and a better world addressing two important grand challenges: poverty and environmental sustainability. We also analyze how the seven key principles of responsible research may be addressed through the use of mixed methods.
José F. Molina-Azorin, Maria D. López-Gamero, Jorge Pereira-Moliner, Eva M. Pertusa-Ortega, Juan José Tarí

From Being Observed to Becoming an Active Participant: How Visual Research Methods Contribute to Producing Useful and Credible Knowledge

Abstract
For us management scholars, gaining access to informants in organizations is crucial in terms of knowledge production and cutting-edge teaching. Not only does data collection support our career advancement, but it also contributes to our broadened body of expertise. But what do our respondents get out of the data collection process? Extant research has investigated the connections between industry and academia and how scholars depart from fieldwork, but to date informant reflexivity has not received much scholarly attention. Thus, the purpose of this chapter is to look at visual research methods, and drawings created by informants in particular, as acts of changing modalities and therefore positively contributing to informant reflexivity.
Miikka J. Lehtonen

Getting Closer to Real World Business

Frontmatter

Sustainable Value Management: Pluralistic, Multi-Criteria, and Long-Term Decision-Making

Abstract
As a consequence of global and local dynamics, the reality of doing business around the world is changing, which impinges upon Adam Smith’s “invisible hand” to self-regulate economic activities and shared social welfare while protecting humanity’s endowment: nature. The last two decades have witnessed an unprecedented scholarship and professional development on sustainability, social responsibility, and ethics in the business and management literature. We argue that the internalization of sustainability into responsible research in business and management (RRBM) should be explicitly founded on sustainable business value management, which is pluralistic (multiple stakeholders along the value chain), multi-criteria (multiple value dimensions), and long term (value accumulates and decays over time and space). Our position is aligned with all RRBM’s main principles, but particularly service to the society, stakeholder involvement and impact on stakeholders. In this chapter, we argue for the development of responsible decision-making frameworks in business and management that are founded on inclusivity of stakeholders (sometimes including reconciliation), multidimensional value (e.g., triple bottom line) creation, and long-term governance (in opposition to short-term). Sustainable value management is therefore not only about reporting, but also about changing the decision-making mind set, processes and methods.
Adel Guitouni

Responsible Research for Responsible Investment—JUST Capital Case Study

Abstract
While responsible investment in the market economy could contribute to a more sustainable society, it must be supported by responsible research. This chapter looks into a case study of JUST Capital, an independent research organization founded to develop research, rankings, and data-driven tools. From the perspective of Responsible Research in Business and Management (RRBM) network, JUST Capital’s research and operations could illustrate how the RRBM principles could be applied in research design and implementation to serve society. This research built on the experience of JUST Capital to illustrate how responsible research could be conducted in the academic and professional setting and further analyze some important technical and value-driven factors behind its operations.
Ernest C. H. Ng

Obstacles to Sustainable Change in Business Practice

Abstract
Despite enormous contribution to human wellbeing, business is deeply implicated in detrimental changes to planetary systems and an inattention to important human needs. This is unsustainable, a fact recognised by many practitioners. However, they commonly struggle to enact ‘sustainable change’ in business practice. I suggest that a basic ambiguity of objective, narrow frame of reference, adversarial external view, functional isolation and unsuitable performance standards pose five obstacles to such change. I argue that these obstacles are rooted in a paradigm of business abstracted from its social, environmental and ethical context, and that this abstraction is reinforced by dominant currents in the literatures of ‘business and society’ and ‘strategy and innovation’.
James Wallis

Backmatter

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