Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

This interdisciplinary book explores design theories, combining research from a range of fields including architecture, landscape architecture, urban planning, urban design, industrial design, software engineering, environmental psychology, geography, anthropology, and sociology. Following an extensive review of the current literature, the author reveals eight major types of theory in design processes. The theories are classified as follows: Rational vs. Empiricist Theories, Procedural vs. Substantive Theories, Normative vs. Positive Theories, Design Scopes, Designers vs. People, Form and Space Creation Paradigms, Efficient Tools and Sources in the Design Process, and Place vs. Non-Place Theories.

The respective design theories are illustrated with diagrams, tables and figures, condensing the content of over 140 essential theoretical texts that address various aspects of design processes. Given its scope, the book will appeal to undergraduate and graduate students, and to researchers and practitioners in design, urban planning, urban design, architecture, art, etc.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Rational and Empirical Theories

Systematic and Cliché or Intuitive and Creative Approaches
Abstract
Until the modern period, design theorists seldom feel responsible for coming up with a methodical design process. The strategy to reach a methodical or rational design by Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand was established in his book in 1802 titled Précis des leçons d’architecture données à l’École royale polytechnique. The next record on this topic was by Viollet-le-Duc when he talks about a step-by-step design creation in his 1875 book titled Histoire de l’habitation humaine, depuis les temps préhistoriques jusqu’à nos jours.
Mahmud Rezaei

Chapter 2. Procedural and Substantive Theories

Abstract
Substantive views in designing elaborate on the physical essence of built environment and products. These views in architecture and designing form and space also include dealing with building materials, structure, geometry, environment and end users. This view is more concerned with explaining the whys of designing.
Mahmud Rezaei

Chapter 3. Normative and Positive Theories

Abstract
Some design theories judge and evaluate design works such as architecture and reveal some norms or values about the environment. Normative or commendatory views deal with the dos and don’ts; therefore, take certain standards into consideration. These theories are usually coded into declarations, charters, principles and rules.
Mahmud Rezaei

Chapter 4. Design Scopes

Abstract
‘Design’ is the common ground among fine and applied arts. Apart from architecture and urban design, which are categorized as ‘applied arts’, most ‘visual arts’ such as painting, graphic, collage and sculpture contain design. The design scope might be considered from different aspects, for example, from the aspect of design-related professionals, academic disciplines through theoretical or practical approaches, individual or group views and other similar dimensions.
Mahmud Rezaei

Chapter 5. Design Participation Theories

Abstract
The level of the designer’s and user’s engagement in design processes has always been one of the most significant challenges. With respect to the wide scopes of design, the designer’s role can have diverse domains. On the other hand, participatory design is an approach that tries to involve citizens and users in the design process. Historically, in primitive local design or architecture without architects, settlers expanded their eye-catching architecture with local materials and prevalent local construction methods. In his famous book titled ‘Architecture without Architects’, Bernard Rudofsky introduces a collection of this kind of architecture.
Mahmud Rezaei

Chapter 6. Paradigms in Form and Space Creation

Abstract
For architects, or any designer, the stage of form-producing process, form-generation process and form-finding or creating space is an inevitable end. However, theories on architectural design process rarely elaborate on the methods of creating the final form in the works of designers
Mahmud Rezaei

Chapter 7. Efficient Tools and Sources in Design Process

Abstract
Representational tools for architectural or design works have made great progress so far. Words, phrases, architectural drawings, freehand sketches, photography images, model making and computerized 3D tools have all been at the service of visualization and representation of architectural space.
Mahmud Rezaei

Chapter 8. Place and Non-place Theories

Abstract
Design theories can also be viewed based on place and time. Christian Norberg-Shulz has well-famed writings on space and place. In a short essay titled ‘Place’ (1979), beautifully and artistically, he based his philosophical discussions of ‘place’ on the poem, ‘A Winter Evening’ by George Truckell, which had previously been employed by Heidegger to describe the nature of language, and he viewed on life as it mingled with the aspect of place.
Mahmud Rezaei

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen