The paper discusses problems and possibilities of risk assessment applications in the water resources management of Kazakhstan. As with all former Soviet Union republics, Kazakhstan inherited a normative/methodical approach to environmental management, which has no option for risk assessment. In Kazakhstan, water resources are the exclusive property of the State. The costs for the usage and the size of penalties for contamination of natural resources are determined by state agencies. At the same time, the transition to a market economy requires new methods and normative approaches to manage the use of, and to assess and prevent negative consequences to the environment. At present, the main normative act in Kazakhstan is the Law of Ecological Expertise of the Republic of Kazakhstan of 1997. This Law defines the Assessment of Effects on the Environment and introduces the notion of ecological risks.
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- Risk and Environmental Impact Assessment: Decision Making for Management of Water Resources in Kazakhstan
A. N. Miroshnichenko
- Springer Netherlands