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Über dieses Buch

RF and Microwave Microelectronics Packaging presents the latest developments in packaging for high-frequency electronics. It will appeal to practicing engineers in the electronic packaging and high-frequency electronics fields and to academic researchers interested in understanding leading issues in the commercial sector. It covers the latest developments in thermal management, electrical/RF/thermal-mechanical designs and simulations, packaging and processing methods as well as other RF/MW packaging-related fields.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Packaging at Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Frequencies

The thirst for higher data rates and greater bandwidth has resulted in increased interest in millimeter-wave systems as a means for local and wider area information transport. At the same time there is a real need for lower cost and more compact systems. These requirements have led to the development of a highly integrated millimeter-wave System In Package (SIP), which operates beyond 40 GHz. This solution uses low cost ceramic packaging as well as optimized interconnects and transitions to allow for wide-band electrical performance. This paper will present details on the functionality, electrical performance and packaging used to realize this solution.
Rick Sturdivant

Chapter 2. Low-Cost High-Bandwidth Millimeter Wave Leadframe Packages

As integrated circuit speeds and bandwidth needs increase, low-cost packaging and interconnect technology continue to be challenges. Solutions to these problems are driven by consumers’ desire for increasing bandwidth (e.g., portable communications applications) and manufacturers’ desire to drive down system cost (e.g., taking advantage of volume manufacturing processes). This work describes a low-cost plastic QFN package possible of meeting these needs. This package has low-loss, high-bandwidth and is based around microCoax interconnect technology. Since this package structure is broadband, it allows for a variety of chipsets to be assembled using the same process sequence and I/O configuration, thereby eliminating costly overhead. With less than 0.5 dB insertion-loss and >15 dB return-loss per RF interconnect at 50 GHz, a 5×5 mm microCoax QFN package allows existing bare-die only applications to enter the world of high-speed PCB assembly, significantly driving down the cost of high-frequency RF subsystems. Process technology, I/O performance, active device performance, PCB board material selection and test protocol will all be discussed.
Eric A. Sanjuan, Sean S. Cahill

Chapter 3. Polymeric Microelectromechanical Millimeter Wave Systems

Polymeric millimeter-wave components and systems based on micro molding technologies have been demonstrated, including waveguides, iris filters, tunable filters, phase shifters, waveguide-fed horn antennas and waveguide-based feeding networks. Fundamental issues in polymer metallization process such as conformal and uniform deposition as well as mass transfer and current density effects on the novel in-channel electroplating encapsulation, surface morphology and roughness on mm-wave attenuation will be discussed in detail. We believe this new class of polymeric millimeter-wave systems has potential applications in replacing the expensive metallic counterparts (a few thousand dollars for each waveguide) in current millimeter-wave systems.
Yiin-Kuen Fuh, Firas Sammoura, Yingqi Jiang, Liwei Lin

Chapter 4. Millimeter-Wave Chip-on-Board Integration and Packaging

A form of chip-on-board integration and packaging is being applied to millimeter-wave electronics to bring it into the low-cost, high-volume arena. This chapter gives some pointers on how low cost is achieved and then discusses the particular problems of millimeter-wave circuit performance. These problems have to do with interconnect lengths, encapsulant effects, shielding effectiveness, and cavity resonances. Also discussed are issues with thermal expansion mismatch and environmental control. What then follows is a description of the low-cost chip-on-board method for millimeter-wave integration and the means by which it overcomes the various millimeter-wave-specific problems. This solution combines existing surface-mount PC board technology with the highly-automated die attachment and wire bonding operations used in the plastic packaging industry and places bare millimeter-wave chips in environmentally protected air cavities. Examples of millimeter-wave products utilizing this technology are described, and some price points are given.
Edward B. Stoneham

Chapter 5. Liquid Crystal Polymer for RF and Millimeter-Wave Multi-Layer Hermetic Packages and Modules

In this chapter, we present the design and development of thin-film liquid crystal polymer (LCP) surface mount packages for X, K, and Ka-band applications. The packages are constructed using multi-layer LCP films and are surface mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB). Packages include a typical low pass feedthrough design, as well as a new bandpass feedthrough design. Our experimental results demonstrate that the low pass package feedthrough transition including a PCB launch and bond wires achieve a return loss of better than 20 dB and an insertion loss of less than 0.4 dB around Ka-band. We achieve more than 45 dB measured port-to-port isolation of the package across Ka-band. The leak rate of LCP cavities has been found to be 3.6×10–8 atm-cc/s. Experiments show exceptional reliability results for several reliability tests including temperature cycling and prolonged exposure to humidity of packaged amplifiers. Finally, we demonstrate that our bandpass package feedthrough transition including bond wires achieve a 13 dB or higher return loss and less than 0.5 dB insertion loss across K-band. The package transition offers 0.2 dB insertion loss and > 15 dB return loss across X-band, and operates well across 8–27 GHz.
Mark P. McGrath, Kunia Aihara, Morgan J. Chen, Cheng Chen, Anh-Vu Pham

