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Über dieses Buch

Progressive increases in consumer demands along with aggressive industrial consumption led the world to proximate resource depletion, weather changes, soil and air degradation and water quality deterioration. We now know that the paradigm of production at the expense of human condition is not sustainable. This book briefly explains how we reached this situation and offers suggestions as to what can be done to overcome it. It invites the best entrepreneurial talent and scientific and technological know-how to develop a sustainable economy around sustainable communities, services, and sectors.

A major obstacle previously identified by involved parties was the ability of accommodating for the emerging economic growth without causing harm to the environment, especially with resource depletion. This book provides the solution by creating a need to bring on a new revolution that preserves the rights of next generations to live in a healthy environment This Sustainability Revolution requires the integration of economic, environmental, and social factor as well as the practical aspects of implementing sustainability through green activities, which are discussed throughout the book.

In this book, a globalization is proposed that encourages creativity and innovation towards sustainability. With this global sustainability approach (real globalization) both rich and poor will benefit from the global sustainability approach. This will close the gap between rich and poor. Developing countries could reap the benefit of current technology without undergoing many of the growing pains associated with development of these technologies. Governments are able to better work together towards common goals now that there is an advantage in cooperation, an improved ability to interact and coordinate, and a global awareness of issues.

The book presents a sustainability roadmap to bring together various concepts, that have been dealt with independently by previous authors, and link them to establish the fundamental practical steps. The flow path and the direction for successful implementation of a sustainability roadmap are also discussed in detail in the book.

For the first time, the authors use sustainable communities to create a better quality of life for residents while minimizing the use of the resources to meet current needs and ensure adequate resources for future generations. These green communities create new industries for the local economy and improve public health, which offers more hope for their citizens. Sustainable transportation, renewable energy, recycling, clean water, and urban forests help to make a more livable community and help to control the global climate change. They involve all citizens and incorporate local values into decision-making.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Sustainability

Abstract
The paradigm of production at the expense of the human condition is not sustainable. This chapter briefly explains how we reached the current condition and offers suggestions as to what can be done to remedy it. It begins with an overview of the evolution of sustainable development divided it into three phases. The need for ethical behavior and acts that will assure a transparency way addition to the environmental, social, and economic foci is justified. A globalization is proposed, which encourages creativity and innovation toward sustainability. The need for a fundamental conceptual shift away from the design of the current industrial system according to the “cradle-to-grave approach” which generates toxic material flow toward a “cradle-to-cradle” system in which renewable material and energy is generated through a closed loop of waste reusage in a safe, innovative, cost-effective, and environmental friendly manner is introduced. This chapter introduces the need for a sustainability road map, to bring together various concepts that have been dealt with independently and link them to develop practical steps for action. As well as a sustainability management system, to outline processes and procedures for organizations to ensure sustainability goals and objectives are achieved and continually improved through resource sustainability usage in the short and long term.
Salah El-Haggar, Aliaa Samaha

Chapter 2. Toward a Green Economy: Sectors, Communities, and Services

Abstract
“Green” embraces a set of principles including sustainability, full reclamation or reuse, reduction of waste and pollution, and use of technologies that benefit the environment. In this chapter, we will first discuss this broad term. Then, we will look at how a green economy can be realized in a variety of communities. This can be achieved by adopting green techniques. This chapter discusses the significance of a green economy and various sustainable communities, namely: Urban, Rural, Industrial, Touristic, and Slums. Green activities in many sectors (Policy, Industry, Technology, Energy, Education, Products, Agriculture, Construction, Buildings, Architecture, Services, Transportation, Management, Publication, Marketing/business, Computing, and Jobs) are defined, and their advantages and disadvantages are presented. Case studies are provided when applicable.
Salah El-Haggar, Aliaa Samaha

Chapter 3. Sustainable Development Road Map

Abstract
For proper implementation of sustainability, two dimensions need to be taken into consideration, resource conservation and pollution prevention. Compromising on either the two would mean that future generations are deprived of their ability to meet their needs. Since resources are the building blocks of all economies, and a clean pollution free environment benefits the general welfare of the society, both the economic and social aspects are effectively addressed. A road map is developed to address the management and strategic requirements for the successful implementation of resource and environmental sustainability, which links various concepts that have been addressed independently and provides tools, flow path, and direction for implementation. Effective sustainability road maps provide a strategic approach, compliance/beyond compliance, resource sustainability, and supply chain sustainability.
Salah El-Haggar, Aliaa Samaha

Chapter 4. Sustainability Management System

Abstract
A sustainability management system (SMS), which is systematic approach that provides guidelines for an organization to evaluate, manage, and improve sustainability by optimizing on resource use, was developed as a prerequisite for the success of the sustainable development roadmap. The proposed SMS does not address environmental management, HSE or quality independently but handles sustainable resource management as a package. In addition, baseline conditions are measured and used in the strategic resource sustainability planning phase to:
  • Determine a resource sustainability strategy.
  • Set SMART goals and strategic objectives.
  • Design support tools and performance measures.
  • Establish strategic initiatives and action plans.
The management system is then used to implement an appropriate action plan corresponding to the goals and objectives of the SMS. The last step of the roadmap is a performance analysis to measure alignment with the cradle to cradle/ Industrial ecology goals and objectives previously set.
Salah El-Haggar, Aliaa Samaha

