Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Contaminated sediments present a serious and vexing problem. The legacy of poor environmental practices related to industrial, agricultural, and residential uses of chemicals, waste water treatment, storm water management, as well as numerous other activities affecting water quality are evident in the current challenges facing public and private organizations addressing the risks posed by contaminated sediments. Managing these risks involves detailed consideration of a complex set of processes (e.g., physical, chemical, biological, socioeconomic, etc.) operating over broad spatial and temporal scales. Large uncertainties related to these processes cloud projections about the future performance of remedies. The number of technologies that are currently available for application at contaminated sediment sites is limited to a small number of variations of dredging, capping, treatment (both in situ and ex situ) and monitored natural recovery (MNR). The economic and environmental costs of managing contaminated sediment risks are large (e.g., project costs for each of the Fox and Hudson River cleanup projects in the United States are pushing $1 billion). Sediment cleanup projects are further complicated by the diverse range of policies, perspectives, risk attitudes and personal values that pertain to risk management decisions. Government institutions, private organizations and local communities face a number of difficult problems connected to risk management for contaminated sediments. Our purpose here is to analyze the risk management problem posed by contaminated sediments, present a series of guidelines for advancing risk management practice, and describe the path toward more effective risk management solutions.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
ASTM. 2006. Standard Guide for Determining Net Environmental Benefit of Dispersant Use. ASTM F2532-06.
Auerswald P, Branscomb L. 2003. Valleys of death and Darwinian seas: Financing the invention to innovation transition in the United States. J Technol Transf 28:227–239. CrossRef
Bruggeman WA, Martron LBJM, Kooiman D, Hutzinger O. 1981. Accumulation and elimination kinetics of di-, tri- and tetra chlorobiphenyls by goldfish after dietary and aqueous exposure. Chemosphere 10:811–832. CrossRef
Bridges TS, Apitz SE, Evison L, Keckler K, Logan M, Nadeau S, Wenning RJ. 2006. Risk-based decision making to manage contaminated sediments. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2:51–58. CrossRef
Bridges T, Fox R, Fuglevand P, Hartman G, Magar V, Schroeder P, Thompson T. 2010a. Hudson River PCBs site peer review of phase 1 dredging final report. Prepared for USEPA under Contract No. EP-W-09-011, Task Order No. 031. September 10. http://www.epa.gov/hudson/pdf/hudsonriverphase1dredgingreport_final.pdf. Accessed November 1, 2012.
Bridges TS, Gustavson KE, Schroeder P, Ells SJ, Hayes D, Nadeau SC, Palermo MR, Patmont C. 2010b. Dredging processes and remedy effectiveness: Relationship to the 4 Rs of environmental dredging. Integr Environ Assess Manag 6:1–12. CrossRef
Clemen RT. 1996. Making hard decisions: An introduction to decision analysis, 2nd Edition. Duxbury Press, Belmont, CA, USA.
Dakins ME, Toll JE, Small MJ, Brand KP. 1996. Risk-based environmental remediation: Bayesian Monte Carlo analysis and the expected value of sample information. Risk Anal 16:67–79. CrossRef
Doran GT. 1981. There’s a S.M.A.R.T. way to write management’s goals and objectives. Manag Rev (Am Manag Assoc Forum) 70:35–36.
Efroymson RA, Nicolette JP, Suter II GW. 2003. A Framework for Net Environmental Benefit Analysis for Remediation or Restoration of Petroleum-Contaminated Sites. ORNL/TM-2003/17. Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy National Petroleum Technology Office. 51 p.
Evans MS, Noguchi GE, Rice CP. 1991. The biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls, toxaphene, and DDT compounds in a Lake Michigan offshore food web. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 20:87–93. CrossRef
Glaser D, Bridges T. 2007. Separating the wheat from the chaff: The effective use of mathematical models as decision tools. Integr Environ Assess Manag 3:442–449 CrossRef
Glew JR, Smol JP, Last WM. 2002. Sediment core collection and extrusion. In Last WM, Smol JP, eds, Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments, Vol 1, Basin Analysis, Coring and Chronological Techniques. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 73–105. CrossRef
Ghosh U, Hawthorne SB. 2010. Particle-scale measurement of PAH aqueous equilibrium partitioning in impacted sediments. Environ Sci Technol 44:1204–1210. CrossRef
Ghosh U, Zimmerman JR, Luthy RG. 2003. PCB and PAH speciation among particle types in contaminated harbor sediments and effects on PAH bioavailability. Environ Sci Technol 37:2209–2217. CrossRef
Graham JD, Wiener JB. 1995. Confronting risk tradeoffs. In Graham JD, Wiener JB, eds, Risk vs. Risk: Tradeoffs in Protecting Health and the Environment. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA.