Chapter 6. RF/Microwave Substrate Packaging Roadmap for Portable Devices

The RF/Microwave substrates play a key role in the design and performance of RF products. The use of high speed devices, including RF circuits for wireless, broadband and portable applications drives the need for improved electrical performance. The low loss dielectrics will play a significant role in RF isolation and performance as signal communication speeds shift from 1–5 to 5–10 for future applications.
The understanding of substrate material properties, PWB design and substrate selection play an important role in product reliability. The PWB industry is responding with many new material sets and processes such as high Tg and low loss dielectric, microvia boards, thinner dielectrics and Flex/RigidFlex substrates. The users face the challenges of selection of appropriate materials with low moisture absorption and good dimensional stability and meeting the cost target. Additionally, as new environmental regulations like ROHS, WEEE and REACH take effect, the necessary cost and performance tradeoffs have to be made to stay competitive in the global market.
This chapter discusses the material properties of various substrates and options to meet packaging density and performance needs as the industry migrates to thinner, lighter and cost effective portable products to meet the demands of wireless, broadband and high reliability applications.
Mumtaz Bora

Chapter 7. Ceramic Systems in Package for RF and Microwave

Ceramic multilayers are known as very universal PCB's and packages with advanced properties, 3-dimensional functionalities, good RF performance and integration of passives.
Thomas Bartnitzek, William Gautier, Guangwen Qu, Shi Cheng, Afshin Ziaei

Chapter 8. Low-Temperature Cofired-Ceramic Laminate Waveguides for mmWave Applications

A critical component in mm-wave applications is the electromagnetic interconnect between devices. At mm-wave frequencies it is necessary to consider reducing the losses arising from that of using conventional transmission lines such as stripline and microstrip. An interconnect that offers comparatively lower loss connections at mm-wave frequencies is the laminate waveguide (LWG) constructed in low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology. The LWG has superior loss characteristics as compared to stripline. The LWG, which propagates a dominant TE10 wave mode, approximates a dielectrically filled rectangular waveguide where the top and bottom walls are pattern printing and the sidewalls of the waveguide are tightly spaced via fences.
Jerry Aguirre

Chapter 9. LTCC Substrates for RF/MW Application

Low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) is a very promising and continually evolving substrate technology, which has been widely used in wireless communications, automotive, military and space, medical and several other industries. Especially, it enables manufacturing components and modules with high performance up to millimeter-wave region. In our chapter, we will review LTCC fabrication processes, characteristics all of main commercially available LTCC material systems and LTCC current status and trend.
Jian Yang, Ziliang Wang

Chapter 10. High Thermal Dissipation Ceramics and Composite Materials for Microelectronic Packaging

Upcoming microwave device power requirements are increasing from 1–2 W to 100 W, in some cases resulting in waste heat flux higher than 3–5 kW/cm2 under the hot die. As operating frequency climbs from microwave to millimeter wave, the required power also increases and the device efficiency falls. Recently, the incorporation of IGBT’s built on SiC substrates packaged on Al/Diamond/Graphite heat sinks have allowed power levels reaching 50 kW used for 3-phase motor inverters. Traditionally, high thermal conductivity (TC) electrical insulator ceramics have been used to package bi-polar devices, while electrically conductive metal matrix composites (MMCs) have been used to package grounded dies such as LDMOS FETs or GaAs FETs. The TC of traditional oxide ceramics has been expanded to 325 W/mK with the introduction of advanced beryllia formulations. Diamond or cubic boron nitride (cBN) will allow attainment of TC levels as high as 1200–1300 W/mK. When these materials are integrated into advanced MMCs, the thermal performance is improved to levels approaching 500–600 W/mK. Other carbon based compounds like single-wall carbon nanotubes have been reported with TCs reaching 3000 W/mK although no practical applications have yet been reported. MMCs such as aluminium/diamond, copper/diamond, and copper/cubic boron nitride, have been reported at 500–1000 W/mK. Traditional ceramics are compared to high performance advanced ceramics such as diamond, cubic boron nitride, carbon fiber, and carbon nano tubes. Upcoming advanced MMCs such as copper/diamond, aluminium/diamond, copper/cubic boron nitride, silicon carbide/diamond, aluminium/silicon carbide, copper/silicon carbide, and beryllium/beryllia are compared to traditional existing metallic alloys. Experimental data gathered during the last three years while developing some of these low-weight, high thermal dissipation MMCs is presented. Details of the technologies, applications, and cost considerations are provided. Packaging applications for both microelectronics and optoelectronics using these new materials, which are designed based on point-to-point discrete functionality to better utilize material properties and reduce cost, are included. Discussion also includes associated necessary technologies such as metallization, plating, brazing, net shaping, and machining.
Juan L. Sepulveda, Lee J. Vandermark

Chapter 11. High Performance Microelectronics Packaging Heat Sink Materials

Ever since the birth of the first semiconductor transistor in 1947, there was a need for microelectronics packaging. The purpose of microelectronics packaging is to interconnect all active and passive components alike, and at the same time to protect the electronic devices from potential harms from environment like moisture, dust and gas etc. and from other mechanical shocks. During operation, semiconductor chips also generate a lot of heat. It is important to manage this waste heat, hence the term of thermal management. One of the key enablers of effective thermal management is high performance heat sink materials. In this chapter, we will review the main characteristics, manufacturing process and the latest development in both copper and aluminum based heat sink materials. Then we will discuss the latest development for other heat sink materials.
Jiang Guosheng, Ken Kuang, Danny Zhu

Chapter 12. Technology Research on AlN 3D MCM

3D MCM technology, a kind of advanced MCM, which develops on 2D MCM technology, It can provide higher density, smaller size and more functions. In order to improve the heat-sinking capability and reliability, the material of AlN with high thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient matched with Si can be used as co-fired multilayer substrate. In this research, the advantages of two kinds of materials are combined as to fabricate the module of AlN 3D MCM.
Zhang Hao, Cui Song, Liu Junyong

Backmatter

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