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Über dieses Buch

This book responds to an increasingly pluricentric, reflexive, and flexible society as a result of globalization and economic liberation from the bureaucratic-political system. The third industrial revolution saw citizens, companies, and the economy acting in functional networks rather than in static ones, making top-down governing ever more difficult. Despite this, society systems created in the wake of the second industrial revolution linger on and must adapt to the globalized, digitized reality in order to stay necessary and relevant. Through a theoretical discussion and four empirical cases studying governance and innovation systems, this volume is the first to describe the causes behind the impasse Western society seems to find itself in and suggests inclusive economic and democratic structures working in a bottom-up fashion as a way out. By understanding local circumstances as well as the innovative power of inclusive and participative structures, we can begin to pave the way to legitimate governance and growth. This book adds to the academic literature on democracy, governance, economy, and innovation systems for researchers and scholars of political science, social science, and economics.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction: Reinventing the Third Way

Abstract
In different time periods, the concept of the Third Way has involved finding an appropriate level of relation between politics and the economy. The reinvention of the Third Way departs from an understanding of the concept that resulted in a reduction of options for voters, and a failure to respond to the new kinds of demands of individualised, reflexive citizens. The chapter ends by setting the agenda for the book, to illustrate the necessity for a synchronisation of the economic and political systems.
Kenneth Nordberg

Chapter 2. Revolutionising Economic and Democratic Systems

Abstract
Over the last three decades, two major waves of reform have established a system of governance popularly labelled the New Governance. This concept refers to one of the megatrends in industrial societies, the shift from government to governance. Generally, this shift entails a relaxation of the authority of the bureaucratic and hierarchic nation-state for the benefit of “the creation of a structure or an order which cannot be externally imposed but is the result of the interaction of a multiplicity of governing and each other influencing actors” (Stoker 1998: 17). The first wave emerged in the 1980s, when neoliberalism and rational economic theories were introduced in public service through the concept of New Public Management (NPM). The second wave of reform was largely a response to the first wave, whereby system and network theorists tried to make sense of the network society that had emerged. Both politicians and the government saw a tool in these theories for managing and steering the plurality of institutions and networks that were involved in public management following NPM (see e.g. Bevir 2010: 12). In other words, the first wave aimed at achieving efficiency, while the second wave sought improved steering. Consequently, the shift from government to governance has brought about a room for manoeuvre at the local level, i.e. bottom-up processes, that was not present earlier, at the same time as new kinds of steering processes restrict actions in ways that are difficult to interpret or predict in advance. In what ways is this new concept of governance influencing, for instance, democracy, legitimacy and efficiency? The assumption for this chapter is that New Governance and governance networks have been constructed as a consequence of changes in both the economic and political systems, and that New Governance accordingly has become the centrepiece of economic and democratic theory development. As mentioned, benefits for both democracy and economy of increased bottom-up processes are found in the academic literature, and when combined, suggest that an increased room for manoeuvre for these kinds of processes may offer both economic and democratic gains. Let us now take a look at these theories.
Kenneth Nordberg

Chapter 3. The Case of Ostrobothnia

Abstract
The characteristics of the case study are presented. A description of the evolution of the regional administration system and the national economic system serves as a backdrop for the case studies presented later on. Being a unitary state, Finland has a tradition of having a strong state level authority and strong municipalities and a weak regional level authorities, which has resulted in a strong presence of actors outside the politico-administrative system in regional development. Regarding the economic system, the Finnish Fordist system was abandoned in the 1990s for the benefit of the National Innovation System (NIS). Gradually, a more decentralised path creation and experimentation has emerged. The general conclusion of the case studies is that inclusive policy processes orchestrated by authorities easily fall outside the politico-administrative system.
Kenneth Nordberg

Chapter 4. Conclusions: Politics in the Post-Fordist Economy

Abstract
Consequent to the financial crisis of 2008, the virtues of hyperglobalisation have started to be questioned, and a wide range of scholarly literature has sought new models for coordinating the global economic and political system. Some scholars have pointed out that political unions with one-size-fits-all solutions, ignoring local and national specificities, are inappropriate, while others advocate systems with global coverage for maintaining equality, such as wealth taxes and different kinds of political steering. The decentralisation of politics to local environments is put forward as an alternative that would allow for maintaining the virtues of open borders.
Kenneth Nordberg

Chapter 5. Attempts at Regional Mobilisation in a Unitary State: Two Decades of Learning and Unlearning

Abstract
This case study looks at the impact of the regional agenda of the European Union (EU) on unitary states and the possibilities of unitary states to “learn” regional mobilisation. The concept of regional mobilisation is developed and defined by discussing theories of decentralisation, Multilevel Governance (MLG), Strategic Relational Approach (SRA) and regionalism. The possibilities for regional mobilisation are studied, first, through studying administrative reform programmes and development programmes, and second, through a study of actual changes of conduct in the region of Ostrobothnia. It is concluded that participatory governance depends on traditions while the level of decentralisation is less important, and since reality is complex and “messy”, consisting of both static territorial regions and flexible functional regions, one model of arranging things is not appropriate everywhere.
Kenneth Nordberg

Chapter 6. On the Democracy and Relevance of Governance Networks: The Case of Ostrobothnia, Finland

Abstract
The essential issue in this study is the relevance of the output of governance networks and the impact this relevance has on the democratic qualities of the network. The case study of regional policy planning in Ostrobothnia in Finland compares the network operations with democratic ideals found in governance network theory and deliberative democracy theory. The contrast between casual conversation and discussions for deciding crucial issues becomes a central point for understanding the impact of relevance. It is concluded that a policy network cannot be democratic until its output is relevant, and the suggestion put forward is that this may be accomplished through increasing publicity.
Kenneth Nordberg

Chapter 7. Is There a Need for Transnational Learning? The Case of Restructuring in Small Industrial Towns

Abstract
This study focuses on restructuring efforts in small industrial towns. The main object of study is the small town of Kaskö in Finland, where the closure of the pulp factory caused major difficulties for the small community. The short-term restructuring measures in the case of Kaskö are compared to the restructuring model in Norway, where a system for long-term economic restructuring through regional cooperation has been used for decades. In Kaskö, there is a lack of mutual understanding and cooperation, and the consequences of these disadvantages are demonstrated. The value of an empowered regional business development agency is evident, acting as the hub of an inclusive regional governance network, and aiming at reaching long-term agreements for continuously diversifying the regional business structure.
Kenneth Nordberg

Chapter 8. Enabling Regional Growth in Peripheral Non-university Regions: The Impact of a Quadruple Helix Intermediate Organisation

Abstract
This study discusses theoretical concepts such as Mode 3, Quadruple Helix and related variety in order to depict the opportunities for peripheral non-university regions to engage in innovative development. It is argued that certain alterations in the fourth helix have the potential of opening the actors in the Triple Helix towards each other for the purpose of innovation development. The case of the technology centre KETEK in Finland illustrates the manner in which an increasingly dynamic innovation environment is enabled through a differentiation of both the knowledge and the political systems, and where the setting up of the intermediate organisation has been central to this development. Suggestions of the democratic potential of an intermediate organisation and a participative and inclusive innovation system are put forward.
Kenneth Nordberg

Backmatter

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