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Über dieses Buch

RFID (radio frequency identification) tags are becoming ubiquitously available in object tracking, access control, and toll payment. The current application model treats tags simply as ID carriers and deals with each tag individually for the purpose of identifying the object that the tag is attached to. The uniqueness of RFID as an Infrastructure is to change the traditional individual view to a collective view that treats universally-deployed tags as a new infrastructure, a new wireless platform on which novel applications can be developed.

The book begins with an introduction to the problems of tag estimation and information collection from RFID systems, and explains the challenges. It discusses how to efficiently estimate the number of tags in a large RFID system, considering both energy cost and execution time. It then gives a detailed account on how to collect information from a sensor-augmented RFID network with new designs that significantly reduce execution time.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

RFID (radio frequency identification) tags are becoming ubiquitously available in object tracking, access control, and toll payment. The current application model treats tags simply as ID carriers and deals with each tag individually for the purpose of identifying the object that the tag is attached to. The uniqueness of this book is to change the traditional individual view to a collective view that treats universally-deployed tags as a new infrastructure, a new wireless platform on which novel applications can be developed. This chapter argues for such a paradigm shift. It introduces the problems of tag estimation and information collection from RFID systems, and explains the challenges, laying the background for the rest of the book.
Yan Qiao, Shigang Chen, Tao Li

Chapter 2. Tag Estimation in RFID Systems

This chapter studies the problem of periodically and automatically estimating the number of RFID tags. In a large RFID systems, active tags are likely to use due to their longer transmission distance. However, these battery-powered tags need to be recharged when they run out of energy. Recharging tens of thousands of tags is a laborious operation. Moreover, sometimes tagged products may be stacked up, which makes tags not easily accessible. To prolong the lifetime of tags and reduce the frequency of battery recharge, all functions that involve large-scale transmission by many tags should be energy-efficient. This chapter focuses on designing energy-efficient protocols for the estimation problems in large-scale RFID systems.
Yan Qiao, Shigang Chen, Tao Li

Chapter 3. Collecting Information from Sensor-augmented RFID Systems

In this section, we first introduces the information collection problem in sensor-augmented RFID systems and make assumptions. Then a theoretical lower bound on the execution time is provided as a basis to evaluate the protocols.
Yan Qiao, Shigang Chen, Tao Li

Chapter 4. Tag-ordering Polling Protocols in RFID Systems

This chapter studies the problem of how to collect real-time information from a subset M of tags in a large RFID system. We show that the standard, straightforward polling design is not energy-efficient because each tag has to continuously monitor the wireless channel and receive O(|M|) tag IDs, which is energy-consuming. It is possible to cut the amount of data each tag has to receive by half through a coding design. But we present a tag-ordering polling protocol (TOP) that can reduce per-tag energy consumption by more than an order of magnitude. We also reveal an energy-time tradeoff in the protocol design: per-tag energy consumption can be reduced to O(1) at the expense of longer execution time of the protocol. We then apply partitioned Bloom filters to enhance the performance of TOP, such that it can achieve much better energy efficiency without degradation in protocol execution time. Finally, we show how to configure the new protocols for time-constrained energy minimization.
Yan Qiao, Shigang Chen, Tao Li
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