Gray G, Hammitt J. 2000. Risk/risk trade-offs in pesticide regulation: An exploratory analysis of the public health effects of a ban on organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Risk Anal 20:665–680. CrossRef
Horinko M. 2002. Principles for managing contaminated sediment risks at hazardous waste sites. USEPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Directive 9285.6–08. February 12.
Holdren J. 2010. Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies: Subject, Scientific Integrity. Office of Science and Technology Policy. Released December 17.
Kiker GA, Bridges TS, Linkov I, Varghese A, Seager TP. 2005. Application of multi-criteria decision analysis in environmental decision-making. Integr Environ Assess Manag 1:95–108 CrossRef
Kiker GA, Bridges TS, Kim JB. 2008. Integrating comparative risk assessment with multi-criteria decision analysis to manage contaminated sediments: An example from New York/New Jersey Harbor. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 14:495–511. CrossRef
Lempert RJ, Collins MT. 2007. Managing the risk of uncertain threshold response: Comparison of robust, optimum, and precautionary approaches. Risk Anal 27:1009–1026. CrossRef
Lick W. 2009. Sediment and Contaminant Transport in Surface Waters. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
Lindgren M, Bandhold H. 2003. Scenario Planning: The Link Between Future and Strategy. Palgrave MacMillan, New York, NY, USA.
Linkov I, Varghese A, Jamil S, Seager TP, Kiker G, Bridges T. 2004. Multi-criteria decision analysis: A framework for structuring remedial decisions at contaminated sites. In Linkov I, Ramadan AB, eds, Comparative Risk Assessment and Environmental Decision Making. Kluwer Academic Press, The Netherlands, pp 15–54.
Linkov I, Satterstrom FK, Kiker G, Batchelor C, Bridges T, Ferguson E. 2006a. From comparative risk assessment to multi-criteria decision analysis and adaptive management: Recent developments and applications. Environment International 32:1072–1093 CrossRef
Linkov I, Satterstrom FK, Kiker GA, Bridges TS, Benjamin SL, Belluck DA. 2006b. From optimization to adaptation: Shifting paradigms in environmental management and their application to remedial decisions. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2:92–98. CrossRef
Linkov I, Satterstrom FK, Kiker G, Seager TP, Bridges T, Gardner KH, Rogers SH, Belluck DA, Meyer A. 2006c. Multicriteria decision analysis: A comprehensive decision approach for management of contaminated sediment. Risk Anal 26:61–78 CrossRef
Lundgren RE, McMakin AH. 2009. Risk Communication: A Handbook for Communicating Environmental, Safety, and Health Risks, 4th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY, USA.
Magar VS, Chadwick DB, Bridges TS, Fuchsman PC, Conder JM, Dekker TJ, Steevens JA, Gustavson KE, Mills MA. 2009. Monitored Natural Recovery at Contaminated Sediment Sites. ESTCP Project No. ER-0622 Technical Guide. May. 276 p.
Merritt KA, Conder J, Kirtay V, Chadwick DB, Magar V. 2010. Review of thin-layer placement applications to enhance natural recovery of contaminated sediment. Integ Environ Assess Manag 6:1–12. CrossRef
Morgan G, Fischhoff B, Bostrom A, Altman C. 2002. Risk Communication: A Mental Models Approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
NRC (National Research Council). 1989. Improving Risk Communication. National Academies Press Washington, DC, USA.
NRC. 1996. Understanding Risk: Informing Decisions in a Democratic Society. National Academies Press Washington, DC, USA.
NRC. 2001. A Risk Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments. National Academies Press Washington, DC, USA.
NRC. 2003. Environmental Cleanup at Navy Facilities: Adaptive Site Management. National Academies Press Washington, DC, USA.
NRC. 2004. Adaptive Management for Water Resources Project Planning. National Academies Press Washington, DC, USA.
NRC. 2005. Superfund and Mining Megasites: Lessons from the Coeur D’alene River Basin. National Academies Press Washington, DC, USA.
NRC. 2007. Sediment Dredging at Superfund Megasites: Assessing the Effectiveness. National Academies Press Washington, DC, USA.
NRC. 2009. Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment. National Academies Press Washington, DC, USA.
Niimi AJ. 1996. Evaluation of PCBs and PCDD/Fs retention by aquatic organisms. Sci Tot Environ 192:123–150. CrossRef
Obama B. 2009. Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies: Subject, Scientific Integrity. The White House Office of the Press Secretary. Released March 9.
Oliver BG, Niimi AJ. 1988. Trophodynamic analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and other chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Lake Ontario ecosystem. Environ Sci Technol 22:388–397. CrossRef
Palermo M, Maynord S, Miller J, Reible D. 1998. Guidance for In-Situ Subaqueous Capping of Contaminated Sediments. EPA 905-B96-004. Great Lakes National Program Office, Chicago, IL, USA.
Palermo MR, Schroeder PR, Estes TJ, Francingues NR. 2008. Technical Guidelines for Environmental Dredging of Contaminated Sediments. ERDC/EL TR-08-29. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, USA.
