Skip to main content

2021 | Buch

River Sand Mining Modelling and Sustainable Practice

The Kangsabati River, India


Über dieses Buch

Worldwide demand for sand and gravel is increasing daily, as the need for these materials continues to rise, for example in the construction sector, in land filling and for transportation sector based infrastructural projects. This results in over-extraction of sand from channel beds, and hampers the natural renewal of sediment, geological setup and morphological processes of the riverine system.

In India, illegal sand mining (of alluvial channels) and gravel mining (of perennial channels) are two anthropogenic issues that negatively affect the sustainable drainage system. Along the Kangsabati River in India, the consequences of sand mining are very serious. The construction of Mukutmonipur Dam (1958) on the river causes huge sediment deposition along the middle and downstream areas, these same areas are also intensely mined for sand (instream and on the flood plain). Geospatial models are applied in order to better understand the state and the resilience of stream hydraulics, morphological and river ecosystem variables during pre-mining and post-mining stages, using micro-level datasets of the Kangsabati River.

The book also includes practicable measures to minimize the environmental consequences of instream mining in respect to optimum sand mining. It discusses the threshold limits of each variable in stream hydraulics, morphological and river ecological regime, and also discusses the most affected variables. Consequently, all outputs will be very useful for students, researchers, academicians, decision makers and practitioners and will facilitate applying these techniques to create models for other river basins.