Chapter 5. Sustainable Urban Community Development

Abstract
Urban communities are of great importance as they have the largest landscape area with the highest population density when compared to rural and other communities. In the year 2000, the total urban population worldwide was 47%, which is approximately 2.8 billion people, and it is projected to increase to 60% by 2025. Urban communities offer more job opportunities as they are home to most industries, businesses, and commercial sites, making them more attractive and seemingly more stable for both individuals and families. Urban communities are also attractive because they are diverse in habits, customs, traditions and religious beliefs as well as social classes. With the high level of urbanization and the desire for a better lifestyle, natural resources are being consumed unsustainably. Many products are problematic in their disposal leading to an increase in environmental hazardous and pollution of air, water, energy, material, land, and soil. Resource depletion is leading to scarcity and society which will not be able to meet its current needs while taking into consideration the needs of future generations. In brief, currently urban communities are causing a threat to the surrounding environment that, if maintained, will lead to instability in the ecosystem and community. That is why a sustainable community is introduced to protect land, water, air, energy, and materials. The objective of this chapter is to propose a zero-waste practical approach for urban communities, hoping to create a common understanding and define a set of actions to protect the environment and ecosystem ensuring that they are pollution-free life and that natural resources are managed to guarantee the needs of future generations.
Salah El-Haggar, Aliaa Samaha

Chapter 6. Sustainable Urban Community Development Guidelines

Abstract
A community includes a large number of individuals sharing an area, common characteristics, traditions, lifestyles, and daily needs. Member of a community directly influences their surrounding environment. Therefore, negative actions on the part of community members directly impact the surrounding environment leading to undesirable conditions like the accumulation of wastes and the consequent rise of diseases and pollution. There is a need to introduce the concept of sustainable communities, which focuses on water, air quality, wastes, energy, and materials. As natural resources are being consumed inequitably, some members are losing access to these resources. As a result, the gap between the rich and the poor is growing, which is an unhealthy phenomenon. The proposed sustainable urban community guidelines are based on zero waste/pollution according to cradle-to-cradle concept. The guidelines are hypothetically identified as a measuring tool and focus on four categories based on scarcity of resources as well as severity of environmental impacts. These categories are known as energy, water, habitat, and infrastructure management as well as facility management. In addition to proposing guidelines for owners in either residential or commercial buildings within the community, they ensure that everyone within the community is aware of the main objectives of the sustainable community. These guidelines should encourage the investors and owners to act sustainably.
Salah El-Haggar, Aliaa Samaha

Chapter 7. Sustainable Rural Community

Abstract
Rural communities in developing countries are confronted with many environmental issues. The poor management of agricultural waste, municipal solid waste, and wastewater has placed relentless pressure on the environment of rural communities. These environmental issues facing rural communities are causing economic deterioration and are threatening the health and well-being of people. Waste has always been considered an undesirable by-product that needs to be eliminated. The environmental hazards associated with dumping waste, as an easy and cheap way of disposal, cannot be ignored. To achieve sustainable development, waste should be treated as a useful by-product. International organizations are currently making great effort addressing economic and environmental issues in a sustainable manner. However, very few studies have been conducted to utilize the waste generated in rural areas to produce useful goods. Since the emergence of the concept of sustainable development many efforts have been made to reach zero pollution. Several concepts including the cradle-to-cradle approach and industrial ecology have been developed to move from linear system to cyclical flow of material thus addressing natural resource depletion other environmental. This chapter presents the application of scientific ecological knowledge to fully utilize all types of wastes generated in rural communities to produce useful goods to approach zero pollution and promote sustainable rural communities.
Salah El-Haggar, Aliaa Samaha

Chapter 8. Sustainable Touristic Community

Abstract
The tourism industry is currently one of the fastest growing industries in the world, it has grown by almost 40% since 1960 and it is expected to represent almost 25% of the globe’s population in 5 years. It has many economic benefits as it introduces foreign currency and creates a better market share for host countries. Socially it creates more job opportunities and better lifestyles for those working in it. Unfortunately, environmental considerations have not been fully accounted for; as the industry rapidly grows it is draining the natural resources of the host countries to cover the needs of tourists. Thus, there is a need for the introduction of a novel approach that will integrate ecotourism and sustainability by introducing and implementing the zero waste strategy, which will ensure conservation of natural resources with safe and environmentally friendly acts, activities and waste full utilization methods following cradle-to-cradle concept discussed in this chapter.
Salah El-Haggar, Aliaa Samaha