Pavlou SP, Stansbury JS. 1998. Risk-cost trade off considerations for contaminated sediment disposal. Hum Ecolog Risk Assess 4:991–1002 CrossRef
PIANC. 2006. Environmental Risk Assessment in Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal. Report of Working Group 10, International Navigation Association; Brussels, Belgium. http://www.pianc.org/. Assessed November 1, 2012.
Satterstrom FK, Linkov I, Kiker G, Bridges T, Greenburg MS. 2007. Adaptive management: A review and framework for integration with multi-criteria decision analysis. In Macey G, Cannon JZ, eds, Reclaiming the Land: Rethinking Superfund Institutions, Methods and Practices. Springer Science + Business Media, LLC, New York, NY, USA, pp 89–128.
Sparrevik M, Saloranta T, Cornelissen G, Eek E, Magerholm Fet A, Breedveld GD, Linkov I. 2011. Use of life cycle assessments to evaluate the environmental footprint of contaminated sediment remediation. Environ Sci Technol 45:4235–4241. CrossRef
Schultz MT, Mitchell KN, Harper BK, Bridges TS. 2010. Decision Making Under Uncertainty. ERDC TR-10-12. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS, USA.
Stoll JR, Bishop RC, Keillor P. 2001. Estimating economic benefits of cleaning up contaminated sediments in Great Lakes Areas of Concern. University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute. 82 p.
Tanford C, Günther H, Paik WK, Kim S. 1980. The Hydrophobic Effect: Formation of Micelles and Biological Membranes, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA.
Thomann RV, Connolly JP, Parkerton TF. 1992. An equilibrium model of organic chemical accumulation in aquatic food webs with sediment interaction. Environ Sci Technol 11:615–629.
USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2001. Methods for Collection, Storage and Manipulation of Sediments for Chemical and Toxicological Analyses: Technical Manual. EPA-823-B-01-002. October. http://nepis.epa.gov/. Accessed November 1, 2012.
USEPA. 2002. Risk Communication. From the Superfund Community Involvement Toolkit http://www.epa.gov/superfund/community/toolkit.htm#toolkit. Accessed November 1, 2012.
USEPA. 2003. Framework for Cumulative Risk Assessment. EPA/600/P-02/001F. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Risk Assessment Forum, USEPA, Washington, DC, USA.
USEPA. 2005. Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for Hazardous Waste Sites. EPA-540-R-05-012. USEPA, Washington, DC, USA.
USEPA. 2006a. Five-Year Review Report for Pine Street Barge Canal Superfund Site. Burlington, Chittenden County, Vermont. October.
USEPA. 2006b. Second Five-Year Review Report. United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, CA, USA. September.
USEPA. 2006c. Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process EPA QA/G-4. EPA/240/B-06/001. USEPA, Washington, DC, USA.
USEPA. 2008. Guidance on the Development, Evaluation and Application of Environmental Models (Draft). Council for Regulatory Environmental Modeling. USEPA, Washington, DC, USA.
USEPA. 2009a. Five-Year Review Report. Sangamo-Weston, Inc/Twelve Mile Creek/Lake Hartwell PCB Contamination Superfund Site Part 2. Operable Unit Two (OU-2), Pickens, Pickens County, SC, USA. November.
USEPA. 2009b. Understanding the Use of Models in Predicting the Effectiveness of Proposed Remedial Actions at Superfund Sediment Sites. OSWER Directive 9200.1-96FS. USEPA Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation. November.
USEPA. 2010a. Hudson River PCBs Site EPA Phase 1 Evaluation Report. March. http://www.epa.gov/hudson/pdf/2010-03-15_Phase_1_Evaluation_Report_Text.pdf. Accessed November 1, 2012.
USEPA. 2010b. Superfund Community Involvement Toolkit http://www.epa.gov/superfund/community/toolkit.htm#toolkit. Accessed February 17, 2012.
Wenning RJ, Batley GE, Ingersoll CG, Moore DW. 2005. Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and Related Tools for the Assessment of Contaminated Sediments. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, USA.
Wenning RJ, Sorensen MT, Magar VM. 2006. Importance of implementation and residual risk analyses in sediment remediation. Integ Environ Assess Manag 2:60–66.
Yatsalo BI, Kiker GA, Kim JB, Bridges TS, Seager TP, Gardner K, Satterstrom FK, Linkov I. 2007. Application of multi-criteria decision analysis tools for management of contaminated sediment sites. Integ Environ Assess Manag 3:223–233. CrossRef
Yokota F, Thompson KM. 2004. Value of information analysis in environmental health risk management decisions: Past, present, and future. Risk Anal 24:635–650. CrossRef
- Risk Management for Contaminated Sediments
Todd S. Bridges
- Springer New York
- Chapter 8
Fallstudie Überschwemmungskarten/© Thaut Images | Fotolia