Chapter 1. River Sand Mining and its Management: A Global Challenge
Human disturbances in fluvial system in the form of inverse land use change, construction of dam or reservoir for hydroelectric power generation, flow diversion for flood mitigation and supply of irrigation water, gravel and sand mining are the causes of changing fluvial dynamics over the last decades throughout the world (Bhattacharyya in The Lower Damodar River, India: understanding the human role in changing fluvial environment. Springer Science & Business Media, 2011; Rascher et al. 2018).
Raj Kumar Bhattacharya, Nilanjana Das Chatterjee
Chapter 2. Geomorphic Threshold and Sand Mining: A Geo-environmental Study in Kangsabati River
Over extraction of sand from channel bed are hampered the natural renewal of sediment, geo-environmental setup and channel geometry of riverine system. Hence, geomorphic threshold is applied to define the resilience capacity of river and significant change of process response system in case of sand mining. Objective of this chapter is to determine the threshold limit of sand mining following several geo-environmental settings like geological, morphological, drainage, soil, and channel planform along with riverine land covers in different segments of Kangsabati River using GIS platform. The results demonstrated that all upper segments fall under resilience of threshold limit due to breakdown of slope and presence of enough sediment outflows than extraction. In contrary, maximum middle and entire lower segments are crossed the threshold limit of riverine system, caused by massive mining induced steep slope and meagre sediment inflow. Moreover, some segments of middle course are situated under resilience pre-stage of the threshold limit stage due to sudden fall of bed slope along with enough sedimentation than extraction. It is a point to note that crossed the threshold limit not only depends on mining intensity but also result of significant change of the responsible hydraulic variables. Hence, maximum hydro-ecological consequences are observed in the over threshold limit segments.
Raj Kumar Bhattacharya, Nilanjana Das Chatterjee
Chapter 3. Fluvial Sediment Budget and Mining Impact Assessment: Use of RUSLE, SDR and Hydraulic Models
Sediment budget is a scientific quantitative measure to compute sediment source and sink. Sources of sediment includes sediment yield (SY), upstream sediment inflow whereas sink of sediment are associated with sediment extraction, sediment concentration and sediment outflow. Objective in this study is to understand the stability of each segment by assigning replenishment and sediment mining in eight segments of Kangsabati River named Khatra, Raipur, Lalgarh, Dherua, Mohanpur, Kapastikri, Panskura and Rajnagar. SY is estimated through overlay of soil loss and SDR using coupling models of Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) and Sediment delivery distributed model (SEDD). Ackers-White method (1973) is applied to assess the sediment transport and concentration whereas sediment extraction rate computed from District Land Revenue Office (2002–2016). Result shows that maximum sediment source concentrated in Khatra (732,003 ton/y), Lalgarh (578,810 ton/y), Raipur (115,291 ton/y), Dherua (76,644 ton/y) and minimum sediment source in Mohanpur (40,113 ton/y), Kapastikri (21,487 ton/y) and Panskura (77 ton/y). In contrary, maximum sediment sinks observed in Mohanpur (323,219 ton/y), Kapastikri (170,910 ton/y), Lalgarh (150,026 ton/y), Rajnagar (8713 ton/y) and minimum sediment sink observed in Khatra (20,721), Raipur (74,968 ton/y) and Dherua (40,831 ton/y). According to DLRO, Mohanpur, Kapastikri and Lalgarh segments shares 48, 27 and 13% rate of mining including 131 mining sites out of 186. Therefore, massive sediment mining makes negative sediment bearing segments (sediment source < sediment sink) as Mohanpur, Kapastikri, Lalgarh and Rajnagar whereas massive sandbar deposition makes positive sediment bearing segments (sediment source > sediment sink) as Khatra, Raipur, Dherua and Panskura, respectively.
Raj Kumar Bhattacharya, Nilanjana Das Chatterjee
Chapter 4. Sediment Grain Size Analysis and Mining Intensity: Estimation by GRADISTAT, G-STAT and LDF Techniques
Analysis of sediment grain size distribution (SGD) plays crucial role to determine the effect of human interventions, particularly instream sand mining (ISM), on sediment transport behaviour. Hence, this chapter has attempt how stream energy and SGD are greatly influenced by ISM through the interruption of available shear stress and critical shear stress in different course of Kangsabati River during pre-monsoon and monsoon season. G-STAT, Grad-Stat, and linear discrimination function (LDF) are used to determine the mean, shorting, peakness and skewness of SGD. DuBoys equation and Shields formula are applied to assess the shear stress and critical shear stress in threshold range between erosion and deposition in mining and sandbar sites. Statistical result demonstrated that upper course belongs to coarser grain, well sorting, negative asymmetrical distribution and leptokurtic to very leptokurtic nature, whereas lower course belongs finer to medium grain, well sorting, and positive asymmetrical distribution with platykurtic to mesokurtic nature. In addition, middle course belongs intermediate status in SGD. Based on shear stress and critical shear stress value, low stream energy in lower course leads to huge finer sedimentation during monsoon period, while high stream energy in upper course able to continue release of coarser sediment. Moreover, sedimentation occurs along the channel bed in middle course due to gradual decline the stream energy than critical transported required energy during post monsoon. Despite course wise distribution of shear stress and critical shear stress, mining intensity leads to more interruption in erosion-deposition sequence throughout the course.
Raj Kumar Bhattacharya, Nilanjana Das Chatterjee
Chapter 5. Mining Response on Alluvial Channel Flow and Sediment Transport: Application of Hydro-Morphological Techniques and Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