Chapter 9. Sustainable Industrial Community

Abstract
Industrialization and increase in resource consumption, coupled with the rapid increase of population size, have placed relentless pressure on the scarcity of natural resources and disposal of waste generated. Historically, industries have been open systems of material flow according to the cradle-to-grave concept. In fact, natural resources have been extracted, consumed to produce goods, and once these materials wore out, they were disposed of through either through incineration or landfill. In order to reduce the effect of industrial waste on the environment and to reach sustainable development, countries have developed and enforced environmental protections laws and regulations. Waste disposal via incineration and/or landfilling according to cradle-to-grave concept requires high capital, high running costs, and is seen by industries as a barrier for further industrial development. Most importantly, disposal of waste depletes natural resources unsustainably. Hence, various concepts and strategies have been suggested to promote industrial sustainability. This chapter presents these concepts and practices as described in the literature to create a sustainable industrial community and reach zero waste/pollution using the concept of cradle-to-cradle, cleaner production, industrial ecology, eco-industrial park, and environmentally balanced industrial complex. Case studies are used to further illustrate these concepts.
Salah El-Haggar, Aliaa Samaha

Chapter 10. Sustainable Slums Communities

Abstract
The rapid urbanization of the last century caused more slum formations resulting in numerous adverse effects. Slums are, unfortunately, becoming a real threat to the world and specifically developing countries. With the increasing inequality and the unfair distribution of resources, slums continue to grow at an uncontrollable rate. The most visible expression of urban poverty in developing cities is the rapid growth of informal settlements and slum areas. With nearly one billion people alive today, one in every six human beings are slum dwellers, and that number is likely to double in the next thirty years. Concerns for the rapid growth of slums and the deteriorating living conditions of slum dwellers are seen as a major challenges facing humanity. Urban inequality has a direct impact on all aspects of human development, including health, nutrition, gender equality, employment opportunity, and education. Slum dwellers suffer from deteriorated environmental living conditions and health care as well as a high level of illiteracy causing a negative impact on their personal well-being as well as on the national level particularly on the country’s economy. This chapter touches on the complexities of sustainable slum development specially dealing with slum dwellers in a trial to enhance their capacities and potential. Teaching them new skills through a “Learn to Earn Model,” will help them generate income and turn the slum into a catalyst for the economy rather than a burden on it. Another alarming problem facing all countries and specially developing countries is uncontrollable waste accumulation. Moreover, the management of this waste remains, for the most part, both inefficient and inadequate causing numerous adverse environmental, social, and economic impacts. Zero-waste strategies, as will be discussed in Chapters 11 and 12, dictate that waste has to move from a linear system to being more cyclical one. The objective of this chapter is to provide a sustainable solution for the problem of slums while at the same time solving the problem of waste accumulation using zero-waste strategy.
Salah El-Haggar, Aliaa Samaha

Chapter 11. Sustainable Utilization of Construction and Demolition Waste

Abstract
It is certain that worldwide, construction and demolition (C&D) waste with its massive quantity and its adverse effect on the environment is a real threat to mankind. It is associated with high risk of environmental pollution and resource depletion. Reusing the C&D waste from construction is the best end of life alternative based on its environmental impact. Unfortunately, it is not yet common practice in the construction industry, which involves more complex procedures that do not allow for dismantling and reusing the materials easily and cost-effectively. Moreover, the traditional recycling techniques conventionally applied do not guarantee sufficient quality to use the derived recycled products in high-grade applications in addition to the problem of mixed waste. In mixed C&D waste, the content of contaminants such as organic matter, e.g., wood, plastics, etc., and gypsum in the recycled fractions must be minimized. In the case of very heterogeneous waste streams, more rigorous separation and cleaning techniques are needed to achieve the required levels of purity. Thus, the most obvious difficulty for obtaining upgraded C&D recycled materials lies in finding the right combination of inexpensive traditional separation techniques with further advanced automated sorting techniques easily adaptable to diverse generation systems. Providing more cost-effective recycling techniques is the key to approach zero waste in C&D management. This chapter has presented a summary of the C&D waste stream and its characteristics and quantification methodologies as well as their end of life treatment in an aim to approach sustainable C&D waste management.
Salah El-Haggar, Aliaa Samaha

Chapter 12. Sustainable Utilization of Municipal Solid Waste

Abstract
Municipal solid waste (MSW) is considered one of the most important types of waste because of its nature and impact on communities. MSW generation levels are expected to double by 2025. Solid waste composition differs from one community to another according to their culture and socioeconomic level. Regions with higher income, industrialization, and urbanization produce greater amounts of solid waste. Managing MSW is challenging because of its heterogeneous nature. The challenge increases in rural and developing countries because of two factors: the low socioeconomic level of the majority of the population and their lack of awareness, as well as the lack of the technology platform required to manage the solid waste. This chapter recounts the traditional waste management hierarchy and the unsustainable practices of municipal solid waste. Then sustainable practices are explored, and a holistic zero waste strategy is proposed. This strategy ensures that during product design unwanted “zero-waste product” is easily reused and repaired for the extended product life cycle. If none of these options are viable, then a zero-waste management ensures that the discarded waste is easily broken down through natural process, without polluting the environment. The zero-waste strategy is a holistic approach that intends to “eliminate,” rather than “manage” waste. It redesigns the traditional one-way linear flow of resource use to its end-stage disposal, with a circular closed loop. The closed loop allows for the cyclical flow of materials until the optimal level of consumption is reached. Therefore, there are no end-of-life products, but rather resources, which are considered inputs in the metabolism process.
Salah El-Haggar, Aliaa Samaha
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