Interruption of hydraulic variables (HVs) like flow and sediment regime has negative impact on bedload sediment transport (BLST). This chapter focuses on hydraulic response on bedload and mining intensity in river Kangsabati and also tries to determine the effects of mining intensity on BLST with the presence of sub critical flow velocity, bed shear stress including shear velocity, bed roughness from sandbar to mining sites and pits in upper, middle and lower courses, respectively. Well known established hydraulic equations along with Ackers and White (J Hydraul Eng Div ASCE 99(hy11):204–254, 1973), Meyer-Peter and Muller methods (IAHSR 2nd meeting, Stockholm, appendix 2. IAHR, 1948) and Du Boys (Ann Ponts Chaussees 5(18):141–195, 1879) were used to derive the HVs of BLST in three different sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Prinsscore both are applied to derive the interruption of BLST caused by instream sand mining. Hydraulic formula demonstrated that most of the sediment trapping occurred in mining and pit sites of upper course caused by sub critical flow induced bed shear stress increased the bedload sediment transport while low bed roughness with large velocity increases the entrainment capacity but bedload transport abruptly decreases in sandbar sites. Turbulent flow induced shear stress increased the bedload transport in sandbar sites of middle course while hungry water affected shear velocity increased the transport capacity but low shear stress decreases the bedload transport; thus huge sediments are trapped in pit sites of middle and lower course. PCA revealed the inverse changes of HVs to lead more instability in channel morphology of mining and pit sites than sandbar.
Raj Kumar Bhattacharya, Nilanjana Das Chatterjee
Chapter 6. Sand Mining Consequences on Channel Morphology: Practical Use of Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS), Geometrical Indices and Compound Factor (CF)
This chapter deals how anthropogenic activities like sand and gravel mining induced geomorphic responses (GRs) are influenced on alluvial channel geometry and riverine land cover (RLC) change in Kangsabati River (191 km). Digital shoreline analysis system (DSAS) based statistical models of end point rate (EPL) and linear regression rate (LRR) for estimating the actual and future prediction of bank line shifting (BLS) with resultant erosion-accretion rate, geometrical indices for estimating of channel planform change, compound factor (CF) for segment prioritization were used to compare mining induced geomorphic consequences in mined and sandbar sites under GIS platform. Huge extraction of sand (78,490,815 m.ton/y) from channel bed guide to progressive channel initiation (0.31 m/y), which provided widening of channel through lateral erosion and BLS. Lowering of bed level is higher in mined sites (2.04 m/y) than sandbar site (0.38 m/y) along the middle stream whereas channels incision increases towards the mined sites of middle (0.52 m/y) and downstream (0.97 m/y). Moreover, shifting of structural knick point is more prominent in downstream that alter the pool-ripple sequence (22/y) driving to BLS (4.30 m/y) involving local aquifer contamination along the downstream. Overall mining induced geomorphic consequences divulged that channel geometry and RLC are inversely changes at high rate in mining prone segments than sediment surplus segments. Therefore, GRs caused by sand mining leads to initiate several consequences either instability or vulnerability for the channel geometry.
Raj Kumar Bhattacharya, Nilanjana Das Chatterjee
Chapter 7. Sand Mining Consequences on Habitat Ecology, Water Quality and Species Diversity: Implementing of HSI, MLR, WQI and ANN Methods
Ecological consequence of sand mining is involved mainly three tier habitat (TTH) transformation/degradation, water quality deterioration (WQD) and species diversity of instream biota. Hence, TTH transformation/degradation across the channel bed to bank is detected by the applying of habitat suitable index (HSI) integrated with multiple logistic regression (MLR). In particularly, HSI model is find out the effect of sand mining on Koeleria macrantha species dominated along the bank margin while degradation of species suitability of Cynodondactylon dominated along the riparian sites. Moreover, habitat suitability alteration of aquatic plant species in miming and pits are assessed using of HSI. Results showed that most of the TTH alteration/degradation is occurred across the mining sites throughout the channel. Mining induced pits play key role to provide the sustainable viability for aquatic species after mining. ROC curve is employed to validate the all those results that are predicted by MLR in respective segment sites. Three dominant insitu species like Koeleria macrantha, Cynodon dactylon and Egeria spp., Eichernia Crassips as dominated in mining pit, are facing to more habitat degradation and its related problems along the lower and middle segments than upper segment.
Adverse change of physicochemical properties in surface water are causes of deterioration on instream biota from sandbar, mining to pit sites, which is assessed using of water quality index (WQI) and biodiversity index (BDI). Both indexes are revealed that species composition, richness and tolerance of instream biota are greatly affected by WQD in mining and pits sites than sandbar.
Raj Kumar Bhattacharya, Nilanjana Das Chatterjee
Chapter 8. Sand Resource Estimation, Optimum Utilization and Proposed Sustainable Sand Mining: Recommending Sand Auditing, Optimization Model and EIA
Through there are several consequences of sand mining still it cannot be restricted with the presence of huge demand in construction. Hence, objective of Chap. 8 is emphasised the procedure of maximum benefit of river aggregate sand resources with maintain the safe operation and stability of river health, identifies the several mining induced negative consequences, and to ensure potential ways to minimize and mitigate. Sand auditing techniques for actual sand mining allocation and optimizing model (OM) for maximum amount of sand mining during annual and planning period based on cost price relationship, both are helped to fulfil the rational sand mining activities. On the other hand, environmental impact assessment (EIA) is find out the over, optimum and under mining sites along the Kangsabati River as well as to proposed potential mining sites in respect of inter-linking correlation amongst the several parameters of river dynamics using of analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM). Based on field experience and scientific analysis of data and information, sustainable measures have been suggested sites following some inform about EIA of every response factors. In the context of requirement of the modern civilization, some sustainable management practice may be the remedy to combat with the market situation.
Raj Kumar Bhattacharya, Nilanjana Das Chatterjee
River Sand Mining Modelling and Sustainable Practice
verfasst von
Dr. Raj Kumar Bhattacharya
Prof. Dr. h. c. Nilanjana Das Chatterjee
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN